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mo:t worthless and lenst efficient members of tlie confraternity. Let u workman be ever so deserving, Lis employer lias not tlic means of rewarding his merit, for the rules of the association compel him to pay rqually individuals whose labour may not be half sij valuable; so that the real effect of this regulation is to take a considerable weekly allowance out of the .wkcts of clever, skilful workmen, and to put it into l!mse of all the blockheads aud bunglers connected with tlie confederacy. Were matters in their natural state, masters would find it their interest to reward meritorious workmen in proportion to the value of their services, and to pay others of an opposite character only according to their deserts. "What the one class would thus lose would be transferred to the other; talent and industry would have fair play, and sober attentive individuals would have a prospect of rising to competence, if not to wealth; but instead of this, the combination system puts all upon a level— superior merit is neither recognised nor remunerated, and cvegy stimulus to industrious exertion is at once blunted. The system, then, is neither more nor less than a tax upon activity and skill, in order that indolence and stupidity may be maintained at an unjust rate of payment. In this point of view alone the injury inflicted upon the deserving class of operatives liiciusclvcs, is a far more serious mutter than they arc generally aware of.
Tiic principles of economical science demonstrate that Trades Unions cannot, in the nature of things, permanently gain the end for which they arc formed, and the history of combinations and strikes bears unequivocal testimony to the same truth. One of their most frequent results has been to cause the removal of factories to other situations, where the proprietors may be free from the improper control of their men. Of this it would be easy to give many instances. The combinations in Nottinghamshire of persons under the name of Luddites drove a great number of lace frames from that district, and caused establishments to be formed in Devonshire. The increase of the silk trade at Manchester is partly owing to its migration from Macclesfield, which is much depopulated in consequence of the restriction placed on labour by the Unions. Norwich has suffered the same evil. "The business of calico printing," says a gentleman well acquainted with the subject, "which has long been carried on in Belfast, was taken from it in consequence of the combination of the men engaged in it. The manufacturer who had embarked his capital in the trade sold off his materials, and the result was that 107 families were thrown out of bread. In the town of Bandon, a cotton factory was established, which was like to give employment to many persons in that neighbourhood. The proprietor fitted up his machinery, and had received several orders; when that was known to the workmen, they turned out for higher wages. The proprietor remained long enough to complete the orders he had got, but then gave up the business, and thus that neighbourhood lost an outlay in wages of 11,000/. or 12,000/. With respect to the city of
Dublin, on a moderate estimate, wages to the amount of 300,000/. a-year were withdrawn from it in the manufacture of almost every article of consumption. In the foundry trade alone, not less than 10,000/. was sent out of Dublin, which would have been retained if the system of combination did not exist. Not very long ago there were four shipbuilders in extensive business in Dublin; there is at present not one; the trade had been removed to Droghcda, and to Belfast. What was the cause of this? It was that when there was any business so as to give employment to the workmen, they at once turned out for higher wages. Other instances have occurred where still greater injury has been produced by the removal of a portion of the skill and capital of the country to a foreign land. Such was the case at Glasgow, as stated in the Fourth Parliamentary Report respecting artisans and machinery. One of the partners in an extensive cotton factory, fettered and annoyed by the constant interference of his workmen, removed to the state of New York, where he re-established his machinery; and thus afforded to a rival community, already for- I midablc to our trade, at once a pattern of our best machinery, and an example of the best methods of using it.
Strikes have also led in many instances to the superseding of hand labour by machines. It was the strikes among the Manchester spinners from 1S24 to 1831, especially the great strike in the latter year, which induced several of the manufacturers, who were afraid of theii business being driven to other countries, to make application to the celebrated machinists, Messrs. Sharpe & Co. of Manchester, and to request them to direct the inventive talents of their partner, Mr. Roberts, to the construction of a selfacting mule.inorder to cmancipatcthe tradcfromgalling slavery and impending ruin. Under the assurances of the most liberal encouragement in the adoption of his invention, Mr. Roberts suspended his professional pursuits as an engineer, and set his fertile genius to construct a spinning automaton. In the course of a few months, he produced a machine called the "selfacting mule," which performed the work of the headspinners so much better than they could do it themselves, as to leave them no chance against it, and.which was introduced into the factories as rapidly as the patentees could execute the orders with which they were immediately overwhelmed.
