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mation, which Mr. English received in Sennaar, would seem to contirm it. The source of the Adit (so the people of Sennaar call the river that runs by their city) (meaning the Azrek] is in the Gibel el Gumera, (that great range of mountains called the Mountains of the Moon,) about sixty days march of a camel from Sennaar, in a direction nearly south. It receives, at various distances above Sennaar, several smaller rivers, which come from Abyssinia and from the mountains south of Sennaar'; and this seems to be the opinion of Mr. English. With regard to the course of the Abiad he has not collected much satisfactory information. He was told it was nearly parallel with that of the Adit, (Azrek,) but that its source was much farther off, among the Gibel.el Gumera; that it is augmented by the junction of three other rivers, one from the south-west, and two others from the east, running from the mountains south of Sennaar. Here is some confusion in the direction of their courses, which it would be useless to attempt to unravel. It is quite clear, however, that the source of the main branch is not in the same mountains with that of the Azrek, as, notwithstanding it is stated to be farther off, the inundation preceded that of the Azrek nearly a whole month. There is something peculiar likewise in its waters. 1... The “ Adit,” or Nile of Bruce, enters the Bahar el Abiud'nearly at right angles, but such is the mass of the latter river, that the Nile cannot mingle its waters with those of the Bahar el Abiud for many miles below their junction. The waters of the Adit are almost black during the season of its augmentation; those of the Bahar el Abiud, on the contrary, are white: so that for several miles below their junction, the eastern part of the river is black, and the western is white. This white colour of the Bahar el Abiud is occasioned by a very fine white clay with which its waters are impregnated.'--p.196.

In this muddy state it is said to possesss also the peculiar quality of being grateful to the taste in a very extraordinary degree, which is confirmed by Mr. English.

• The water of the Bahar el Abiud is troubled and whitish, and has à peculiar sweetish taste. The soldiers said that “ the water of the Bahar el Abiud would not quench thirst.” This notion probably arose from the circumstance that they were never tired of drinking it, it is so light and sweet. The water of the Nile is at present perfectly pure and transparent, but by no means so agreeable to the palate as that of the Babar el Abiud, as I experimented myself, drinking first of the Bahar el Abiud, and then walking about two hundred yards across the point, and drinking of the Nile, the water of which appeared to me hard and tasteless in comparison.

• Nothing of the kind could be easier than to ascend the Bahar el Abiud from the place where we are. A canja, well manned and armed, and accompanied by another boat containing provisions for four or six


months, and both furnished with grapnells to enable them at 'night to anchor in the river, might, in my opinion, ascend and return securely: as the tribes on its borders have great dread of fire-arms, and will bardly dare to meddle with those who carry them.'--pp. 150, 151.

We have little doubt that the Bahr el Abiad is that great branch of the Nile which Edrisi, in his loose and inaccurate manner, describes as going to the sea in the farthest west, instead of coming from the farthest west, which is his obvious meaning; just as Messrs. Waddington and Hanbury make the Nile run to the south, though every one knows they meant that it came from

that quarter.

From M. Cailliaud we are not likely to learn much respecting this interesting river. It would seem, from a letter of this gentleman,* that there was not sufficient temptation to induce the pasha to trace the line of the Abiad ; les mines s'étant trouvées trop pauvres, il en est résulté un obstacle pour ce voyage.' In other respects, however, we may expect a good deal of curious information from his travels, provided we are allowed to have them genuine. After a residence of five months in Sennaar, he set out with the army, in November, 1821, traversed the province of Fazoële, (called Fazucle in the charts,) and following the Bahr el Azrek, entered the kingdom of Bertot, on the western side of that river, which extends westerly to the kingdom of Bourun, and is bounded on the south by that of Dar-foke. The whole country is extremely mountainous, covered with dense forests, and almost impassable; yet the pasha led his army through it, mounting his cannon on the backs of camels, for three or four hundred niles, pursuing, plundering, and carrying off the miserable inhabitants'. In Gamenil, between Bertot and Dar-foke, the natives collect a small quantity of gold dust from the sand brought down by the rivers :

: they are all pagans, and M. Cailliaud says he discovered aniong them many customs which resemble those of the ancient Egyptians. At a place called Singué, in the latter kingdom, situated under the 10th parallel of latitude, and five days journey to the westward of the confines of Abyssinia, the conquests of Ismael Pasha terminated.

