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of Carraghen-moss from the rapid corrent. The poor peasant of Normandy gathers the vast heaps of decaying fuci, which wind and wave have driven to his shore, in order to carry them painfully, miles and miles, as manure on his fields, and the so-called sheep-fucus supports the flocks and herds of cattle in many a Northern island in Scotland and in Norway, through their long, dreary winters. The men of Iceland and of Greenland diligently grind some farinaceous kind of fucus into flour and subsist, like their cattle, upon this strange wood for many months, whilst their wives follow Paris fashion, and rouge themselves with the red flower of the purple fucus.
Here, however, one of the great mysteries which the ocean suggests, startles the thinking observer. For whom did the Almighty create all this wealth of beauty and splendor? Why did He conceal the greatest wonders, the most marvellous creations of nature under that azure veil, the mirror-like surface of which reflects nearly every ray of light and mostly returns, as if in derision, the searcher's own face as his only reward?
But because all the varied forms, all the minute details are not seen, is therefore the impression, which the ocean produces on our mind, less striking or less permanent? We count not the stars in heaven, wo see even but a small number of all, and yet the starry sky has never failed to lift up the mind of man to his Maker. So with the ocean. His way is in the sea, and His path in the great waters. The voice of the Lord is upon the waters; the Lord is upon many waters.
From olden times the ocean has ever been to the nations of the earth the type of all that is great, powerful, infinite. All the fictions of the Orient and Eastern India, all the myths of Greece of the “earth embracing Okeanos,” and even the Jewish tradition that “the earth was without form and void, and the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters," speak of the sea as the great source of all life, the very dwelling-place of the Infinite.
There are nations who never see the ocean. How dream-like, how fantastic are their ideas of the unknown world! German poetry abounds with wild, fanciful dreams of mermaids and mermen, and even the sailor-nation has its favorite legend of the ancient mariner, and a Tennyson has sung of fabled mer
men and their loves. But truly has it been said that “they that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters, these see the works of Jehovah and his wonders in the deep."
Uniform and monotonous as the wide ocean often appears, it has its changes and is now mournful, now cheery and bright. Only when the wind is lulled and a calm has soothed the angry waves, can the ocean be seen in its quiet majesty. But the aspect is apt to be dreary and lonely; whether we see the dark waves of the sea draw lazily in and out of rocky riffs, or watch wearily " the sea's perpetual swing, the melancholy wash of endless waves." Away from the land there is nothing so full of awe and horror as a perfectly calin sea: man is spell-bound, a magic charm seems to chain him'o the glassy and transparent waters; he cannot move from the fatal spot, and death, slow, fearful, certain death stares him in the face. He trembles as his despairing gaze meets the upturned, leaden eye of the shark, patiently waiting for him, or as he hears far below the sigh of soine grim monster, slowly shifting on his uneasy pillow of brine. Fancy knows but one picture more dreadful yet than tempest, shipwreck, or the burning of a vessel out at sea: it is a ship on the great ocean in 3 calm, with no hope for a breeze. Wild and waste is the view. Or the same sunshine, over the same waves the poor mariners gaze day by day with languid eye, even until the heart is sick and the body perishes.
At other times it is the gladsome ocean, full of proud ships, merry waves and ceaseless motion, that greets the eye. Then the wild, shoreless Sea, on which the waves have rolled for thousands of years in unbroken might, fills the mind with the idea of infinity, and thought, escaping from all visible impression of space and time, rises to sublimest con templations. Yet, the sight of the clear, transparent mirror of the ocean, with its light, curling, sportive waves, cheers the heart like that of friend, and reminds us that here, as upon the great sea of life, even when the wrecked mariner has been cast among the raging billows, an unseen hand has often guided him to a happy shore. For He ruleth the raging of the sea : when the waves thereof rise, He stilleth them.
