Imagens das páginas

children' till he knows the detail of the circumstances in which they are left; and yet Buonaparte is not ashamed to say,

• Sir Hudson Lowe obliges me to sell my plate in order to purchase the NECESSARIES of life, which he either denies altogether, or supplies in quantities so small as to be insufficient.'—vol. i. p. 153.

So blind is the malice of the hero and the historian, that BuoDaparte's own mouth furnishes an additional and direct contradiction to this very statement! Our readers will recollect, that Santini's Appeal was chiefly founded on this point, and that he echoed very loudly the foregoing statement of his master, namely, that he was in want of the necessaries of life, such as eggs, butter, and milk, and was forced to sell his plate to buy them. It happened, (not unfortunately for the honour of the country) that Lord Holland was credulous enough to believe Santini, and to make that speech in the House of Lords which drew forth Lord Bathurst's triumphant reply. This answer of Lord Bathurst, and the "scurrilous strictures of the Quarterly Review,' operated a miracle, that neither his lordship nor we foresaw :-provisions grew.suddenly cheap in St. Helena—the hens began to laythe cows gave additional quantities of milk and butter—the ne cessaries of life became abundant, and no more of the imperial plate was broken up to procure them : nay, Buonaparte became so ashamed of his own sentiments in Santini's mouth, that he said to O'Meara,

• Santini has published a brochure full of trash; there are some truths in it, BUT EVERY THING IS EXAGGERATED ; there was always enough to exist upon, but not enough for a good table?-vol. ii. p. 76. And again

Napoleon read a copy of Santini's pamphlet in French, observing as he went through it, according as the passages seemed to deserve it, true, partly true, FALSE, STUFF, &c.—vol. ii. p. 93.

Fie, general ! is this the way you treat your friends and advocates ? As to your contradicting yourself we say nothing, as you could not be aware that your surgeon—who bad sworu to forget, the moment he left you, whatever you might say~-would have hastened to his closet to write it down; and still less could you have suspected, that he would have exposed all your little foibles and inconsistencies to the same scurrilous Quarterly Reviewers, under whose lash your imperial temper had already winced.

In the same style, we find, towards the conclusion of O'Meara's book, that the fable of starvation having failed, a new grievance was in progress; and a chronic hepatitis, or liver complaint, was in preparation, and the magnanimous sufferer had already expressed his gracious intentions of being severely afflicted with


that complaint. On the Bd of October, 1817, O'Meara discovers the first symptoms of the hepatitis,' as his index calls it. Now let us pause a moment, to see how he deals with this complaint. Nothing is so remarkable all through the preceding parts of the work, as the minute medical details which O'Meara introduces, and the importance he attaches to the most trifling indispositions ; a slight cholic is gravely registered from its appear. ance to its departure, with all the salts and broths and chicken water employed against so formidable an invader. (vol. i. pp. 114. 118. 120.) If the patient has a swelled gum, the progress of the alarming disease, and the treatment by acescent food and an acid gargle,' is carefully noted. (i. 153. 164.) Has he tooth-ache! it is announced with suitable

pomp • October 23, 1816.- Napoleon indisposed : one of his cheeks considerably tumified (Anglice, a swelled face). Recommended fomentation, and steaming the part affected ; recommended also the extraction of a carious tooth, and renewed the advice I had given on many previous occasions, particularly relative to exercise, as soon as the reduc-' tion of the swelling permitted it, also a continuance of diet, chiefly vegetable with fruits.'—vol. i. p. 169.

Some time after he gets a cold; the progress of this terrifying disease is recorded with equal anxiety :

Five o'clock, sent for me; found him sitting in a chair opposite the fire. (wonderful!). He had gone out to walk, and bad been seized with rigors (Anglicè, shivering), head ache, severe cough; examined his tonsils, which were swelled. Cheek inflamed. Had several rigors whilst I was present ; pulse much quickened. Recommended warm. fomentations to his cheek, a liniment to his throat, warm diluents, a gargarism, pediluvium (Anglice, bathing his feet), and total abstinence. Saw him again at nine, in bed,' &c.-(vol. i. pp. 178–181. 190.) and so on in a hundred other places.

Our readers wonder what we mean by quoting all this stuff, which would not even interest an apothecary's boy; but they will agree, we think, with us, that all this bustle about colds, toothaches, and sore gums, leads to a most important conclusion ; for as soon as the chronic hepatilis-a fatal disease, as we shall see by and by-appears, O'Meara throws away, at once, his medical dictionary, and having arrived at the only serious illness which his patient has had, bę suddenly acquaints us that,

. As it is not the intention of the author to tire the reader with the detail of a medical journal, the enumeration of the symptoms will be ici the future discontinued, unless where absolutely necessary.'-vol.13. postele 257. No doubt the medical journal of hepatitis would tire the readei,

as the medical journal of cholic and cough had already done; but the details of a hepatitis which never existed might be a little difficult to manage. Some light will be thrown on this part of the subject by quoting a passage from a letter of Sir Hudson Lowe to Count Bertrand, dated April 21, 1818, and which O'Meara or his friend published in the Morning Chronicle of the 24th of August of the same year.

