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HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, VOYAGES, &c.
Arnd, E., Geschichte des Ursprungs und der Entwickelung des französischen Volkes. Vol. I. 8vo. Leip. 14s.
Audin, Histoire de Léon X. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris. 16s.
Chronica del famosa cavallero Cid Ruydiez Campeador. N. ed. c. introduccion hist.-liter. p. D. V. A. Huber. Royal 8vo. Marb. 20s.
Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, herausg. v. A. H. L. Heeren und F. A. Ukert. 21 Lief. Vol. I. Spanien, von Dr. H. Schäfer. Vol. II. 8vo. Hamb. 10s.
Granier, A. G. de, Voyages aux Antilles françaises, anglaises, danoises, espagnioles, à St. Domingo et aux Etats unis. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris. 16s. Isles Taiti. Equisse Historique et Geographique, précédée de considérations générales sur la Colonisation Française dans l'Océanie; par Vincendon-Dumoulin et Despraz. Parts 1 and 2. Paris. 15s.
Lichnowsky, C. M., Geschichte des Hauses Habsburg. 8vo. Wien. 13s. 6d. Mügge, T., Skizzen aus dem Norden. Reise durch Skandinavien. 2 vols. 12mo. Hanover. 16s.
Nicolovius, A. J. G., Schlosser's Leben und literarisches Wirken. 8vo. Bonn. 6s. Raumer, F. von, Historisches Taschenbuch f. 1845. Vol. 6. 8vo. Leipzig. 10s. Schlosser's F. C., Weltgeschichte für das deutsche Volk. Bearb. v. Dr. Kriegk. Lief. 1. 8vo. Frankf. 2s.
Siebold, Ph. Fr. v, Nippon. Archiv zur Beschreibung von Japan. Liefg. 13 and 14. Amsterdam. 3s.
Spruner's K. v., Historisch-geographischer Handatlas. Lief. 7. Folio. Gotha. 8s.
NATURAL HISTORY, ASTRONOMY.
Abich, Dr. H., Ueber die geologische Natur des armenischen Hochlandes. 4to. Dorpat. 4s. 6d.
Bischoff, G. W., Handbuch der Botanischen Terminologie und Systemkunde. Part 7. 4to. Nürnberg.
Fieber, F. X., Entomologische Monographien. Sieben Abhandlungen.
Flora Azorica quam ex collectionibus schedisque Hochstetteri patris et filii elaboravit et tabulis XV. illustr. Maur. Seubert. 4to. Bonn. 12s.
Germar, E. F., Die Versteinerungen des Steinkohlengebirges von Wettin und Löbejün. Heft 1. Fol. Hall.
Hoeven, J. van der, Bijdragen tot de Kennis v. d. Lemuriadae of Prosimii. folio. Leiden. 8s.
Illustrationes Algarum in itinere circa orbem jussu Imperatoris Nicolai I. atque auspiciis Navarchi F. Lütke annis 1826, 1827, 1828 et 1829, Celoce Seniavin exsecuto in Oceano pacifico, inprimis septemtrionali ad Littora Rossica Asiatico-Americana collectarum. Auct. Prof. Alex. Postels et Dr. Franc. Ruprecht. Fol. max. 41 plates. Petropoli. 1840. Plain 77. 10s.-coloured 187. 18s.
Kunze, Dr. G., Die Farrnkräuter in color. Abbildungen naturgetreu erläutert und beschrieben. 1 Bd. Part 7. 4to. Leipz. 10s.
Ledebour, C. F. a., Flora Rossica, sive enumerat. plant. in totius imperii Rossici provinciis hucusque observ. Fasc. V. 8vo. Stuttg. 8s. 6d.
Marschall à Bieberstein, L. B. F., Centuria plantarum rariorum Rossiae meridionalis, praesertim Tauriae et Caucasi, iconibus descriptionibusque illustrata. Partis II. decas II. et III. Fol. Petropoli. 21. 14s.
Monographie des plantes fossiles du grès bigarré de la Chaine des Vosges, par W. P. Schimper, et Mougeot. Imp. 4to. Leipz. 21. 8s.
Müller, J., Ueber den Bau und die Lebenserscheinungen des Branchiostoma lubricum Costa, Amphioxus lanceolatus Yarrel. Imp. 4to. Berlin. 8s. Schleiden, M. J., Beiträge zur Botanik. Vol. 1. 8vo. Leipz. 7s. 6d.
Zeitschrift für wissenschaftl. Botanik v. Schleiden u. Nägeli. Bd. 1. Heft. 1. 8vo. Zürich. 7s.
Zetterstedt, J. W., Diptera Scandinaviae disposita et descripta. Tom. III. 8vo. Lund. 12s.