Another example of the same kind is mentioned by Dr. Ure, in his "Philosophy of Manufactures." "The elegant art of calico-printing," he says, "which embodies in its operations the most elegant problems of chemistry as well as mechanics, had been for a long period the sport of foolish journeymen, who turned the liberal means of comfort it furnished them into weapons of warfare against their employers and the trade itself. They were, in fact, by their delirious combinations, plotting to kill the goose which laid the golden eggs of their industry, or to force it to fly off to a foreign land, where it might live without molestation. In the spirit of Egyptian taskmasters, (lie operative printers dictated to the manufacturer the number and quality of the apprentices to be admitted into the trade, the hours of their own labour, and the wages to be paid them. At length capitalists sought deliverance from the intolerable bondage in the resources of science, and were speedily reinstated in their legitimate dominion of the head over the inferior members. The four-colour aud five-colour machines which now render calico-printing an unerring and expeditious process, are mounted in all great establishments. It was under the high pressure of the same despotic confederacies, that selfacting apparatus for executing the dyeing and rinsing operations have been devised.
Tlie croppers of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and the hecklers or flax-dressers, can unfold "a tale of woe" on this subject. Their earnings exceeded those of most mechanics, but the frequency of strikes among them, and the irregularities in their hours and times of working, compelled masters to substitute machinery for their manual labour. Their trades, in consequence, have been in great measure superseded. Similar examples must have presented themselves to all who are familar with the details of our manufactories, but these may suffice to illustrate one of the most common results of combinations.
When the nature of the work is such that it is not possible to remove it, or to substitute machinery for manual labour, the proprietors are more exposed io injury from combinations among workmen; but. even in these cases, when the strike has been general, the masters have almost invariably been successful in the contest. A volume might be filled with an account of the injuries which unsuccessful strikes have inflicted on the working classes. In 1810, a strike took place in Manchester and the neighbourhood, by which 30,000 persons employed in cotton-spinning went out of employment. For a considerable time, they received assistance to the amount of 1,500/. awcek—all was unavailing. At the end of four mouths, after their funds were totally exhausted, and the turn-out workmen reduced to the greatest misery, the struggle ceased without having in any one particular accomplished the object of the unionists. Some of the men were even glad to accept employment, not at their old wages, but at half those wages. In 1829, another strike took place at Manchester, which threw 10,000 persons out of work for six months. The result is thus described by a workman in his evidence before the Factory Commission,— "The consequence was, that at the end of six months they came into work again at reduced wages." Few strikes have been more extensively supported than the celebrated Bradford turn-out of 1S25-26. Before the strike for an advance, 14,000 persons, in the town and neighbourhood of Bradford, entered their names as approving of the plan, and willing to act upon it. Contributions from 152 places enabled the struggle to be kept up for two months. What was the result? At the end of that, time, the men returned to work at lower traces than before. It is melancholy
to discover, from the notices to their brethren at a distance, the poverty in which the turn-out left the people. They beg to be excused contributing iu their turn. "The Bradford workmen are at the present time utterly incapable of relieving any other class of workmen; hundreds of them cannot get bread, and few of the remainder anything else." "Melancholy as all this is," it has been justly said, "it is far from surprising when it is seen how money goes during a strike. In the first, place, the waste of maintaining many thousand people for ten months in idleness, is frightful when their future support actually depends on 1 here being no waste. At Bradford, the sum thus expended was £14,431, so when they returned to their work there was all that, and whatever increase their labour might have added to it, the less to pay wages with. How should the masters raise their wages?"