M. Cailliaud fully confirms our opinion that the Babr el Azrek does not take its rise in Gondar, but to the westward of Abyssinia. The two considerable rivers, the Tournât and the Jabousse, which flow from Abyssinia into the Bahr el Azrek, the latter of them at the distance of two days and a half to the southward of Fazoële, render it impossible, notwithstanding the fine circular sweep which Bruce has given to the upper part of the Azrek,

* Published

the · Annales des Voyages' of Malte-Brun,


(and which he borrowed from the Portugueze jesuit Tellez) that it should have its rise in any part of Abyssinia, and prove that it must proceed from the mountains far to the westward; ‘and this circunstance must necessarily throw the source and the line of the Bahr el Abiad to a great westerly distance beyond that which is usually but gratuitously assigned to them on the charts. M. Cailliaud, in fact, states this to be the case; and adds, the information which I have as to the course of the Bahr el Abiad inclines me to believe that it communicates with the Niger.'

M. Jomard, however, knows better than either M. Cailliaud or Mr. English, and boldly pronounces the thing impossible, or, as he says, contrary to the laws of nature. First, because we must in that case suppose, a length of course equal to 6000 miles; secondly, because there is no longitudinal chain of mountains, which is peculiar to all continents; and, thirdly, because the fall or slope inust be almost nothing in such a distance, and, which is still more inadmissible, there is an elbow in the middle of its course forming an acute angle;—to all which, he tells us, may be added the well-known law of running waters-namely, that the fall (pente) of a river decreases from the source to the mouth nearly in a geometrical progression.

Humble as our opinion is of M. Jomard's talents or judgment, we could scarcely have supposed him capable of forming such erroneous and vague reasons against opinions collected and formed on the spot. In the first place, instead of a course of 6000 miles, the distance from Bammakoo to Alexandria, following the supposed course of the river, is not quite 4000 miles. What he means by his longitudinal chain, we shall not undertake to develope, after Malte-Brun has declared it beyond his comprehension; but we think he might be satisfied with that belt which on Arrowsmith's chart is hung across Africa in its widest part, like a necklace of black beads. The slope, we have elsewhere shown, (No. XLIV.) may be calculated on an average at about six inches per mile. As to the illustration of his theory by the fall of the Nile at Cairo being seven inches in a league, and more than twenty-one inches at Syene, it amounts merely to this that the Nile, in tumbling down the cataracts of Syene, has more fall and runs more rapidly than at Cairo--but is M. Jomard ignorant that the Nile is perfectly navigable 300 miles above Sennaar, which it could not be if his geometrical theory, of the fall of rivers being expressed by a logarithm,' was worth any thing? Is he ignorant that, at the junction of the Bahr el Azrek and the Bahr Abiad, the latter, the main branch of the Nile, is represented by Bruce as nearly stagnant--a dead-flowing river? which is not contradicted either by English or Cailliaud--but rather proved by



the facility with which the animals and part of the army swam it; whereas, by his theory, being as far above Syene, as that place is above Cairo, it ought to flow with a descent of seven and twenty times as much as at Cairo. As to the inadmissible acute-angled elbow," Mr. English has informed us that this angle, which the Bahr el Abiad makes with the Azrek above the junction, is W. N. W. or 67oi, and with it, below the junction, 112°1; but whether acute, obtuse or right-angled, it is equally inexplicable to us what any of them have to do with the question; and we can only consider his objections to be frivolous, and his theory nonsensical.

