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command even the de most ost moderate share of attention, and have been forced into a temporary suspension of their labours. With the exception of a new and handsome library edition of the works of Schiller, and a few other re prints of standard works, there is little to attract attention in the Leipsic catalogue. But even irrespective of the more than ordinary languor in the publishing world here, attributable to obvious causes, it may be with con fidence affirmed, that an important change is at present passing over the face of the German literary world. The romantic spirit of adventurous speculation is fast dying away; and that play with hypotheses, which stamps every German philosophical system with the boldness, but immateriality, of one of Beethoven's symphonies, is becoming more and more rare. The popular mind is growing decidedly averse to abstract disquisition, and beginning to assume a much more practical tone than heretofore. Every theory, be its subject what it may, is now investigated with a keen eye to its political or national-economical results.
No system of transcendental philosophy can now command attention, from which canons may not be deduced, bearing directly on the necessity of popular representation or the Law of Divorce. No theory of Ethics can hope to find much favour, which does not assign to the political responsibility of ministers a prominent place amongst the moral responsibilities of man in a social state. Even the German annals are now ransacked for events whereon to hinge modern sympathies. The celebration a few days since, of the 300th anniversary of the foundation of the Königsberg University, was certainly altogether in this spirit, and far more a political demonstration than a display of filial veneration for an antiquated Alma Mater. In this instance, indeed, a collision took place between the Prussian Minister of Instruction, Dr. Eickhorn, and the Prorector of the University, Dr. Burdach, which sufficiently attests the presence of a strong polemical feeling. In the course of his address to the senate, the minister, after reprobating the oppositional spirit, which has long distinguished the acts of many members of this university, recommended them to amend their conduct, and for the future appeal for forgiveness of the past to the unbounded clemency of his Majesty, who had come in person to do honour to the occasion. He was here stopped by the prorector with the words " Clemency is only for the criminal I cannot permit such language in these halls." The damaging effect of this interlude to a minister, who has long been highly unpopular, can hardly be described; and the timidity which forces the censorship to suppress a correct statement of the facts, only provokes every species of exaggeration in the verbal accounts current.
Whilst on the subject of anniversaries, I may as well allude to a royal cabinet order which has just appeared, instituting a quinquennial prize of one thousand thalers, to be conferred on the author of the best historical work, in the German language, on any subject of German history, and vesting the decision in nine members of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This royal foundation is stated to be in commemoration of the thousandth anniversary of the treaty of Verdun. There is, however, considerable ambiguity in the wording of the cabinet order. Thus it does not appear whether the same author is to continue to receive the prize until outstripped by some more fortunate competitor; nor whether recondite research or a popular style is to obtain the preference.
Amongst the many incidents which characterise the prevalent tone of feeling, a drama entitled Moritz von Sachsen,' from the pen of the poet Prutz, deserves mention. The author has long been one of the most decidedly liberal writers, and a prominent contributor to the Hallische Jahrbücher,' which were some years since suppressed. It was well known that the poli
tical tendency of the drama was not the least of its perfections, and it therefore occasioned some surprise that it should be announced for representation on the stage of the Prussian capital. The piece was actually produced, after being subjected to some mutilation, and was too successful to admit of being a second time performed, though announced for repetition. In this instance success proved fatal.
A very amusing book has just appeared in Leipsic, and been confiscated by the Saxon government, out of courtesy to Prussia, entitled Humor auf der Anklagebank,' or 'Humour in the Dock,' being the defence of a popular satirical writer, Wallesrode, by himself, in which he seeks to vindicate himself against the charges of high treason, sedition, and other high crimes and misdemeanors, for which he is being at present under prosecution, in consequence of passages contained in a recent work, entitled Unterthänige Reden,' for which I can offer no English equivalent.
The subject of international copyright between England and Prussia is at present actively canvassed, and engages a considerable share of the attention of the Prussian government and British embassy here. It is, however, very difficult to see how any solid advantages are to be obtained without the concurrence of all the minor German states; and even then the subject presents difficulties which seem hardly surmountable.
Permit me now, before concluding, to glance at the leading events of a political nature, to which I have already alluded. Their mere recapitulation will tend to justify such meagre gleanings from the world of letters. Commencing with the visit or visitation of that imperial traveller, who has obtained throughout Germany the characteristic surname of 'The Sudden,' we find the memorable Castel convention for the extradition of Russian prisoners renewed. This is a point on which Germany is the more sensitive, as instead of concessions for so great a boon, four consecutive Ukases have since appeared of a more isolating character than ever. Next followed an almost unparalleled crisis in the monetary world, produced by the most unintelligible government measures connected with railway speculation, which had the effect of creating a rise and fall of about twenty per cent. in these securities within the space of a few weeks, and thereby entailing immense losses on a vast number of private individuals who had been tempted to invest their capital in this stock. On the heels of this catastrophe followed the serious disturbances in the manufacturing districts, from the contagion of which even the capital has not been altogether free, and then the insane attempt on the life of the king and queen. And then, to complete the sad catalogue, the frightful inundations in Silesia, which have deprived upwards of twelve thousand individuals of the ordinary means of sustenance. The sympathy with these unhappy sufferers is great, and his majesty has humanely withheld his annual donation of 100,000 thalers for the Cologne cathedral for this year, and devoted it to the relief of his afflicted subjects in Silesia.
