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and no impediment is found to be thrown in the way of the transaction of business ; neither would it be so here.
In the Conservancy department it is possible that there may be some works of necessity or mercy which may require the employment of a small section of the men during a small portion of the sacred day. But it is understood that, supposing this necessity to exist, much more work is done than can by any means be brought within the class of works of necessity or mercy.
The Botanic Gardens are kept open on the Lord's-day, and are frequented by multitudes who are thus exposed to the temptation of committing sin, and of dissipating that strength by overmuch mental excitement which it is one of the ends of the Sabbath to promote.
Houses licensed by Government for the sale of intoxicating liquors are kept open on the Lord's-day, and thus Sabbath breakers are tempted to add drunkenness to their other sins.
These desecrations committed in the service and under the sanction of Government can only be prevented by the withdrawal of that sanction. We can scarcely doubt that a memorial signed by all the Christian inhabitants of Calcutta would influence the Government to wash their hands of so flagrant a sin. Such a memorial has been ■greed upon by the Conference, and will soon be ready for receiving the signatures of the Christian public.
1L Several merchants and dealers are understood to keep their places of business open on the Sabbath. Now this is partly their sin, and partly that of those who frequent their shops on the Lord's-day. In so far as it is their fault, it is believed that it may be thus in great measure prevented. Let all Christians resolve that henceforth they will not encourage by their custom those who pay so little respect to the ordinance of God. This will at once shew these dealers the estimation in which their conduct is held, and will hold out to them a strong inducement to discontinue the sinful practice. Let Christians who have been in the habit of employing those who keep their places of business open on the Lord's-day, state to them fully and •airly that they shall withdraw their support till such time as this practice is wholly abandoned. If into the hands of any person in business who is guilty of this sin this report may come, we would earnestly entreat him to consider well the greatness of his sin against God, his fellow-men and himself. And if there be any Christian who has thoughtlessly given his countenance to such a practice by actually sendlD8 for goods on the Lord's-day, we would faithfully counsel him to think for a moment what he is doing. Why should he be laying up so much matter for bitter repenting?
Builders and others are in the habit of letting out their work to natives *ho employ men to perform that work on the Sabbath day. It is the outy of every such man to introduce a special clause into every contact, that the work shall be totally discontinued on the day of sacred rest This has been done by more than one builder in Calcutta, and in a worldly point of view, they have not suffered*.
* Since this was written we have had occasion to visit a large factory in the ■'ighbourhood of Calcutta, in which 1500 natives are employed. The present
These abuses are to be corrected by the diffusion of sounder views respecting the nature and obligation of Sabbath observance. Ministers in their pulpits are the prime guardians of the rest and devotion of the day of the Lord. Let them set themselves to this as to a most imrrortant part of their work. All Christians who are alive to their duty in this matter ought to make conscience of setting forth and enforcing the duty to all those over whom they can exercise influence. The Missionary Conference, in order to call universal attention to the subject, will shortly issue and circulate a series of Tracts to be prepared by several of the members.
III. In very many private families there is a miserably low standard of Sabbath observance.—Bazar-making—neglect of the public worship of God—reading of Newspapers and books unfit for the day— idleness and unprofitable conversation—riding and driving—paying and receiving of visits—all these seem to be sins fearfully prevalent in this country. As to the employment of servants in any work that may be done on the preceding day, or may be left over to the next, or in any work which is not absolutely necessary to be done, we have already spoken at sufficient length. All the ways usually adopted for killing time, as it is called, bespeak a fearfully low tone of Christian feeling. If a man cannot spend the waking hours of a single day in exercises fitted to the day of the Lord, how is he to consider himself as possessed of the feelings and tastes and sentiments which will fit him for the enjoyment of the heavenly state? In heaven there is a perpetual Sabbath.
We fear that even amongst Christians there is a sad deficiency in some of these particulars. If they would only make an experiment of observing the Sabbath according to the way laid down in Scripture—if thev would direct and require their servants to have all arrangements made so that nothing may interfere with the rest and the duties of the Lord's-day—if on the Sabbath they would make conscience of instructing their children and to the best of ability their servants—if they would "spend the day in the public and private exercises of God's worship, except so much as is to be takeu up in the works of necessity or mercv," they would soon find how pleasant a day it would become, and they would derive from it all the spiritual, mental and physical good which it was designed by its Divine Institutor to impart.