Archiv der Mathematik und Physik. Herausg. von J. A. Grunert. Vol. V. in 5 parts. 8vo. Greifsw. 12s,
Astronomische Beobachtungen, auf der Sternwarte zu Berlin. Herausg. von J. F. Encke. Vol. II. Fol. Berl. 20s.
Struve, F. G. W., Expedition chronométrique entre Poulkova et Altona pour la détermination de la longitude geographique relative de l'observatoire central de Russie. 4to. St. Petersb. 8s.
LAW AND STATISTICS.
Heffter, Das Europäische Völkerrecht der Gegenwart. 8vo., brds. Berlin. 9s. 6d. Jouffroy, H., Catéchisme d'économie politique. 8vo. Leipz. 78.
Basilicorum libri LX. Post Annib. Fabroti curas ope Codd. MSS. a G. E. Heimbachio, aliisque collator integriores cum scholiis edidit, transl. latinam et adnotatt. crit. adjecit Dr. C. G. E. Heimbach. Tom. IV., sec. 1. 4to. Lepzig. 6s.
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Berzelius, J. J., Lehrbuch der Chemie. 5 umgearbeitete Original-Aufl. Vol. II., p. 2 & 3. Dresd. 8s.
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Dieffenbach, J. F., Die operative Chirurgie. Heft I. 8vo. Leipz. 4s. Hannover, A., Recherches microscopiques sur le système nerveux. 4to. Copenh.
Hoff bauer, J. H., Die psychischen Krankheiten und die damit verwandten Zustände. 8vo. Berl. 6s.
Liebig, J., Chemische Briefe. 12mo. brds.
Marx, K. F. H., Akesios. Blicke in die ethischen Beziehungen der Medicin. 8vo.
Gött. 3s. 6d.
Sigaud, J. F. K., Du Climat et des Maladies du Brézil, 8vo. Paris. 10s.
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Decker, E. v., Der kleine Krieg im Geist der neueren Kriegführung. 8vo. Berlin. 9s.
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Kreuser, J., Kölner Dombriefe, oder Beiträge zur altchristlichen Kirchenbaukunst. 8vo. Berlin. 9s. 6d.
Mosen, J., Die Dresdener Gemälde-Gallerie in ihren bedeutungsvollsten Meisterwerken. 12mo. brds. Dresden. 5s.
Schwinck, G., Anfangsgründe der Befestigungskunst. 8vo. Leipzig 12s.
ERRATUM.-At page 130, for Art. VII., read Art. VI.
C. WHITING, BEAUFORT HOUSE, STRAND.
ART. I.-Lebensbilder aus dem Befreiungskriege. (Sketches from the War of Liberation.) 3 Bände. Jena. 1841 and 1844. POLITICAL and historical writers have, as the reader need scarcely be informed, a very difficult part to play in Germany. So long indeed, as they follow the track of their great countryman, Niebuhr, and wield their clubs lustily amid forgotten Romans and fusty old Byzantines, they need fear nothing; but so soon as they come within the range not of living persons merely, but of the memory of living persons, then to speak plainly out, and at the same time not offend the censor, demands no common tact. For if the author be brisk and bold and fearless (as a political writer should always be), he is apt, with the cracking of his whip, to disturb Prince Metternich's placid retirement, and to rouse the eager jealousy of good Kaiser Franz,' the patron-ghost of the Spielberg; or if, to avoid this inconvenience, he borrow a pair of satin slippers from Goethe's artistical cabinet, he is apt to become tame, and becoming tame, useless; for a tame politician is like a tame soldier, or an independent courtier, a thing altogether out of place. Nevertheless it is strange to remark, how much, in spite of the Frankfort decrees of 1819 and 1832, the Germans have contrived to write and write readably on the stirring politics of the day. Thanks to Herr von Gagern, Count Münster and the other advocates of the federal system in 1815 for this! Had the sweeping Prussianism of brave old Stein carried the Congress of Vienna in its train; had the whole North of Germany, according to his idea, been made one Prussia, and the whole South one Austria, with only a Bavaria perhaps left to keep the latter in check, we should now have had a different tale to tell. The historical and political works which breathe a more free and manly spirit, published in Germany during the last twenty-five years, were not published in Vienna, or in its political Doppelgänger, Berlin, but in Stuttgard, or in Hamburg, or in Jena, or perhaps in Zurich. Rotteck's 'Universal History,' a work breath
VOL. XXXIV. NO. LXVIII.
