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respects, interesting people. In searching into their characters and conditions it has not been my object to satisfy a vain curiosity, nor merely to throw light upon the moral chart of the world. I wish rather to elicit Christian sympathies, Christian prayers, and Christian efforts, in their behalf. Could I accomplish this, it would be my great privilege to guarantee a greater blessing to these poor benighted mountaineers than even the protecting arm of Great Britain has secured for them. I would therefore raise the "Macedonian cry," " Come over and help us." Especially would I say to my missionary brethren, whose natural vigour has yielded to the " destruction that wasteth at noon day" on the plains, or whose family circumstances may make it necessary to leave their fields of labour for a more congenial climate,—here is room for at least twenty missionaries—here is a hilly country—a comparatively fine climate, and a comparatively simple-hearted people to labour among—here a missionary could have a good log or stone house—an abundance of cold spring water close by to drink, and many of such fruits as are common in his native land to eat;—here his constitution might be restored, and he might labour many years in his Master's kingdom—here is a portion of the great field which is already "white for the harvest.'1 Too long has it been neglected by the Church of Christ, and her messengers. The votaries of science have penetrated to its centre, and traced its boundary—stood on every high hill—explored every valley, and trod its snow-capt mountains where foot of man never before dared to tread. With mathematical precision the heights and distances of their towering peaks have been measured. By the pencil their sublime and awe-inspiring scenery has been reduced to canvass, and now adorns the halls of the lovers of fine arts in all parts of the world. Their minerals and botanical productions have been collected by the curious to enrich the cabinets of the learned—their river-courses have been traced with untiring zeal, through perilous locks, and mountains of snow to their sources, to increase geographical knowledge. This is all well. But while this untiring research is going on among the votaries of science, why has the mountaineer himself, for whom all the beauties of nature which adorn his dwellingplace were spoken into existence, been neglected ? Why have not the feet of those who bear glad tidings preceded scientific adventurers, or at least followed in their loot-steps to these regions of the shadow of death? Shall men of science risk their lives in scaling the steeps, and spend their time in bending over the pebbles of the Himalayas to ascertain their qualities or for vain amusement, while the ministers of Christ neglect the immortal souls of their inhabitants?
Would the heralds of the cross manifest but half the zeal, for the evangelization of these benighted mountaineers, exhibited by men of science for the promotion of their favourite cause, soon would they be gathered into the fold of our Redeemer; soon would idolatry, and superstition, and ignorance disappear, like the mist which rolls up the mountain side before the rising sun, and all the region on which they rested, shine forth enlightened, and redeemed.
J. M. J.
Sabathu, October Ydth, 1840.
Note.—We trust the appeal of our intelligent correspondent will not be in vain in the Lord. We feel great pleasure in having awakened an interest in the hill tribes of northern India.—Our prayer is that it may increase until they shall all be brought to the knowledge of Christ. Ed.
II.—On Hindustani Translations of the " Word" and "Son of Man."
To the Editors of the Calcutta Christian Observer. Dear Sirs,
As every thing which has a bearing on the illustration of the Bible is important, I feel inclined to offer a suggestion or two on the translation of a term in the current U'rdti Testameuts. It is the term " Word," occurring in the 1st chapter of John and the 1st Epistle of John. Martyn translated it by the Arabick word "Kalma." Messrs. Boh ley, Yates, and the authors of the Banaras translation have all taken the word Kalam. 1 think this change was not happily made. There is no doubt but they have all made this change with the view of simplifying Martyn's translation. There is no doubt that " Kalam" is a plainer word, and more likely to be understood by common people in common circumstances. But in these places the word is used in very peculiar circumstances—viz. ns a title or name of Christ, the second person of the Trinity. And for this purpose I think " Kalma" is very much better suited. When the native reader takes up the Testament and reads " Shuru men Kalam Khuda ke sath tha, aur Kalam Khuds tha," he is likely to pause to ascertain what this means. He knows that "kalam" means "word," "speech," "discourse;" he concludes that this must be its meaning—that when God created the heavens and the earth he used some form of speech or language. But he does not suspect that it is a name or epithet of Christ. Thus the word is plain, but it does not help him to get its meaning.