But even this expenditure was less vexatious in i'.s wastefulness than some which belongs like a curse to a strike. It is a hard thing for a man to .see his children's maintenance frittered away in upholding expenses such as the following :— Meat, drink, and lodging of Delegates
from various parts of the kingdom . £210 10 11 Travelling expenses of Delegates from
Bradford 286 14 11
Expenses of Committees 466 9 10
Stationery, newspapers, advertisements 345 8 9 Postage and carriage of parcels .... 43 15 11 Loss by bad bauk-notcs 1110
This is by no means a solitary case. In the statement of the expenditure of the Mechanics' Union of Glasgow, for a single half-year, more than 5/. is charged for drink, and half of the whole expenditure (95/.) is heaped together iu such a way as wholly to prevent a proper investigation of the manner in which the money was spent. The half-yearly report of tlit expenses of the Newcastle Mechanics' Union contains the following items:—
Club and Committee liquor £4 6"'
Painting President's chair 0 4 C
New top and side curtains for President's
chair 2 1 11?
It is lamentable to think that the wages of the workmen, instead of increasing the comforts of themselves and families, arc sometimes consumed in sticli absurd charges as putting new curtains to their president's chair. One of the members of the Gilders Trades Union says in a published letter, "It has been deemed expedient in times past to govern our little trade by secrecy, the mass of the members only having to pay, but ask no questions as to the appropriation of the money." Doubtless there seem to be very good reasons why the committees of the Trades Unions should not like questions to be asked respecting the appropriation of the money. We have before us a statement of the half-yearly expenses of all the lodge? of the Union of Mcclianics in England, Scotland, and Ireland; iu all of them the charge for committee liquor is a large, and in some the chief item in the accounts. so that we may apply to the Unionists literally the words of the prophet, '• He that earucth wages carneth wages to put it into a bag with holes."
Towards the close of the year 1S3G, there was an extensive and very disastrous strike of the operative cotton spinners of Preston, which was productive of an appalling amount of misery and crime. The main reason for the discontent was that the spinners of Bolton had higher wages, but on the other hand it was alleged that the Bolton prices rose and fell with the times, whereas the Preston prices were fixed, and were in the aggregate or long run as advantageous for the regular workman. Be this as it may, a union which lud formerly existed commenced operations for raising the wages of the spinners, and made a simultaneous demand on all the masters for the Bolton list of prices. This was refused, but an offer was made to the spinners of an advance of ten per cent, on their pros earnings, or about 'is. id. per week, on condition that they would detach themselves from the Union. This offer was in many instances accepted by individual spinners, but the council of the Union, assuming the right to return an answer in the name of the whole body, rejected the offer of the masters, and renewed their demand of the " Bolton List of Prices," unaccompanied by any condition relative to the Union.
To these terms the masters refused to accede, and on Monday morning, the 7th of November, the spinners discontinued their attendance, and the factories were closed. At the time of the turn-out, the operatives of Preston engaged in cotton-spinning amounted to 8,500 persons. Of this number it may be said that only CCO (that is, the whole of the spinners,) voluntarily left their work, the greater part of the remaining 7,840 being thereby thrown out of employment. After standing out for three months, and suffering the greatest extremities, they were compelled to accept of the terms which the masters had offered before the strike commenced, and besides, to sign a declaration to the effect that they would not at anyfuture time, while in their service, become members of any Union or combination of workmen.
The following estimate was made of the direct pecuniary loss to all classes of operatives in consequence of the turn-out:—
Total loss of wages during the
strike £57,210 0 0
The loss to the masters, being
three months' interest of
£S00,000, some of which
being sunk capital was not
only unproductive, but was
taking harm from being ren-
at 45,000 0 0
And the loss sustained by the
shop - keepers from loss of
business, bad debts, &c. ... 4.9S6 0 0
Making the total loss to the
town and trade of Preston, in
this unavailing struggle.... £107,190 0 0
While the turu-out lasted, the operatives generally wandered about the streets without any definite object. 75 persons were brought before the magistrates, and convicted of drunkenness and disorderly conduct; 12 were imprisoned or held to bail for assaults, or intimidations; about 20 young females became prostitutes; three persons are believed to have died of starvation, and not less than 5,000 must have suffered long and severely from hunger and cold. In almost every family, the greater part of the wearing apparel and household furniture was pawned. In nine cases out of ten, considerable arrears of rent were due, and out of the sum of 1,000/. deposited in the savings bank, by about 00 spinners or overlookers, 900/. was withdrawn in the course of the three months. Most of those who could obtain credit got into debt with the shopkeepers—the trade of the town suffered severely, many of the small shopkeepers were nearly ruined, and a few entirely so.