The grand exhibition of German manufactures originally limited to the states belonging to the customs league, but subsequently made to embrace Germany in general, has been now open for public inspection for some weeks. It is held in a splendid arsenal, and is considered by some as not much inferior to its Parisian rival. There can be no question but it will give a vast impetus to German manufacturing industry, which now, through the recent convention with Belgium, has obtained a well situated port, and, under the auspices of the newly organised Prussian Board of Trade, cannot fail of becoming a still more dangerous rival of England. A slight reduction in the Prussian inland postage, to take effect from the 1st of October, is stated to be but the prelude of still more extensive reductions.
MISCELLANEOUS LITERARY NOTICES.
A COPENHAGEN journal has published the will of the celebrated sculptor Thorwaldsen. The document bears the date of the 5th of December, 1838. One of the clauses is as follows:-'I bequeath to my native city, Copenhagen, all the objects of art belonging to me, those in Copenhagen as well as those in Rome, consisting of statues, bas-reliefs, antique vases, prints, &c. It is my wish that all should be collected together to form a museum, which shall bear my name.' Next follow some behests relative to the heirs of the testator. On the 25th of January, 1843, the testator modified the first will bequeathing to the museum all the property he might die possessed of, except about 4000 rix-thalers to be otherwise disposed of. The works of art are to be placed in the museum, (as stated in the first will,) and the remaining property is to be sold and the capital invested:-the interest to be laid out in commissions to Danish artists, with the view of promoting the advancement of the fine arts in Denmark. The works commissioned are to belong to the museum, and a catalogue of the collection is to be printed. Thorwaldsen directs one of his executors, Professor Bissen, of Copenhagen, to complete the works he has left unfinished at his death; the expense is to be defrayed out of the funds of the museum.
Letters received in Paris from Constantinople, dated July, contain some interesting information relative to M. Botta's recent discoveries at Khorsabad, near Nineveh. Eugène Flandin, an artist, has been sent out by the French government for the purpose of making drawings of the excavations which are actively going on. Botta has discovered two doors uniformly adorned with bas-reliefs: on one side is represented a colossal bull, with a human head, and on the other a human figure with an eagle's head and wings. These doors are fifteen feet in height, and they open into a hall 120 feet long. The only wall which is yet cleared from rubbish (that on the south side), is covered with a series of bas-reliefs, representing battles, explained by inscriptions. The hill on which this building stands is surrounded by a stone wall, with bastions. Botta is now actively exploring these ruins ; he has fifty labourers at work, and it is hoped that in the space of ten months to lay open the whole. He has ascertained that there is, on the direct road from Nineveh to Khorsabad, a chain of hills covered with fragments of brick and marble bearing inscriptions. He infers that these hills were formerly the bases of palaces, and that Khorsabad was a fortress situated at the extremity of the city. The quadrangular space, which is surrounded by the wall, and which contains the hill of Jonas, has hitherto been supposed to include the whole extent of the city of Nineveh. But M. Botta considers it more probable that this space was only the great court of the palace, whilst the city extended as far as the hill of Khorsabad, a dis
tance of five caravan stages. This conjecture accords with the possibility of the prophet Jonas having wandered for three days about the city, which would be incomprehensible if the limited space of the quadrangle on the Tigris be supposed to have been the whole extent of the city.
It is proposed to erect a bronze statue of the celebrated mathematician Laplace, at his birth-place, Beaumont en Auge, near Caen.
Lamartine has concluded a contract with a Parisian publisher, by which he has disposed of the copyright of his collected works, for the sum of 450,000 francs. Among them are eight volumes hitherto unpublished, consisting of the History of the Girondistes' and the tragedy of Toussaint l'Ouver
M. Ducrotey de Blainville, Member of the Institute, has succeeded the late Geoffrey de Sainte-Hilaire, as Professor of Zoology and Physiology in the Academy of Science.
The Paris papers record the death of the architect Lepère, who accompanied Napoleon's expedition to Egypt, and who, in conjunction with Gondouin, erected the column on the Place Vendôme. Paris is indebted to Lepère for several other architectural ornaments. The church of St. Vincent de Paule was his last work. He died on the 18th of July.