* Your letter states that “ Napoleon Buonaparte has been sick these seven months of a chronic disease of the liver." To a question put to Mr. O'Meara on the 25th of March, one month ago, he replied, after a great deal of hesitation and unwillingness to name any specific disorder, saying, at first, a derangement of the biliary system,—that “ if called on to give it a name, he should call it an incipient hepatitis; and that even this might have been wholly avoided by taking exercise as he had recommended." ;

This doubtful testimony as to incipient hepatitis was given, as our readers will observe, just six months after the recorded existence of the disease in its confirmed state! O'Meara, however, was soon relieved from any treatment of this chronic hepatitis ; but immediately on his arrival in England, the following paragraph appeared in a paper printed at Portsmouth where he landed.

• Mr. O'Meara lést Buonaparte in a very dangerous state of health his complaint is a confirmed disease of the liver, which his dull inactive life contributes most powerfully to increase—the liver is greatly enlarged, and discovers a tendency to give pain, which we understand is the next stage of the disorder towards suppuration and the destruction of life.'

It was in July, 1818, that O'Meara left his patient in the stage of the disorder next to the destruction of life, yet it is not till two years and a quarter after, in September, 1820, that we find Count Bertrand beginning to make the expected use of the chronic hepatitis; he writes a pathetic letter to Lord Liverpool to acquaint his lordship, that the patient can no longer struggle against the malignity of the climate; that all the time he remains in this abode will only be a state of painful agony; that a RETURN to Europe is the only means by which he can experience any relief.'-vol. ii. p. 503.

But while all these worthy persons were thus endeavouring to excite sympathy for a fictitious malady of the climate, a real hereditary disease made its appearance, and, after about six months progress, terminated fatally on the 5th of May, 1821. The symptoms of this disease had, as we learn from the testimony of his medical attendant, no resemblance whatever to hepatitis.

10th April, 1821. -Buonaparte placed his hand over the liver, and " said to me le foie ; upon which, although I had done it before and

given my opinion that there was no disease of the liver, I again examined . the right hypochondriac region, and not finding any indication or fulness 6 whatever-(though O'Meara had found symptoms of suppuration three

years before) —and judging from the symptoms in general, I told him that I did not apprehend that there was any disease of the liver; that perhaps there might be a little want of action in it.'-Arnott's Account of the last Illness of Napoleon Buonuparte, p.9.

On opening the body, it was found that the patient had died of a disease which is affected by no climate—a cancer, or schirrous state of the stomach; and the report of five surgeons, who examined the viscera, testifies that * with the exception of the adhesion occasioned by the disease of the stomach (of which he died), no unhealthy appearance presented itself in the LIVER.'-Arnott's Account, p. 26. and Dr. Arnott further states, on Buonaparte's own authority, that his father died of a similar complaint; and it has been reported, and never, that we know of, contradicted, that he had himself always been suspicious of some disease of this nature.

If these facts be so, our readers will know what to think of Mr. O'Meara's chronic hepatitis of 1817, and of the prudent fear that just then seized him of tiring his readers with medical details. We do not mean to say that Buonaparte may not have been affected in 1817 by the first approaches of the complaint of which he died in 1821--that is a question which never can be decided; but it is certain that he had no disease of the liver, no illness induced by the climate, and that O'Meara's statements upon this point are just as true as the rest of his book. We should not have approached this subject at all, if duty had not obliged us. The thoughts of Buonaparte, reduced to that state to which we must all come, subdues all feeling of personal hostility: We rejoice not,' to use the beautiful sentiment of Ecclesiasticus,

over our greatest enemy being dead, but remember that we die all.' Against his triumphal car, we raised our feeble efforts; but we follow with different feelings his hearse; and we should not, in an article written, as this is, with a strong spirit of hostility towards the actions of a living man, have alluded to the last scene of his career, if Mr. O'Meara had not, in his Appendix, inserted the letters which we have quoted, and suppressed the report of the persons who opened the body, clearly with no other view than to give countenance to his own imposture of chronic hepatitis, and to confirm the false idea which his whole book inculcates—that the climate of his inhospitable prison, and the conduct of his barbarous keepers, had prematurely terminated the life of Buonaparte. We, on the contrary, feel,--and in this and in several preceding articles have, we hope, proved, that he was treated R4


with as much respect as was due to his station, and with as much indulgence as was consistent with his security;—that the British nation, whose children he had for twenty years imprisoned and slaughtered, and whose general ruin he had, by force and fraud, invariably pursued, forgot the despot in the prisoner; and remembered, in their treatment of him, no more of his former power, than was necessary to guard against his resumption of it.

To this we add our mature and solemn opinion that, in accordance with this national generosity, those who had the painful responsibility of his custody, bore with exemplary patience and forbearance the accumulated provocations with which he assiduously insulted them; and never gave him or his partizans any cause for their complaints, except their judicious vigilance to prevent his escape, and their steady refusal to acknowledge his imperial dignity.


Page 49, 1. 20. for Pope, read Roscommon.
In exchanging the couplet of the former for that of Roscommon, as more familiar, the
Hame was overlooked. Pope's lines are-

• No pardon rile obscenity should find,
Though wit and art conspire to move the mind.'

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