In 1834, an extensive combination was established among the colliers in Lanarkshire, and the adjoining counties of Renfrew and Stirliug. During the latter six months of 1S35, and the whole of 1830, they received the extravagant wages of thirty-five shillings a week, for three days' work, at four or live hours a day only. In the spring of 1837, the iron-masters finding that the prices of iron had fallen from 11. to 4/. 10s. per ton, felt themselves under the necessity of reducing the rate of wages. ,The terms they offered were that the men should work eight hours a day, during five days a week, at five shillings a day. These terms were immediately rejected, and the whole colliers in Lanarkshire, 2,000 in number, struck work, and remained unemployed for six months. At the end of that time, they were compelled to give in, their place having in the meantime been partly supplied by new hands, chiefly starving weavers, whose numbers ultimately rose to about 800. The loss sustained by the colliers, their employers, and the public, in consequence of this strike, is estimated at upwards of 000,000/.
The only other instance we shall adduce is the strike of the Glasgow cotton-spinners, which excited public attention over the whole country, in consequence of the scenes of violence and outrage with which it was attended, and the deed of murder which marked its close. Previous to 1S3G, the wages of the spinners were from thirty to thirty-live shillings a week. In the summer of that year, the spinners memorialized their employers for an augmentation of wages, in consequence of the rise in the price of cotton goods which then took place. To this the masters agreed, and the wages of the spinners were raised from thirty-five shillings to two pounds. In consequence, however, of the alarming stagnation of trade in the spring of 1837, prices fell so much that the masters found it necessary to propose that wages should be restored to their previous rate. This step was resolutely opposed by the operatives, who struck work in April 1837. The strike continued for a period of nearly eighteen weeks, and terminated at last by the spinners unanimously agreeing to surren der at discretion. The loss to operatives, masters, and shopkeepers, caused by this strike, amounted to nearly 200,000/.
The sufferings endured by the operatives during litis disastrous strike must have been extreme. Towards the close the alimeut allowed by the association to each man was only eighteen pence a-weck. The condition of the female operatives, the picccrs, pickers, carders, and rcclers, was infinitely worse, for there was no fund whatever provided for their maintenance, and from the commencement they were thrown upon the streets, without either asylum, employment, or subsistence. The necessary consequence was, that crime and immorality increased to a frightful degree, and the rapid progress of fever in the city, as well as the great increase in the rate of mortality, evinced in an appaling manner how fatal such strikes are to the best, interests of the labouring poor.
The object of the operatives engaged in these strikes has too often been, by combination and violence to force up their wages during prosperity, and by | combination and violence to prevent them from falling in adversity, hoping thus to avert from themselves the law of nature, and to build up on the foundation of intimidation a durable prosperity amidst the fleeting changes of human affairs. But experience has clearly proved that all attempts to raise wages by such means are certain in the end to recoil on the heads of those engaged in them. The effectual remedy, however, for this great social evil, is to ba found, not in legislative enactments, but in the diffusion of knowledge and of sound moral and religious principles among the mass of the people. Whenever the working classes become convinced that what is prejudicial to the rest of the community can never be really beneficial to thcin,—that to do evil that good may come is equally at variance with justice and expediency,—and whenever they combine against the future, instead of against the masters, and unite to help one another's savings, iustead of to waste the earnings of all,—there will be an end of ruinous quarrels, to the destruction of trade, and the increase of crime and immorality, of disease and death.
OR, A WINTER'S DAY AT MALVERN.
There is a certain charm in the feeling of isolation when not accompanied by that of loneliness. And it is an amusing privilege, being unobserved, to observe the habits of the human species in novel circumstances. Such are assuredly those of the "water cure."
"Whence that tolling of door-bells at the peep of dawn, inhumanly rousing from slumber anticipant patients and unsympathizing housemaids? Whence that hurry of bucket-bearing men and women through the lanes of a peaceful village? Is fire to be extinguished? No—it is water, water, water, not to quench the flame of wood; but to feed the flame of life, cooling the fevered, heating the chilled, soothing
the excited, exciting the torpid, thinning the thick blood, thickening the thin, healing old sores and evoking new ones, whetting the appetite, and cheating it when found. Great arc the "curiosities of common water," as a book of last century styles them, often sung, and as often forgotten, for there is nothing new under the sun, and the nearest remedy is the most overlooked. The simplification of mystery and tiic mystification of simplicity arc the two poles of medical craft and valetudinarian fancy.
