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LIFE AND PONTIFICATE
LEO THE TENTH.
BY WILLIAM ROSCOE.
REVISED BY HIS SON,
IN TWO VOLUMES.
HENRY G. BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN.
LIFE OF LEO THE TENTH.
Francis I. assumes the title of Duke of Milan-Forms an alliance with the archduke Charles-with Henry VIII.-And with the Venetian stateLeo X. wishes to remain neuter-Marriage of Giuliano de' Medici with Filiberta of Savoy-Confidential letter to him from the cardinal da Bibbiena -Leo X. compelled to take a decisive part-Accedes to the league against France-Revolt of Fregoso at Genoa-He attempts to justify his conduct to the pope-Preparations of Francis I. for attacking the Milanese-Forces of the allies-The league proclaimed-Genoa surrenders to the French fleet-Prospero Colonna surprised and made prisoner-The pope relaxes in his opposition to Francis I.-The Swiss resolve to oppose the FrenchFrancis I. summons the city of Milan to surrender-Endeavours without effect to form an alliance with the Swiss-Rapid march of D'AlvianoInactivity of the Spanish and papal troops-Battle of Marignano-Francis I. knighted by the chevalier Bayard-Surrender of the Milanese-Leo X. forms an alliance with Francis I.-Embassy from the Venetians to the French king -Death of D'Alviano-Wolsey raised to the rank of cardinal-Leo X. visits Florence-Rejoicings and exhibitions on that occasion-Procession of the pope -He visits the tomb of his father-Arrives at Bologna-His interview with Francis I.-Particular occurrences on that occasion-Abolition of the Pragmatic Sanction and establishment of the Concordat-Leo X. returns to Florence -Raffaello Petrucci obtains the chief authority in Siena-Death of Giuliano de' Medici-Escape of the pope from barbarian corsairs at Civita Lavinia.
ALTHOUGH the death of Louis XII. had for the present relieved the Roman pontiff from the apprehensions which he had entertained for the repose of Italy, yet that event was by no means favourable to his views. By the united efforts of his spiritual arms, and his temporal allies, Leo had not only repressed the ambitious designs of the French monarch, but had acquired an
ascendency over him which might have been converted to very important purposes: and if he could not induce the king to relinquish his designs upon Milan, yet he had made such arrangements as to be prepared for whatever might be the event of that expedition. By the death of this monarch he therefore lost in a great degree the result of his labours; and this he had the more reason to regret, as the Duke of Angoulême, who succeeded to the crown at the age of twenty-two years, by the name of Francis 1., was of a vigorous constitution, an active disposition, and courageous even to a romantic extreme. On assuming the title of king of France, he forgot not to add that of Duke of Milan; but although the salique law had preferred him to the two daughters of Louis XII. as the successor of that monarch, the sovereignty of Milan was considered, under the imperial investiture, as the absolute inheritance of the late king, and liable to be disposed of at his own pleasure. Preparatory to the negotiation which had taken place for the marriage of Renée, youngest daughter of Louis XII., with the archduke Charles, her father had made a grant to her of the duchy of Milan, and the county of Pavia, with a limitation, in case of her dying without offspring, to his eldest daughter Claudia, the Queen of Francis I.* Soon after the accession of Francis, the queen, therefore, by a solemn diploma, transferred to the king her rights to the duchy of Milan and its dependent states; in consideration, as it appears, of a grant previously made to her of the duchies of Aragon and Angoulême, and the stipulation on the part of Francis of providing a suitable match for the princess Renée.†
The character of Francis I. was a sufficient pledge that the title which he had thus assumed would not long be suffered to remain merely nominal. From his infancy he had been accustomed to hear of the achievements of his countrymen in Italy. The glory of Gaston de Foix seemed to obscure his own reputation, and at the recital of the battles of Brescia and of Ravenna, he is said to have expressed all those emotions of impatient regret which Cæsar felt on contemplating the statue of Alexander. He was, however, sufficiently aware, that before he engaged in an enterprise of such importance as the conquest of
* Dumont, tom iv. par. i. p. 177. Lünig, i. 522. Dumont, iv. par. i. p. 211.