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The translator of this history, in laying before his fellow-citizens a second edition of it, would offer them his sincere acknowledgments for their favorable reception of the first; a reception the more gratifying, as, notwithstanding his own high value of the work, it surpassed his most sanguine expectations. It evidently appeared that Botta, like all his great predecessors in the march of immortality, was greeted with the most enthusiasm and admiration by those who were, doubtless, the most conscious of being his fellow-travellers on the road to posterity. How warmly was he welcomed by the surviving patriots who had distinguished themselves the most eminently in the great scenes he describes | The venerable John Adams, on receiving the second volume of the translation, expressed himself in the words following; “I unite with many other gentlemen in the opinion that the work has great merit, has raised a monument to your name, and performed a valuable service to your country. If it should not have a rapid sale at first, it will be, in the language of booksellers, good stock, and will be in demand as long as the American Revolution is an object of curiosity. It is indeed the most classical and methodical, the most particular and circumstantial, the most entertaining and interesting narration of the American War, that I have seen.” In like manner, the hand that penned the Declaration of American Independence, on receiving the first volume of the translation, having already for some years been possessed of the original, addressed the translator the words of encouragement which are here set down. “I am glad to find that the excellent history of Botta is at length translated. The merit of this work has been too long unknown with us. He has had the faculty of sifting the truth of facts from our own histories with great judgment, of suppressing details which do not make a part of the general history, and of enlivening the whole with the constant glow of his holy enthusiasm for the liberty and independence of nations. Neutral, as an historian should be, in the relation of facts, he is never neutral in his feelings, nor in the warm expression of them, on the triumphs and reverses of the conflicting parties, and of his honest sympathies with that engaged in the better cause. Another merit is in the accuracy of his narrative of those portions of the same war which passed in other quarters of the globe, and especially on the ocean. We must thank him, too, for having brought within the compass of three volumes every thing we wish to know of that war, and in a style so engaging, that we cannot lay the book down. He had been so kind as to send me a copy of his work, of which I shall manifest my acknowledgment by sending him your volumes, as they come out. My original being lent out, I have no means of collating it with the translation; but see no cause to doubt correctness.’ On receipt of the second volume of the translation, Mr. Jefferson renews his eulogies of the history, in the expressions which follow; “I join Mr. Adams, heartily, in good wishes for the success of your labors, and hope they will bring you both profit and fame. You have certainly rendered a good service to your country; and when the superiority of the work over every other on the same subject shall be more known, I think it will be the common manual of our Revolutionary History.” Mr. Madison is no less decisive in his approbation of the undertaking. He writes the transiator on receiving his first volume:

“The literary reputation of this author, with the philosophic spirit and classic taste allowed to this historical work, justly recommended the task in which you are engaged, of placing a translation of it before American readers; to whom the subject must always be deeply interesting, and who cannot but feel a curiosity to see the picture of it as presented to Europe by so able a hand. The author seems to have the merit of adding to his other qualifications much industry and care in his researches into the best sources of information, and it may readily be supposed that he did not fail to make the most of his access to those in France, not yet generally laid open?’ &c. Thus cotemporary witnesses, and the most prominent actors in some of the principal events recorded in these volumes, have authorised and sanctioned the unexpected indulgence with which they were received by the American people. Grateful for such high approbation, and content with having been the first to present his countrymen, at his own peril, with however imperfect a copy of so inimitable an original, the translator will always be happy to congratulate them on the appearance of a better.



SUMMARy.—Opinions, manners, customs, and inclimations of the inhabitants of the
English colonies in America. Mildness of the British government towards its colonists.
Seeds of discontent between the two people. Plan of colonial government proposed by
the colonists. Other motives of discontent in America. Justification of ministers. Designs
and instigations of the French. All the states of Europe desire to reduce the power of
England. New subjects of complaint. Stamp duty projected by the ministers and pro-
posed to parliament. The Americans are alarmed at it, and make remonstrances. Long
and violent debates between the advocates of the stamp act and the opposition. The
stamp act passes in parliament.


SUMMARy.—Troubles in America on account of the stamp duty. Violent tumult at
Boston. Movements in other parts of America. League of citizens desirous of a new
order of things. New doctrines relative to political authority. American associations
against English commerce. Admirable constancy of the colonists. General Congress
of New York and its operations. Effects produced in England by the news of the tumults
in America. Change of ministers. The new ministry favorable to the Americans. They
propose to parliament the repeal of the stamp act. Doctor Franklin is interrogated by the
parliament. Discourse of George Grenville in favor of the tax. Answer of William Pitt.
The stamp act is revoked. Joy manifested in England on this occasion. The news is
transmitted with all despatch to America.