"Kalma" corresponds more accurately with the Hebrew or Chaldaic word " Memra" and the Greek word " Logos." It is the word also used in the Quran, which gives us high vantage ground with the Musalmans. We can show to them that the Jewish commentators, before the time of Jesus were accustomed to refer the word " Memra" and also the more ancient Hebrew word "Dabar" in several cases to their expected Messiah, and thence to ascribe divine attributes to him. St. John seems evidently to have had this in his mind when he commenced his history of Jesus. And falling in with this Jewish doctrine he merely stated definitely that this Memra—or Logos who was with God and was God, is this same Jesus of Nazareth respecting whom there were such contradictory opinions. Then the Quran in the Surah " Iinran" twice uses the word "Kalina" as the name or epithet of Jesus, and once in the Surah " ul Nisa." True Abdul Qadir in his translation renders the Arabic word "Kalma" by the word " Hukm," and once " Kalam," hut he manifestly does it so on purpose to conceal or obliterate the force of the word Kalma. Thus by steadfastly keeping this ou the high ground where Martyn placed it, we have the Tauret and lnjil and Quran uniting in a strong and unequivocal testimony to the pre-existence and dignity of the Messiah.
We can then establish from the Quran itself that "Allah hi Kalma" was the appropriate and peculiar name of Jesus before his incarnation— that after his incarnation he was called " Jesus the son of Mary." And this quite agrees with the lnjil and the Prophets. According to them also before his incarnation " Logos" or " Memra" was his peculiar title; after his incarnation he was called " Jesus." And I think that all the ingenuity and sophistry of Muhninmaduns cannot evade the force of this argument. But if we change the ground by using Kalam or other words for the sake of making the subject plain, we only make the subject more confused, and surrender a vantage ground which it is of immense importance for us to keep. I think the position in which the Quran has placed the " Kalma" and " Rub. Pak" is one of the strongest and most available positions which we can at present use in discussions with Muhammedans. It thus gives unequivocally the elements of the doctrine of the Trinity, and we can use them in support of the Bible doctrine on that subject.
The same argument holds, though not to the same extent, in regard to the term " Son of Man" as applied to the Saviour. Martyn translates this " Ibn Adam"—Mr. Yates adheres to the same. Mr. Bowley and the Banaras translators (not the Banaras Committee) attempt to make it more plain by using, (the former) "Adam ka farzand" and "Admi ka farzand" and (the latter) " Admi ka Beta." Now what we want in this case is, not to simplify terms, but to use that term which most aptly designates Christ in his human nature. Of the four forms found in our current Testaments I think "Ibn Adam" is the most eligible. Neither of them has any plainness about it till the person learns that it means " Jesus Christ." 1 suppose the Saviour in the frequent application of the term " Son of Man" to himself, had especial reference to the place in Daniel where he "saw in the night visions that one like the Son of Man came, and there was given unto him dominion, and glory and a kingdom, that all people, nations and languages should serve him, and his dominion shall he an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."—Daniel, in the visions of the night, saw among the Heavenly hosts one who bore the form of man. That one was brought prominently before him as one who was to possess a kingdom and dominion that should be universal and perpetual. There is no ddubt that this was with the Jews a favorite prophecy—one on which they delighted to dwell, until the time that Jesus of Nazareth began to appropriate it to himself. And there is little doubt that the steadiness with which the Jews applied it to their Messiah was one reason why Jesus so frequently applies the term to himself. They were prepared to see their Messiah in human form, and to believe that though he wore a human appearance he was in reality divine. Just so in Jesus of Nazareth, we recognize both their and our Messiah. His form bespeaks him man. His words and actions bespeak him more than man —declare that "in him dwelleth the fullness of the Godhead." Now this same prophecy of Daniel is to us a precious prophecy, and one which 1 apprehend will have much to do in our discussions both with Muhammadans and Jews, in this country. It is therefore desirable in our translations to use and adhere to those terms which will throw our discussions back on the original ground where the prophets placed it. Thus these terms which at first seem difficult come to our hand full of meaning, and full of force. And I think that " Ibn Adam'' is better adapted to express this term in Hindustani and to throw the discussion back upon its origin than either Admi ka Beta," " Adam ka farzand," or "Admi ka farzand," or any other term that is likely to be used. To my ear it also sounds more dignified and definite than either of the others.