There is still a hope that some more decisive information may shortly be obtained on this subject. Captain Robert James Gordon, of the Royal Navy, left Cairo in May last, for the purpose of ascertaining the source of the Bahrel Abiad. He is alone, and sets out with a full determination never to return without making some important discoveries. If,' says he, I should find it advisable for my purpose to travel as the slave of some black merchant, I will most gladly do so, for I feel there is no retreating from what I have undertaken to perform-en avant is my motto, and trust to fortune!' On the other side we have reason to believe, that Doctor Oudney and Lieutenant Clapperton have long before this reached Bornou, and are probably on their way from thence towards the Nile of Egypt. A residence at Mourzouk of several months neither affected their health nor disinclined them towards the place or the people ; but they seem better qualified to take care of themselves than was poor Ritchie.

To return to Mr. English. In thirteen days from the junction of the Abiad with the Azrek, and in marching along the left or western bank of the latter, the army reached Sennaar.

The intervening country is a mesopotamian plain, of immense extent and great fertility, covered with numerous villages, some of them very large, containing probably from four to five thousand inhabitants. No verdure seemed to succeed to the dhurrah crops, which were now off the ground. The better kind of houses were built of unburnt bricks, with terraced roofs; the others were covered like the Tartar tent, and thatched.

When arrived within six days march of Sennaar, the Pasha was met by an ambassador from the sultan, a handsome young man, accompanied by a numerous suite mounted on dromedaries. This, however, did not stop the army from pursuing its route, steadily marching in order of battle, the infantry in the centre, the cavalry on the wings, the artillery in advance of the centre, and the baggage in the rear. Thus they proceeded within two days march of Sennaar, when another deputation arrived, consisting of


thousand prisoners, consisting almost entirely of women and children. The first ten days of Achmet's rapid inarch were southwest of Sennaar, through a well peopled country between the Azrek and the Abiad, when he reached the mountains of Bokki, inhabited by pagans, whose chief had rejected the pasha's letter. Here he found vast multitudes assembled with spears and swords, who fought bravely, but being hemmed in by the Turkish cavalry, about fifteen hundred of them were put to the sword. The rest effected their escape up the steep and rugged mountains, and Cogia returned with what prisoners he had taken, after stripping the villages of their women and children.

The people of Bokki are represented as a hardy race of mountaineers, tall, stout and handsome, though nearly black; resembling in their dress the Indians of South America, being covered almost with beads, bracelets, and trinkets made of pebbles, bones, and ivory: The men wore handsome helmets of iron, coats of mail made of leather and overlaid with plates of iron, carried long and well-fashioned lances, and a hand weapon resembling the ancient bills used by the yeomanry of England. They called a musquet, which they had never seen before, a coward's weapon, that killed by an invisible stroke. The female prisoners were in possession of many gold rings and bracelets, of which the soldiers quickly disencumbered them. | Mr. English's ophthalmia continuing, and finding himself not likely to be of any use, he obtained permission to return; and passed the desert without meeting with any of the dangers, the difficulties, and the extraordinary phenomena that occurred to Bruce, in a journey made pretty nearly over the same ground. We take leave of him with extracting his concluding remarks on the characteristic features of the people among whom he was thrown, and which may enable our readers to form a pretty general estimate of the people of Nubia and Ethiopia.

There is a considerable resemblance, in domestic customs, among all the peoples who inhabit the borders of the Nile, from Assuan to Sen

They differ, however, somewhat in complexion and character. The people of the province of Succoot are generally not so black as the Nubian or the Dongolese. They are also frank and prepossessing in their deportment. The Dongolese is dirty, idle, and ferocious. The character of the Shageian is the same, except that he is not idle, being either an industrious peasant or a daring freebooter. The people on the Third Cataract are not very industrious, but have the character of being honest and obliging. The people of Berber are by far the most civilized of all the people of the Upper Nile. The inhahitants of the provinces of Shendi and Halfya are a sullen, scowling, crafty, and ferocious people; while the peasants of Sennaar, inhabiting the villages we found on our route, are a respectable people in comparison with those of



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