T>A ere the wall of each dwelling by au earthquake shock laid prostrate, what strange revelations would there be! Strange as the peep-show of digestion obtained under the lifted flap of a wounded hero's stomach! Behold the mummies, rivals of Egypt, Thebans scorning spice, in voluntary stillness wrap|ied, and sodden as they lie, waiting the stern approach of watery shock! Behold the sleeper waked; but to court with shudder and recoil the dread embrace of watery wrapper, impending from a spectre's arms, not sheet-enveloped, but sheet-enveloping! Behold the Naiadi iu lianging folds of white, lit to be planted out amid the classic water-works of royal parks! See others in water rooted, not in earth, rooted at neither end, nor up, nor down; but at the middle doubled like the layer of a shrub, save that it courts, and they abhor the soil! Or else the Pythian stool, or arched oven, compassed or filled with pent-up vapour, where stewed humanity yields up its woes, and, parboiled into health, docs, like the blacksmith's plunged iron, hiss water into steam. Hear now the fussy, fretting, fiery scrub (as in the currying and whisping of a hundred horse) recupcraut of heat, reactive even unto blood. Then see the shivering grasp at victims, the scandalous infliction of internal drowning gold to meet external, as classics do of two negations compound au affirmation! Alas! this fierce encounter of waters from without, and waters from within, what chance has life between them?
Such are the esoteric things. The exoteric next. What forms be these suddenly swarming forth, sub Juce frigido, unflannelled, uuconiforlercd, unfurred, rushing divergent into infinite space, running as dogs with acolythic saucepans, jostling in reckless haste, by desperate intent impelled, changing the village peace into the stir of a metropolis? Is there alarm of war, or tide of emigration, or scramble for mammon ocr the trampled necks of rivals, selling the soul to find the body? No—'tis caloric. Oh caloric! a kingdom for reaction! the getting up of steam in the burst boilers of men. A gang they form, not the press-gang of former days, but compress-gang of these,—not dragging to the wave, but from the wave escaped,— yet each by fate pursued, in front or else where tortured and armed at once with hidden mail, each in his sorrow wrapped, each in his bosom bearing not secret fire, but water. Nor are other ills awantini which can't be shaken off like watery clout, but must be remedied by dire eruption, those burning mountains of the microcosm, which disclose the dying indignation of besieged disease.
i As the day begins, so does it restlessly proceed and end. Scarce have tlie bustled and blown healthhunters, reposing on their milk ami water, and skimming the last morning's Times begun to recover their disturbed proprieties, when the horrors of noon come relentless on. Sitz, sheet and compress, plunge, deep and shallow, scrubbing and gulping ply their varied work, while the teaming shower and the whelming douche bctrickle and belabour poor humanity, by that same liower restoring it which wears the rock away. Then off to the highway and the hills again! Sec how they run express without an errand! pity no errand could be found! Sec how I hey thread like weaver's shuttle the steep zigzag, rising like genii into impending mists! Muscular motion for nought but muscular motion's sake, beginning, end, and centre to itself, hunger and heat the summa bona, what unroinantic tread-mill work is this? Much to be pitied they who could do otherwise. Yet still more they who cannot. Side by side with the smart equipage of squire, or gig of traveller, or team of peasant, slowly wheels along the creaking chair of ]«ralytic, wreck of long debauchery, of midnight lamp-work, or of public toils, smitten by suns inclement, carking care, or swift calamity. Or else the form emaciate of atrophy or phi hisis pulmonal, like an escaped iumate of that tomb to which it tends with rapid strides, though slow its pace on earth. Or infant borue by mule or stub, born in its malady, deformed and blanched, sadly sedate and ulcerous, jogged carelessly along by ringlet-covered nurse, circumspiccnl not circumspect, or brooded over by the anxious authors of its life and woe. Here the pinched visage of the dyspeptic, there the tallowy of the dropsical, here the bloated cheek of the licentious, (here the chiselled