I shall be exceedingly delighted to see the translators of the Scriptures uniform on such points. Every difference of this kind which finds its way into printed editions of the scriptures lays up unnumbered difficulties for our future use, and puts into the hands of Muhammadans the means of very much trouble and annoyance to us afterwards.
I may not however, have come to the most correct views after all on the subjects which I have thus briefly discussed. I have therefore no wish to dictate, but hold my mind in readiness to take different views whenever it shall be shown on sufficient grounds that my conclusions are hasty, or formed from insufficient data. I should be glad to see some one who is more familiar with the resources of eastern languages, and especially with the doctrines and discussions of the Jews between the time of Daniel and the coming of the Messiah, take up this subject and develope its real position and bearing.
If you think the thoughts thus hastily and rather crudely put together would be either acceptable, or useful to the readers of the Observer, kindly insert them—if not lay them aside.
Allahabad, October SO, 1840.
III.—Sketch of the Lodiana American Mission.
To the Editors of the Calcutta Christian Observer. Gentlemen,
I hasten to comply with your request, as I find it in the September No. of the Observer. A long tedious history would be both unprofitable and altogether out of place. I shall therefore give you but a rough sketch of facts.
The Rev. J. C. Lowrie, a Missionary of the Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, arrived at Lodiana in the latter part of the year 1834. His attention had been directed to this region by the fact of its entire destitution, and because a door was open for the dissemination of gospel truth in the Protected Sikh States. The door to the Panjab was then, as it still is, closed against the Missionary; but we hope the day is not far distant when the Missionary of the cross will be permitted to travel its length and breadth, making known the glad news of salvation to those who are sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. Even now we are able to do something for the people of the Punjab. Thousands of them
come to or pass through Lodiana every year, many of whom are anxious to obtain our books for themselves and their friends. Mr. Lowrie was not permitted to remain long at this station. Ill health obliged him to remove to Simla in March 1835. In November following he returned to the plains, and in December he had the pleasure of welcoming to their field of future labor the Rev. Messrs Newton and Wilson. Mr. Lowrie's health still continuing in an unfavorable state, early in 1836, he was obliged to leave the station and return to America. Early in 1837 Mr. Wilson left the station. Since that time however the number of Missionaries has been annually increased. We now numbers/bur; "The Rev. Messrs. J. Newton, J. Porter and W. S. Rogers, and Mr. R. Morris, together with our wives—and one native Catechist, Goloknath.
Presses. We have now in operation two presses—one of them an iron press. A new iron press, of a large size has been received, but has not been brought into use yet. We have large founts of Persian, Nagri and Gurmukhi type, and some small font3 of Roman type: we have also two Lithographic presses at work. A bookbinder is connected with the office. Last year we printed in Urdu and Panjabi 46,000 copies of books and tracts, making a total of 1,236,000 pages in those two languages. In this number of books are included 3000 copies of John's Gospel, and 3000 Acts of the Apostles, both in Urdu. During the present year we have printed the Gospel according to Matthew, translated into Gurmukhi by the Missionaries at this station, and the Pilgrim's Progress in Urdu (Persian Character). During the present and past years we have also printed a number of tracts in Persian, Urdu, Hindi, Panjabi, and Kashmiri.
In addition to the Scriptures and tracts printed here, we receive supplies from the several Societies in Calcutta.
Schools. The English High School. This school was established by Col. Sir C. M. Wade, and supported by him for some years. On the arrival of Mr. Lowrie he was requested to take the superintendence of it, which he did with the understanding that Christian instruction was to be communicated in a prudent manner. It has since then been made over entirely to the Missionaries who now have its sole management. Col. Wade since making it over to the Mission has continued to manifest a warm interest in its welfare. Last year there were seven classes. The first had studied Evidences of Christianity, Intellectual Philosophy, Chemistry and Arithmetic. The second Physical Geography, Astronomy, part of Natural Philosophy, embracing Hydrostatics, Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Acoustics, and Optics. The third and fourth classes, Geography, Grammar, Arithmetic and New Testament. The other classes were studying the Elements of English language and translating. During the present year a change has been made in its arrangement —the lower classes have been formed into what is called a Primary School. The Primary School nnmbers about 40 pupils, and the High School, about 25. The exercises are commenced (daily) by reading the Scriptures and prayer.
Boarding Schools for boys and girls. The number in each school is seven. One of the girls (since married) and two of the boys, have