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to have been once heard in Westmoreland, and also, in the summer of 1808, near Carlisle; but these assertions must be looked upon with great suspicion, particularly the last, which rests on anonymous authority only. Still more open to doubt are the statements of the Nightingale's occurrence in Scotland, such as Mr. Duncan's (not on his own evidence, be it remarked), published by Macgillivray (' British Birds,' ii. p. 334), respecting a pair believed to have visited Calder Wood in Mid Lothian in 1826; or Mr. Turnbull's (' Birds of East Lothian,' p. 39) of its being heard near Dalmeny Park in the same county in June, 1839. In Ireland there is no trace of this species."
It has long been well known that the male birds arrive in this country many days before the females; but, of twenty-three observations made upon the Nightingale, not one refers to or confirms this fact.
The Nightingale has been pictured by poets and naturalists in various romantic situations, but perhaps never before in so unromantic a spot as "under a bathing-machine "! Yet Mr. Monk states that on the 13th of April, 1872, there were " Nightingales on the beach under the bathing-machines along the whole length of the shore at Brighton." The explanation which suggests itself is that the birds had just arrived, and had sought the first shelter which offered— a woody shelter, it is true, and a shady one, although of a very different kind to that which the birds had been accustomed to.
The observations made upon the Tree Pipit, twenty-one in number, call for no particular comment, save that the direction of the wind at several dates of supposed arrival was from a S.W. or S.E. quarter, corresponding with what has been observed of other migratory birds, and tending to show that they prefer to travel with a side wind rather than with a head wind or the reverse.
In the eastern counties, for example, it was observed that the Tree Pipit arrived in Norfolk with a S.S.E. wind, the temperature being 52*; in Lincolnshire with a wind veering from S. to S.E. and E., the weather dry, cold, and cloudy; in Yorkshire with a S.W. wind, weather fine, and temperature 47'50. It was first observed at Bushey, in Hertfordshire, as if arriving directly from the eastward, on the 8th of April; and was last heard at Ratham, near the coast of Sussex, on Sept. 15. The furthest point north at which it was noted was near Stirling on May 1. In Ireland it is unknown.
In the case of the Sedge Warbler, we again remark observations on the wind at the presumed dates of arrival in all respects confirmatory of what has been already stated. Four good observers in the counties of Norfolk, Lincoln, Derby, and York noted the direction of the wind when first meeting with this bird as S.S.E., S.W., S.E., and S.S.W., respectively. No record of its occurrence in 1872 either in Scotland or Ireland was received. The general period of its arrival in England seems to be during the last fortnight of April.
About the same period arrives the Yellow Wagtail, or Ray's Wagtail, as it is called by many, respecting which bird sixteen observations were received from different parts of the country. It does not appear to have been met with further north than Wakefield, and no notice was taken of it by correspondents in Scotland and Ireland.
The Wryneck, or Cuckoo's-mate, long preceded the Cuckoo in the date of its arrival, having been heard at Reigate as early as March 31, and at Ratham, in Sussex, on April 2. On the 6th and 7th of the latter month it was observed at several localities in Norfolk, and its appearance generally throughout England in 1872 seems to have been noted during the first fortnight of April. Mr. Lister states that, although found in the neighbourhood of Barnsley in previous years, it was not observed there in 1872.
The Nightjar seems to have been generally met with throughout the country as far west as Llandderfel, in Merionethshire, and as far north as Garvoch, in Perthshire. Mr. Gatcombe observed it in the neighbourhood of Plymouth on April 10, but this must be regarded as an exceptionally early date, for the majority of my correspondents did not meet with it until quite the end of April and beginning of May. On the 15th of June Mr. P. Henderson found two young Nightjars on Tents Muir, Fife, amidst a colony of terns (!), and kept them alive for some time on moths, worms, and pieces of raw meat.
The Wheatear and Whinchat received an equal share of attention in the fifteen observations upon each which were forwarded. The first-named appeared at Plymouth as early as March 6, but the observer in this instance, Mr. Gatcombe, states that he hardly ever knew it so early before. It was observed, however, on the same day at Feltwell, Norfolk, by Mr. Upcher; and Mr. Rope reports that in 1871 he saw it at Leiston, in Suffolk, on March 2. In 1872 in the same neighbourhood it did not arrive until March 18, and was much scarcer than in former years. The calendars enable one to trace it that year as far north as Falkirk,