pallor of the student, here the fading rose of the ball-room, there the wrinkled collapse of the dowager. And as the only redeeming glimpse of romance in the picture, the shy and sober spinster sauntering pensively, with crooklcss pole in baud, in style arcadian, a shepherdess without a flock. As here, with round unvarying of chop and potato, cold water is thrown upon all the festivities of the table, so are all postprandial case and social enjoyment cut short, and embittered. The flow of soul, the snooze of fire-side comfort, arc rudely violated by the afternoon's assault, wherein the untiiucous loss of raiment, the damp appliance and the frigid draft, form matter for a tale of sorrow, which the rising moon lakes up. "Who after such a day has heart for stocking silk, or neck-cloth white, or evening circle left —all that proscribed,—tea, coffee, cake, ice, lobster and liquor, which makes such circles gay? Far rather mope at home on bread and water, toasting the shivering limbs, penning our sorrows to inquiring friends, and in fancy spinning out into a dozen the single hour of peace vouchsafed from liquid torments. For alas! like a prisoner to his cell, turn into bed we must not, to consign ourselves to sweet indefinite repose, but to h.' beared with horrid dreams, pledges of early misery ou the cuining mom. Yet through this darkness
gleams a theory of hope. And in this cup of woe is health and cure.
How arc these toilers fed? By what viands are hearts, through stomachs, won? Some put on honour, some watched and weighed, too little for the now ravenous, too simple for the yet dainty, their diet is the flat disappointment of spiceless, hcatless monotonous mediocrity, a keeping of the peace by armed neutrality. Alas! alas! ye wine, spirit and ale, pepper, mustard and cinnamon, salad and fruit, muffin and mancl.et, coffee, tea, sugar, and tobacco, lobster and Lazenby, caper and curry, custard, cake and confection venders, well may ye weep! Othello's occupation's gone. Ye are the traitors in the camp of health, sappers and miners indeed, paudercrs to the palate, destroyers of all within.
And how are they physicked? Physic and physickcrs, avaunt! Farewell all moving draughts, dinner pills, and evening powders; adieu, calomel and jalap, stimulant and tonic, alkali and alterative, acid and narcotic. Ye are made worse than in vain—pure evil are ye all. Henceforth shall the food-bag be sacred to food alone; no more the vehicle of harm to other unrcmonstraiit members; no more self-sacrificed in treason's cause. We shall fight underground with malady no more; no more expel disease by death, or destroy the proximate in trying to reach the remote. All shall be surface work, yet not superficial. Of the two surfaces of man—all that can be reached without the knife, viz. the inner and intestinal, the outer and cuticular—the former, lesser, tenderer, and unseen, shall keep its jubilee—the latter shall be hourly viewed. The tanning of the hide, worse than school-boy's, shall exempt the stomach from being eaten into holes by drugs. So from medere, to heal, shall medication flow and thither tend, not by the " Forte du lllion" of pharmaceutic exhibition, but all above board, with no privilege to poison.
Still, is chemistry a pure black art—science an idle dream? No; the theory atomic, the calculus differential, shall escape the besom's sweep. As facts yield material for fancy, so may fancy create facts. Mind is matter's lord, and by the minimum of matter is materialism sunk to zero. Globules impalpable and quintesscnt, the Q. E. n. of alchemy, fresh from Sir Isaac's nutshell, missed by no vision weak, dropped by no nervous hand, captive in r.o hollow tooth, enter with magic spell, as a symbolic delivery of matter, where no dose ponderable may—healing by influence and first intention—aiding disease as nature's proper cure, like by like, a3 far as body and bodiless can be so. Nor, if report tell true, docs the mesmeric aura fail to waft its questionable soothings over troubled frames, binding with drowsy spell the resigned impersonal, arming the vision to penetrate the veil of things unseen, and clothing the will to heal with healing power.
The water-cure docs indeed hold out remedy for acute disease. But the cure of chronic is its aim and boast—the ablution of old corruption, the righting of perverted function which pleads prescriptive right