In advocating the cause of Sabbath-observance we feel that we occupy an honourable position. We are pleading for God, for the cause of the Sabbath is the cause of God. We are pleading the cause of man—of all men, for " the Sabbath was made for man," but especially of the poor, for the Sabbath is emphatically the poor man's day—of the heathen, who have few indeed to care for their interests—of the rising generation, whom we would deliver from the banefnl influence of evil example, and put under the influence of domestic Sabbath Instruction — we had almost said fire-side instruction—but that is a dream of the past—a vision of the far-off land of our childhood. Scotland—all our thoughts of Sabbath observance are mixed up with thoughts of thee— thy village churches with their humble spires—thy simple service meet for the taste of thy honest-hearted, and unostentatious peasantry, and meet also for the worship of that God who seeks the adoration that cometh fresh from the breast—thy modest manses— “ Lent to mortals just to shew A specimen of heaven below.”
superintendent has not been long in the works, but he has nlready stopped one half of the work on Sabbath, and hopes soon tq put a complete stop to all work throughout the whole of the Lord's-day. One reason he mentioned for being anxious to do so, apart from tbe sacredness of the duty, was this: •' Neither I, nor any of my European assistants ever enter the works on Sunday, and I cannot hava confidence that the work is well performed when tbe natives know that we will not go in upon them."
Scotland, “whose is the Sabbath and the Sabbath-bard"—thy sons in multitudes have left thy shores to seek riches in this Eastern world; thy manses have sent forth their nurslings to this clime of the sum—for a Scottish manse is not a place of remaining—and canst thou not with them send out the Spirit of thy Sabbath-observance P Why do thy sons, when they come to sojourn in the land of the stranger, so oft forget the lessons which they learned in their father's house? Thou canst not send us out thy Spirit, but thy God, who has given thee the blessing, can also give it to us. Oh Lord God, who didst appoint the day of rest for man and beast ! Jesus, thou Lord of the Sabbath ! Holy Spirit, by whose influence alone the Sabbath can be called and felt to be a delight, do thine own work in the midst of us, and avert from us the condemnation of those who disregard thy day and thine ordinances.—Ed.
ftiiggiunarp and Ateligious Éittelligence.
1.—Mission ARY AND Ecclesiastic AL Movements.
We are confident it will afford every friend to the cause of education and religion in India the highest satisfaction to learn, that letters from Alexandria have been received from the Rev. Dr. Duff. It is probable he may be detained there about one month, owing to the want of accommodation on the steamers, or other means of conveyance by the overland route. He may (D.V.) be expected in Calcutta in about a month.-Mrs. Charles, the esteemed lady of Dr. Charles, senior minister of the Scotch Church, together with her family, have embarked and sailed for Europe. We regret to find that Mrs. C.’s health should have required this movement, but we trust under God she may soon be restored in perfect health to her circle in India.
2.—School. At Fort GLo'ster.
It has been our duty this month to chronicle the examinations and anniversaries of several of our city schools and public institutions. This to us has been a most pleasing labor ; but we have not less pleasure in recording the account of the Annual Examination of the school at Fort Glo'ster, under the superintendence of the General Assembly's Mission. If it be true
“That many a flower is born to blush unseen,
And waste its fragrance on the desert air,” it is no less so of some of the most valuable though unostentatious efforts of man to better the condition of his neighbour. We think this rule fairly applicable to the school at Glo'ster. It is entirely under the managemeut of a respectable and intelligent young native, formerly a pupil of the General Assembly's Institution in Caleutta. The school is partly supported by the Sirkars (heathen) connected with the works at Glo'ster,
VOL. I. O
partly by the proprietors, and also in part by the Assembly's Mission, under whose control it is placed by the other contributing parties. The school was first patronized by W. Patrick, E-q. merchant of this city, and is now fully encouraged by C. J. Orr, Esq. the resident at Glo'ster. The examination was held at the residence of the latter gentleman on Monday the 37th of January. The examination was conducted by the Rev. Messrs. D. Ewart and T. Smith, of the Scottish Mission, and the Rev. T. Boaz of the London Society; also by C.J. Orr, Esq and Balm Hani Shankar Das, the zealous and persevering teacher of the school. The pupils underwent a very minute examination in English Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic, Astronomy, the use of the Globes, History of India, Scripture History, and other useful branches of learning. The acquaintance manifested by them with the various topics was highly creditable to their industry, and not less to the talent and attention of the master. After the examination, prizes were distributed to the more deserving by C. J. Orr, Esq. and the pupils addressed by the gentlemen present on the importance of a diligent and persevering improvement of the means placed at their disposal. Here we have a little oasis in the midst of an almost (as far aa education is concerned) desert country; or here we have one of the flowerbeds of learning, opening its buds, displaying its beauties and shedding its odours on every hand, in the midst of a people who have been accustomed only to have presented to them in the form of education that which was calculated to repel and debase. May this infant institution long continue to flourish and increase under the fostering care of the Assembly's Mission, to which this, as well as the school at Taki, is under the highest obligation for the efficient Buperintendauce afforded by the teachers of that valuable seminary.