SUMMARy—Extreme joy of the colonists on hearing of the repeal of the stamp act.
Causes of new discontents. Deliberations of the government on the subject of the oppo-
sition of the Americans. Change of ministry. The new ministers propose to parliament,
and carry, a bill imposing a duty upon tea, paper, glass, and painters' colors. This duty
is accompanied by other measures, which sow distrust in the colonies. New disturbances
and new associations in America. The royal troops enter Boston. Tumult, with effu-
sion of blood, in Boston. Admirable judicial decision in the midst of so great commo-
tion. Condescendence of the English government; it suppresses the taxes, with the ex-
ception of that on tea. The Americans manifest no greater submission in consequence.
The government adopts measures of rigor. The Americans break out on their part;
they form leagues of resistance. The Bostonians throw tea overboard. The ministers
adopt rigorous counsels. Violent agitations in America. Events which result from them.

. confederations. All the provinces determine to hold a general Congress at Phila-


SUMMARy—Confidence of the Americans in the general Congress. Dispositions of
minds in Europe, and particularly in France, towards the Americans. Deliberations of
Congress. Approved by the provinces. Indifference of minds in England relative to
the quarrel with America. Parliament convoked. The ministers will have the inhabitants
of Massachusetts declared rebels. Oration of Wilkes against this proposition. Oration
of Harvey in support of it. The ministers carry it. They send troops to America. They
accompany the measures of rigor with a proposition of arrangement, and a promise of
amnesty. Edmund Burke proposes to the parliament another plan of reconciliation;
which does not obtain. Principal reason why the ministers will hearken to no proposi-
ion of accommodation. Fury of the Americans on learning that the inhabitants of
assachusetts have been declared rebels. Every thing, in America, takes the direction

f war. Battle of Lexington. Siege of Boston. Unanimous resolution of the Americans
o take arms and enter the field.

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SUMMARY.-Situation of Boston. State of the two armies. The provinces make prepa.
rations for war. Taking of Ticonderoga. Siege of Boston. Battle of Breed's Hill.
New Congress in Philadelphia. George Washington elected captain-general. airs
to the camp of Boston. The Congress make new regulations for the ar ogy of
doctor Warren. The Congress take up the subject of finances. Endeavor to secure the
Indians. Their manifesto. Religious solemnities to move the people. Address of the
Congress to the British nation. Another to the king. Another to the Irish people.
Letter to the Canadians. Events in Canada. Resolutions of Congress relative to the
conciliatory proposition of lord North. Articles of union between the provinces proposed
by the Congress. The royal governors oppose the designs of the popular governors.
Serious altercations which result from it. Massachusetts begins to labor for independ-
ence. The other provinces discover repugnance to imitate the example. Military ope-
rations near Boston. Painful embarrassments in which Washington finds himself. Gene-
ral Gage succeeded by sir William Howe, in the chief command of the English troops.
Boldness of the Americans upon the sea. Difficulties experienced by Howe. Invasion
of Canada. Magnanimity of *; Montreal taken. Surprising enterprise
executed by Arnold. Assault of Quebec. Death of Montgomery.


SUMMARY —State of parties in England. Discontent of the people. The ministers
take Germans into the pay of England. Parliament convoked. Designs of France. King's
speech at the opening of parliament. Occasions violent debates. The ministers carry
their Address. Commissioners appointed with power of pardon. Siege of Boston. The
English are forced to evacuate it. New disturbances in North Carolina. Success of the
American marine. War of Canada. Praises of Montgomery. Designs of the English
against South Carolina. They furiously attack fort Moultrie. Strange situation of the
American colonies. Independence every day gains new partisans; and wherefore. The
Congress propose to declare Independence. Speech of Richard Henry Lee in favor of
the proposition. Speech of John Dickinson on the other side. The Congress proclaim
Independence. Exultation of the people.


St MMARY. —Immense preparations of the British for the reduction of America. Con-
ferences for an arrangement. The Americans lose the battle of Brooklyn. New con-
ferences. The troops of the king take possession of New York. Forts Washington and
Lee fall into their power. The i. victoriously overrun New Jersey. Danger of
Philadelphia. The royal army pause at the Delaware. General Lee is made prisoner.
War with the Indians. Campaign of Canada. Firmness of Washington and of Congress
in adverse fortune; and their deliberations to reestablish it. Dictatorial power granted

to Washington; in what manner he uses it. Overtures of Congress to the court of France.

Franklin sent thither. His character. The fortune of America regains at Trenton. Pru-
dence and intrepidity of Washington. Howe, after various movements, abandons New
Jersey. Embarks at New York to carry the war into another part.

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