This sense of the Infinite, suggested and awakened by the vast expanse of restless and uneasy waters is, however,
not onmixed with a feeling of deep dark, mysterious realm, and huge snakes mysterious awe. The mind cannot seize trail themselves slowly from “their nor comprehend this boundless grandeur; coiled sleep in the central deep, amidst hence its inysteriousness. The eye can- all the dry pied things that lie in the not see, no sense can, in fact, perceive the hueless mosses under the sea." The connection between the stupendous bewildered and astounded mind tries, in phenomena on the wide ocean and the his own way, to connect the great phefate of man. To huinan eyes the surg- nomena of nature with his fate and the ing billows and the towering waves are will of the Almighty. It sees in homeboth raised by an invisible, unknown less, restless birds the harbingers of the power, and their depth is peopled with coming storm, in flying fishes the spirits beings uncouth, ungoverned and un- of wrecked seamen, and points to the known. The sea is lonely, the sea is Flying Dutchman and the Ancient Maridreary, like a wide, watery waste com- ner as illustrations of the justice of pared with the gay, bright colors of the God's wrath. la:id, and the might of gigantic waves The strong mind, the believing soul, that rush from age to age against the of course, shake off all such idle dreams balwarks of continent and isle, seems and vain superstitions. To them the sea irresistible and able to destroy the is the very source of energy and courage. world's foundation. Thus the ocean The life at sea is a life of unceasing awakens in us feelings of dark mystery strife and struggle. Hence all sea-faring and grim power; the Infinite carries us nations are warlike, fond of adventures, oti beyond the limits of familiar thought, and poetical. But the sea's greatest and the sea becomes the home of fabled charm is, after all, its freedom. Tbe free, beings and weird images. All sea-shore unbounded ocean, where man feels no countries teem with stories, legends and restraint, sees no narrow limits, where trad tions; the fickle sea, the envious he must rely upon his own stout heart, ocean, the fierce, hungry waves, the strong in faith, where he is alone with farious breakers, all become the repre- his great Father in heaven, gives him a sentatives of so many human passions. sense of his own freedom and strength Oar fancy peoples the ocean with sweet, like no other part of earth, and makes iurinz sirens, endowed with magic him return to the sea, its perils and sufferpower to weave a spell and to draw the ings, in spite of all the peace and hapsieiging mariner down to the green piness that the land can afford him. He crysial halls beneath the waves. There knows that even if he dwell in the uttersa-kings and morgana fairies live in en- most parts of the sea, even there shall chanted palaces; monsters of unheard His hand lead him and His right hand size and shape flit ghostlike through that shall hold him.
WAS NAPOLEON A DICTATOR?
CAPOLEON, it may be stated without
venture, is one of those historical magnitudes, which attract the renewed scrutiny, and periodicall, revived attention of successive ages. Does he also belong to those who present themselves for centuries in different phases, according to the different and characteristic elements which may be at work in the wrestling progress of the race to which they have belonged ?
Public men are open to the gaze of all; and people will have their opinions about them. We heard Niebuhr exclaim: “How true! How wise!" when on one of the high roads of Tyrol, we passed a house, over the door of wbich was painted the distich :
“ Wer da bauet un der Strassen,
Muss die Leute reden lassen."* Nor must we forget the wise saying of Goëthe, that it does not require an architect to live in a house.
The greater a name is among those that are stamped as historical, the surer it is to be discussed and examined from various points of view, and to present itself in different lights and hues in the sequel of years. Indeed, may it not be said that, as it is one of the characteristics of a great soul, that it lives within itself the lives of many men; so it is the variety of phases which a name, an epoch, a nation, or an institution, presents to succeeding generations, that constitutes one of the standards of historical greatness? Like great books, new eras find something new in them, and they grow on mankind. Christ became man; as such, the greatest man, and his name presents itself in endless phases to generation after generation. Timour and Attila did vast things for the times, but there is but one unchanging aspect in which they can be viewed. They were nothing but conquerors. Greece is studied with intenser zeal as our race advances, and always with the relish of a newly-discovered subject. Even the middle of the nineteenth century has produced several important and elaborate histories of that brilliant star in history. Portugal had a brilliant period, too; but it is like one tlash of light, and there it ends. No succos-ive ages present it in a new aspect. The institutions of the Anglican
race are an inexhaustible theme of reflection, and wou'I be so for all ages to come, even if tuis day the Americans and English were swept from the face of the earth. Russia is a vast empire. Describe it once with accuracy and truth, or, when it will have crumbled into dust, let its rise and fall be carefully chronicled, and all is done that mankind stand in need of, or will care for.
