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speaker, with but a moderate volume of voice, is better understood and is more effective, iï he articulates correctly, than one who vociferates without knowledge or discretion.

Distinctness of articulation may be acquired by drill: 1. Upon separate vowel and consonant sounds. 2. Upon combined vowel and consonant sounds. 3. Upon words: the elementary sounds separately, and then the whole word. 4, Upon words in sentences, avoiding the union of the sound of one word with that of another.

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Vowels and Difficult Consonant Combinations. 1. Clime, club; glad, glen; spleen, split; crew, crow; drop, drub; three, threw; shred, shrub; scrip, scroll; squaw, squib; twang, twig.

2. Reefs, fifes ; pelf, wolf; whelm, film; yolk, sulk; false, else; quilt, bolt; valve, shelve; cask, frisk; chasm, schism; hives, loves.

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1. He watched and wept, he prayed and felt for all.

2. He could speak upon either side of the question; he could speak upon neither side.:

3. Masses of immense magnitude move majestically through the vast extent of the solar system. 4. That morning, thou, that slumber'dst not before,

Nor sleptst, - great ocean, - laidst thy waves at rest,

And hush’dst thy mighty minstrelsy.
5. The cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palaces,

The solemn temples, the great globe itself, —
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve,
And like this unsubstantial pageant, faded, -

Leave not a rack behind. NOTE.— Correct pronunciation and accent can be obtained only by following the rules laid down in some standard dictionary.

Emphasis is a stress of voice laid upon a word or a phrase, in order to bring out its meaning, and the meaning of the sentence, in the most impressive and forcible manner.

Upon the proper placing of emphasis depends not only the meaning of a sentence, but also the life and spirit of all discourse; as, otherwise, the speaker cannot convey what he understands and feels, and, consequently, he will fail utterly to make any impression upon his hearers.

As emphasis is determined solely by the sentiment to be expressed, no rule can be given which will regulate its place, kind, or degree, except the general one — that the speaker must thor

oughly comprehend the idea to be uttered, and be guided by a just conception of its force and spirit.

In delivery, he should pause before and after each emphatic word, and let his voice dwell upon it for a greater or less length of time, as the sense requires.

Examples. 1. I do not ask, I demand your attention.

2. The war is inevitable, and LET IT COME! I repeat it, sir, LET IT COME!

3. The wicked flee when no man pursueth; but the righteous are bold as a lion.

4. The young are slaves to novelty; the old, to custom; the middleaged, to both; the dead, to neither.

5. But yesterday, the word of Cæsar might

Have stood against the world; now lies he there,

And none so poor to do him reverence.

But this very day,
An honest man, my neighbor, - there he stands,
Was struck, — struck like a dog, because, forsooth,
He tossed not high his ready cap in air,
Nor lifted up his voice in servile shouts
At sight of that great ruffian! Be we men,
And suffer such dishonor? Men, and wash not
The stain away in blood ?

Modulation is the varying of the voice so as to express the feelings and the emotions inspired by the subject of discourse.

It refers to the right management of the voice as regards loudness and volume, and includes in flection, pitch, force, and quality; and, therefore, it produces that variety of expression so essential to eloquence.

Correct modulation can be obtained by strict attention to the natural variations of tone in ordinary conversation or in earnest speech, by drill, by judgment in determining the idea to be ex


pressed, by accommodating the sound to the sense, and by identification with the person to be represented.

INFLECTIONS are turns or slides of the voice in uttering a letter, a syllable, or a word.

The Rising Inflection is the upward slide of the voice. It is usually indicated by the acute accent (): thus, Is he truthful ?'

The Falling Inflection is the downward slide of the voice. It is usually indicated by the grave accent (): thus, Would you make men truthful?! Believe them.'

The Circumflex Inflection is the union of the rising and the falling inflection. It is usually indicated by the union of the acute and the grave accent (^ or V): thus, And thîs man is nởw become a gôd !


1. Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I give my hand and
my heart to this vote.

What men could do
Is done already; heaven and earth will witness
If Rome must fall, that we are innocent.

PITCH is the degree of the elevation of vocal sound.

Middle Pitch is that which is, or should be employed in ordinary conversation, and expresses moderate emotion.

Low Pitch is that which is below the usual speaking key, and expresses deep feeling; as, Silence, how dread! darkness, how profound!

High Pitch is that which is above the usual speaking key, and expresses pity, and joyous feeling; as, Ring, happy bells, across the


Examples. 1. Education, when it works upon a noble mind, draws out to view every latent virtue and perfection, which, without such helps, are never able to make their appearance.

2. There was silence, and I heard a voice saying,

“Shall mortal man be more just than God

Shall a man be more pure than his Maker ?”
3. On with the dance! Let joy be unconfined ;

No sleep till morn, when Youth and Pleasure meet
To chase the glowing hours with flying feet.

FORCE is the degree of loudness and energy of vocal sound.

Moderate Force is that which is used in ordinary narration or description.

Soft or Weak Force is that which is used to express caution, fear, secrecy, solemnity, and tender emotions; as, Softly, peacefully, lay her to rest.

Loud or Strong Force is that which is used to express violent passion, or strong emotions of joy, hate, revenge, grief, and dignity; as, Strike — till the last armed foe expires !

1. In peace, there's nothing so becomes a man

As modest stillness and humility.
2. He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan,

Without a grave, unknelled, uncoffined, and unknown.
3. I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips

Straining upon the start. The game's afoot;
Follow your spirit; and, upon this charge
Cry— God for Harry! England! and St. George !

QUALITY is the kind of tone used in speaking or reading.

The Pure Quality is a clear, smooth, flowing tone, uttered in the middle pitch, and is used when not much feeling or emotion is expressed.

The Orotund Quality is the pure tone deepened, and is used to express pathetic, grand, and sublime emotions; as, Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean - roll!

The Guttural Quality is a deep undertone, and is used to express hætred, contempt, aversion, and loathing; as, Thou slave, thou coward, thou wretch!

The Aspirated Quality is not properly a vocal sound, but a whispered utterance used to express secrecy, fear, terror, and remorse ; as, “Silence !” in undertones they cry.

1. We live in deeds, not years, in thoughts, not breaths,

In feelings, not in figures on a dial.
2. O thou Eternal One! whose presence bright

All space doth occupy, all motion guide.

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