Intelligence has been received in Paris of the progress of M. de Castelnan's scientific expedition to the interior of South America, undertaken by direction of the French government. After a sojourn of some months in Rio de Janeiro, where the authorities of the country manifested an earnest desire to protect and facilitate the movements of the expedition, M. Castelnan and his companions crossed the Sierra de Estrella, and entered the province of Minas. In Barbacena they made some important astronomical and geographical observations, and after visiting the Topaz mines of Capan, proceeded to Uro Prito, the capital of the rich province of that name. Having crossed the vast desert of Rio San-Francisco, they reached Villa Boa, the capital of the province of Goyaz, about the central point of Brazil. M. de Castelnan describes this part of the country in glowing colours. Gold is abundant in the sand of the river; and is not unfrequently found in a pure state in lumps of several pounds weight. The diamonds of Rio Claro are remarkably large, and, in Salmasser, pearls are found in shells of the Unio species. At the date of the last accounts, the expedition was preparing to sail down the yet undescribed Rio-Tocantin, and after traversing Arregnay, to return to Goyaz, and from thence to proceed to Lima.
Recent letters from Algiers mention the discovery of some curious antiquities in the course of some excavations at Orleansville. The principal objects dug up are the following: a marble bust of a proconsul; several Roman weights in copper and bronze; a statuette of Priapus; the head of a pin or brooch, representing a dolphin's head, with rubies in the eyes; an iron pickaxe and hammer, and the figure of a cock in bronze, much rusted. There are, also, many articles of pottery, viz.: some jars of lachrymatories; a fragment of the cover of an amphora, with the inscription Semper gaude;' and the fragment of a vase, adorned with figures, representing baptism.
The recent inauguration of the great organ of the church of St. Eustache excited an unusual degree of interest in the musical circles of Paris. It was not a religious ceremony, but the event was celebrated by a genuine concert spirituel.' The organ is not a new one; on the contrary, it is supposed to be as old as the church itself, the building of which was begun in 1532, and finished in 1642. It is a noble instrument, and has recently undergone a thorough repair. On the day of inauguration it was played by several distinguished organists, among whom was Adolph Hesse of Breslau, whose performance excited general admiration.
Miscellaneous Literary Notices.
Letters have been received at Munich, announcing the death of the celebrated traveller, Dr. Koch. After ten years passed in visiting various parts of Egypt, Dr. Koch penetrated into the interior of Africa. He accompanied the Duke de Ragusa and Prince Puckler Muskau in their respective journeys in the East. His death took place at Kartum, on the 6th of June, in the thirty-sixth year of his age, just as he was preparing to undertake a new journey into Sudan.
The first volume of a work, on which the lyric poet Uhland has been long engaged, has just been published at Stuttgard. It is entitled, 'Alte hoch und niederdeutsche Volkslieder, mit Abhandlungen und Anmerkungen,' (Old popular Songs in the high and low German Languages, with Notes and Commentaries). The work will be comprised in five volumes, of which three are to contain the songs, and two are to consist of notes and treatises. It is expected that the publication, when completed, will form a most valuable contribution to the history of German lyric poetry.
A letter from Munich states that Dr. Schafhautl was, in the beginning of September, preparing to join the commission sent by the King of Bavaria to Pompeii, under the direction of Professor Gartner. The chief objects, to which the attention of this commission is directed, are the study of the Pompeian architecture, and, if possible, the discovery of the method employed by the ancients in their stucco work, for which it would appear they used no other ingredient than chalk. The imitation of the ancient stucco has hitherto baffled the attempts of modern stucco workers. Vitruvius gives a very minute description of what he conceived to be the method of preparing the ancient stucco, yet all experiments, made in conformity with his directions, have failed of producing the desired effect. Professor Schafhautl has already directed a great deal of inquiry to the subject, and it is hoped that he and the other persons connected with the commission, will succeed in solving a problem alike interesting to science and art.
Gervinus, of Heidelberg, is engaged in writing a critical work on Shakspeare, and has suspended for the present his History of the Nineteenth Century.'
The University of Bonn is now the favourite school for the princes and the high nobility of Germany. Accounts from Dresden mention, that the son of Prince John of Saxony (the future heir to the throne of that kingdom) is about to be sent to Bonn. Professor Dahlmann has signified his intention of remaining at that university, a circumstance which occasions no little regret in Heidelberg.
The German papers record the recent death of Professor Beneke, of Göttingen, in his eighty-third year. He was a distinguished philologist, and his lectures on the German and English languages and literature were highly and deservedly admired. The fiftieth year of his professorship at Göttingen was celebrated in August, 1842. He was librarian to the university.
On the 25th of August, festivals were held in most of the principal cities of Germany, in honour of the hundredth anniversary of the birthday of Herder. In Munich, Herder's native city, the day was celebrated with marked honour.
We learn that a Greek gentleman, M. Neroutsos, now residing in London, is engaged in translating, into Romaic, Mr. St. John's elaborate work, The History of the Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece.' No undertaking could be more worthy of receiving support in regenerated Hellas, since the way to incite a people to perform great actions is to set before them the VOL. XXXIV. NO. LXVII.