Napoleon was a great man. Whether that whole phenomenon comprehended within the one name, Napoleon Bonaparte, will have in future ages the polyphasial character which has just been spoken of, cannot be decided in our times, whatever the anticipations of present historians may be, according to the different bias of their minds. But the period is arriving when his history may be written. We are daily receding from his time, and ascending the summit from which the historian may calmly look around. It is not the contemporaries that can write the history of a man or age. They can only accumulate materials. Niebuhr wrote a wiser history of Rome than Livy; Grote, a deeper history of Greece than Thucydides or Herodotus. In the meantime, separate questions are to be answered; distinct subjects belonging to the great theme are gradually to be treated with more and more of that character with which, ultimately, his whole history must be handled. One of these questions is-and it is a vital one-was Napoleon a dictator ? Did he consciously concentrate immense power, compress freedom of action in France, and conquer the European continent, merely to prepare a nobler and a permanent state of things? Did he sow and plant, or did he nierely concentrate power, and, in doing so, destroy the germs of freedom? Did he treat liberty as merely in abeyance, while, nevertheless, he was fostering its gerins, or did he induce a state of things, which, in the same degree as he succeeded, extirpated freedom, and which in turn must be undone in the same degree in which liberty would struggle into existence ? The Roman dictator was no annihilator. He received extraordinary, not absolute, power, for a liinited period, in times of danger and difficulty, 10 help the wheels
* He who builds where people walk,
Must allow the folk to talk.
of the State through & miry pass, and the mind of Joseph. He says: "He when the days of his power were over, (the emperor) has succumbed in the he was responsible for his stewardship. struggle. It is impossible to say what
The admirers of Napoleon, those that he would have done after Actium. I served him, and those who now worship say what I know. Impartial men, who his name, have ever striven to present have seen nothing but the internal facts, him in this light. They felt instinctively will say that probably Napoleon would that this was the only way of reconciling have been as superior to Augustus, as he his acts with the great aim of our times. bad been to Octavius; that a man of We are well aware that there are two such a genius, would not have desired other classes of Napoleonists. There anything but what was meet for the are those who boldly assert that Napo- French people; and that, if he were livleon actually ruled France in a heral ing now,t he would make France as spirit, and that freedom really was en- happy by her institutions, as the fortujored under him; and there are those nate country which I inhabit—a country who, with still greater boldness, main- which proves that liberal institutions tain that France did not struggle for lib- make nations happy and wise." Yet erty in her first revolution, nor that she this very Napoleon used to repeat: Fearns for it now; that 'all she ever Everything for the people, nothing by wanted is equality. This opinion was the people. proclaimed at the time when the present That same letter to Count Thibeauemperor of the French was forging a deau contains the remarkable sentence: Dew crown for himself, and new
gyves "Napoleon isolated himself much in for wieeding France. We have nothing France; people ended with no longer ty do with this species of Napoleonists. understanding what he was after.” T..ts are void of the shame of history, The studious reader will find this letter or e. e, not knowing it and its sacred on page 320, of the tenth volume of the character, they merely write to say Memoirs and Correspondence, political $ Lething new and startling. “We as well as military, of King Josephleave them and pass on."
the last volume of which has just apTte elder brother of Napoleon was peared in Paris. 1.4.; of their opinion. In many of his Joseph expresses similar views in a kters, written from his exile in the letter to Francis Lieber, which follows United States, he expresses the idea that in the mentioned volume, immediately Napoleon was a dictator--a real lover after that to Count Thibeaudeau. Inof Aberty, forced by foreign enemies to deed, he endorsed a copy of the latter 2ssume the sole power of the State ; & in that to the former. power developed by the wars into which We consider these two letters of great he was driven, to such an extent, that in interest, if they are not important in & Measure it overpowered himself. Jo- point of historical facts. We shall give se;sh Bonaparte has repeatedly expressed the translation of the one to Mr. Lieber, this idea, especially in an elaborate letter in this paper, feeling assured that its pety Count Thibeaudeau, who had stated rusal will prove the propriety of insertin his history, that Napoleon had caused
ing it. France to retrograde in the path of lib- When Lieber had resolved to write eroy. But we must confess, that the the Encyclopædia Americana, he wished ides of a dictatorship in Napoleon seems to turn the presence of Napoleon's Lut to have been very clear in the mind brother in this country to good account, 0: t.at able, benevolent, and otherwise with reference to some disputed facts in ex ar-headed and liberal' brother of the the great period which had just ended, ezeror;* for, in the same letter to and regarding which Joseph Bonaparte
v.at Thibeaudeau, he shows that the had it in his power to give bim light. are idea of the “ Cæsars," successfully He wrote, therefore, at once to Count TET, sed with its blighting associations, Survilliers, asking him whether he - our own times, was also floating in would allow him occasionally to apply
Gencral Lamarque, in a letter to Joseph, in which he enumerates all the good the latter had done to ap-s, bus this observation: * Unable to establish political liberty, you endeavored to let your subjects en4-5 as the benefits of a municipal government (a government of incorporated cities and the self-manageLes or communes), which you considered as the foundation of all institutions." To have seen and done 2.8, \, for a king and Frenchman of that time, and for a brother of Napoleon, inore reputable than the ps of a vátry. Every statesman will admit that this redounds to the highest honor of Joseph's mind od character. + The le ter is dated, Point-Breeze, 19th May, 1829.
to him for information concerning im- genius of unyielding perseverance in a portant facts in his own, or his brother's high career, be called brilliant.