3.—Examination Of The General Assembly's Institution.
The ninth annual examination of this important Institution was held on Friday, 3rd January. We were delighted to see it so well attended by both European and Native gentlemen. The large and respectable attendance was a sure indication of the high esteem in which the Institution is held; and the presence of so many respectable natives proves that superstition and prejudice are on the wane, and that the natives of Calcutta can appreciate the advantages of a good education even when coupled with the inculcation of a faith differing from their own. Many of the young men are evidently well acquainted with the doctrines of Christianity, as well as conversant with our science and literature; their minds are enlightened, their prejudices removed—some have boldly come out and openly professed themselves the disciples of Jesus, anxious to walk in his ordinances and commandments. These are results which might have been anticipated by all parties; for the whole course of instruction pursued in the Institution is calculated to produce them. The natives are aware of these facts, yet their children flock to the Institution, and there are at present in daily attendance about 660 boys. The large number of natives present at the last examination also shows that the Institution is still rising in public estimation.
The increasing popularity of the Institution may be traced to the follow, ing causes. 1st. The natives are beginning to perceive that so far as Hinduism is concerned, they have as much to fear from an infidel education as from a Christian one; and that while the former gives nothing in lieu of what it takes away, the latter, they are convinced, inculcates the principles of virtue, and fosters a spirit of benevolence. 2ndly. The Institution, while it aims at the improvement of the moral feelings, and the conversion of the soul to God, is second to none in India, in the efficiency of its mode, and extent of its system of literary and scientific education.
The deservedly high character of the Institution, and the advantages it is capable of affording, might be easily inferred from the known abilities of its conductors; but the proficiency of the scholars at the last examination, in the higher branches of science, proved beyond dispute that few if any Institution in the country could compete with it. A mere enumeration of some of the subjects in which the pupils were examined will show to those who were not present, the extent of the course of education pursued in the Institution. The higher classes were examined in the Scriptures, Christian Theology, the Evidences of Christianity, Euclid's Geometry, Conic Sections, Trigonometry, Algebra, the Differential Calculus, Astronomy, Logic and Political Economy, &c. &c. With all these subjects the lads appeared to be quite familiar. The readiness and accuracy with which they answered the searching questions put to them evidently showed that they were well instructed, particularly in scientific subjects. They appeared to be familiar not only with the results of philosophical investigation, but with the principles of science, and the calculations upon which its truths may be demonstrated.
We were much pleased with the Essays which were read, particularly one by Mahendra Lál Basák, a young convert who was lately baptized. This is the first instance which we have witnessed of a Native Christian reading his own productions in the English language before a large assembly of his countrymen. May we not hope that this is the first fruits of a large and abundant harvest
We witnessed a new and interesting feature at this examination. We were gratified by listening to the reading of two essays in the Bengáli language. This is a decided improvement, and although the compositions were occasionally deficient in point of idiom, yet, if the Institution perseveres in paying that attention to the native languages, which it has for some time done, it will ere long produce as good Bengéli and Hindustání scholars as it has heretofore English ones. The increased attention which this department of education is exciting throughout the country augurs well for the general enlightenment of India. The vernaculars, after all, are the grand medium through which our religion, literature and science must be extensively diffused. It is with great satisfaction therefore we see the Assembly's Institution, adding to all the other blessings which it has conferred upon the natives, a correct knowledge of the structure and use of their own language. The Bengālī Essayists were rewarded with prizes, an example worthy of all imitation in kindred institutions. The business of the day was concluded by the distribution of prizes as rewards for proficiency and good conduct. The gold medal given by D. Macfarlan, Esq. to the best of the highest class, was gained by Banamáli De. The silver medal given by the Rev. Dr. Charles for the best Essay in English was gained by Mahendra Lál Basāk. His Essay referred to above was one of the best compositions we have ever heard coming from a native. Mahendra also gained the silver medal given by the Rev. Mr. Ewart for the best English Essay on another subject. These and the other prizes were distributed by the Rev. Mr. Meiklejohn, who presided as Moderator of the Presbyterial Body of Calcutta.
4.—ChrisTIAN INSTITUTION, BhowANIPORE.
The examination of the Christian Institution under the superintendence of the Rev. J. Campbell of the London Missionary Society, took place at Bhowanipore on the 24th of December. We attended this examination and derived from it great pleasure, and we trust not a little profit. Who that has a just estimate of the value of Christian instruction can fail to derive pleasure from the mere sight of four hundred boys brought into daily intercourse of the closest kind with a Christian Missionary *