Napolife. The answer was friendly and lib- leon, on the other hand is, possibly, the eral, and produced a correspondence, of most brilliant character of all modern which a number of letters are now in times. Glory was his very idol. Washthe hands of Lieber. Possibly they ington was throughout his life a selfmay be published. It seems that Joseph limiting man; Napoleon was ever a selfretained copies of all his letters; at any stimulating man. The fever of grandeur rate, a copy of the letter which has been consumed bin. Washington was obementioned must have been among the dient to the law, a law-abiding inan if papers of the man, who, twice king, ever there was one; Napoleon conlived among us an esteemed and beloved stantly broke down the law when it apcitizen, full of unpretending and genuine peareč necessary to him, and it appeared kindness.*
to him often so. Washington aided in The emperor himself was desirous of creating a new empire; Napoleon creahaving his reign considered as a dictator- ted, or aimed at creating a new state of ship. This was at least the case in his things. Washington arose out of & exile, where, as it is well-known, and struggle of independencc—a severance was natural, he occupied himself much of colonies from a distant mother-counwith his name and reputation as they try; Napoleon arose out of a fearful inwould appear to posterity. On one oc- ternal revolution. Washington is daily casion he observed : Some people have growing in the affection of history, and said that I ought to have made myself a there is the most remarkable uniformity French Washington.
All that I was of opinion regarding his character; allowed to be was a crowned Washing- there is the greatest difference of opinion ton. For me to imitate Washington regarding Napoleon's, and however many wonld have been a niaiserie." He may admire him, no one loves him, exmennt, undoubtedly, that circumstances cept some survivors, who have received did not allow him to be a Washington. acts of personal kindness at his hands. This is true ; but it is equally true that No man ever loves power merely as he could never have been a Washington, power. We could not even love God were whatever the circumstances might have He only almighty. Washington never been.
persecuted; he imprisoned no opponent, There are no two men in the whole banished no enemy, and when he died breadth of history more unlike to one his hands were upstained like Pericles’; another. Washington's fellow star of the Napoleon banished, imprisoned, and perbinary constellation is William of Nassau, secuted, and developed a system of police, the founder of the Netherlands republic, which must be called stupendous, on acnot Bonaparte, crowned or uncrowned. count of its vastness, completeness, per
Napoleon's and Washington's minds fection, power, and penetrating refineand souls differed no less than their ment—a system pressing to this day on bodies. The one was wholly Anglican, France like an Alp, and which makes all or Teutonic; the other a very type of the that Aristotle writes on the police of Celtic or Iberian. The one great and usurpers appear as the veriest trash. noble as a calm and persevering man of The Dionysian sycophant was a poor duty; the other impetuous, and of flashy bungler, compared to an agent of the brilliancy. Washington has ever ap- French secret police; and, be it well peared to us as the historic model of remembered, this gigantic police system sound common sense, and sterling judg- with the gendarmerie, and all the thonment, coupled with immaculate patriot- sand ramifications, is essentially Napoleism. There was nothing brilliant in onic. It was developed in all its stifling Washington, unless, indeed, the Fabian grande ir under him, and is, unfor
* The writer well remembers with what simplicity Joseph would relate events of his life at the dinner table, often prefacing them with the words : "When I was King of Naples," or " Spain." One day, Mr.
, an old convention-man, who had left France, where he had been well acquainted with the Bonapartes, when Napoleon made himself consul for life, and had lived ever since in South America, dined at PointBreeze. He called Joseph, Thou, in the old republican style ; he spoke freely of Napoleon, and the courtesy of Joseph, sometimes as it seemed to us, fairly tried, appeared most charming. When, that evening, we bade Joseph good night, he said: "un moment," took the candle and showed us to our bed-room. We have often said, and mean it literally, that the two old men, personally most courteous, and putting a visitor most at ease, that we have ever known, were Joseph Bonaparte and General Jackson. It used to be a great enjoyment at Point-Breeze, to walk up and down the room with Joseph Bonaparte, and to hear from him those delightful anecdotes, which are to the philosophic historian or statesman like litto delicate touches in a historic picture, or the nicely modulated accents of a great speaker on a great ques.