ing more than a free manly and independent spirit, showing a decidedly stern and radical front,—a work which has gone through some fifteen or twenty editions in the course of about as many years-bears upon the title-page Freiburg im Breisgau.' Menzel's History of the Germans,' a work, we believe honestly, destined to exercise as great an influence in forming the character of the present generation in Germany, as Schiller's poems did on the youth of the age to which Menzel himself belongs-a work interpenetrated in every page with the best life-blood of stout manhood and genuine patriotism-liberal without raging, constitutional without pedantry, and German without madness, this great popular history is one of the many truly national trophies that adorn the house of Cotta in Stuttgard; and finally to come down to the present hour, these much-bespoken' Lebensbilder aus dem Befreiungskriege,' though they are written by an Austrian, and relate more to Austria than to any other part of Germany, are published not in the ancient bigoted Vienna, much less in the shallow and theatrical Berlin, but among the brave Burschen, the originators of the famous Wartburg feast,* in Jena.
The Lebensbilder' are published anonymously; that is to say, the author does not give his name on the title page; but the Baron von Hormayr is a person who bore too distinguished a part in the late struggles for national independence in Austria, and a writer at the same time, both in his matter and his manner, too marked to write like himself, and yet write unrecognised. The consequence has been that the author, who peeped out promi nently enough in various places of the two first volumes, has in the third and last volumes, just published, made a full and free confession (always, however, in the third person,) of the manner in which he got possession of the various documents thus given to
* On the 18th of October, 1817, the German Burschen, on the invitation of their brethren in Jena, came together from all quarters, to the celebrated Wartburg, in Saxony, (where Luther translated the Bible,) to celebrate the third centenary of the Reformation. Some pious and patriotic speeches were made, hymns were sung, and church attended by the brave youths, and every thing was conducted not only in the most orderly and decent, but in the most noble and elevated style of which such a meeting was capable. After the regular business of the day, however, a few mad youths (as who has not been mad in his day?) bethought themselves that so long-strained a solemnity might, like other dramas, be most pleasantly ended by a little bit of a farce. Accordingly they arranged a procession of torchbearers to re-ascend the hill in the evening; a bonfire was made on the top; some obnoxious books were thrown in and burned; with the books also (symbolically!) a pair of stays, a corporal's cane and a tie-wig!!! In Great Britain this would have been a pleasant matter to laugh at for a day and an hour, but in Germany it was a signal for all the policemen in Berlin and Vienna to blow the horn and cry-Conspiracy! From that hour to this, Metternich has lorded it with an iron hand over the German press and parliaments; no very difficult task; for the Germans are not naturally a rebellious people, and the conclave at Frankfort consisted principally of nervous old women with breeches.
The Baron von Hormayr.
the world, and the motives which induced him to publish them. That after this full declaration, no name yet appears on the title page, can be ascribed only to a laudable solicitude on the part of the writer not to bring himself and his friends into cessary trouble; as the matter now stands, Hormayr is morally, but not therefore legally the author of the book; and considering how a certain Christian von Massenbach, in the year 1817, though then in the Wurtemberg service, was laid hold of by the authorities at Frankfort (under the influence of Prussia), and tried and condemned to a life-long imprisonment for having published certain documents reflecting on the conduct of the powers that be in Berlin, we cannot but admire the formal prudence of his procedure. As it is, he cannot but be conscious that, notwithstanding his eminent services as an historiographer, and his frequent laudations of Prince Metternich, the present work contains many things that will grievously wound the vanity and startle the nerves of the aulic and bureaucratic councillors in Vienna. The burden of the whole work, indeed, if we understand it, so far as Austria is concerned, is this-the Austrians are not stupid, as Napoleon would have it, but the Austrian government is stupid; the diverse character of these two stands written legibly in the history of the last forty years; Aspern and the Tyrol are the glorious witness of the one, Ulm and Austerlitz the shameful symbol of the other. Kaiser Franz was a weak and narrow man (we are not directly told, indeed, but so much is plainly insinuated), a small, almost a base king, altogether unworthy certainly of such subjects as the men of Passeyr and the Zillerthal. Prince Metternich is a very clever fellow (who ever doubted that ?) as great, perhaps greater, in the capacity of Austrian minister, than the redoubtable Kaunitz; the most polished and the most astute political chess-player in Europe; a great diplomatist, but not a great man, and therefore not a great statesman. If this be the general amount of Baron Hormayr's judgment of public men and measures in Austria, he did well assuredly not to publish the Lebensbilder' in Vienna, and he does well also not to parade his name dangerously on the title page.
The Lebensbilder aus dem Befreiungskriege' are a most interesting and instructive conglomeration (we can use no fitter word), of sketches of character, state documents, letters of public men, and historical reflections and researches relating to the history of Germany during the last fifty years. The title, therefore, of the book, in the common acceptation of the word, by no means answers to the contents. By the Befreiungskrieg' we generally understand the great liberation war of 1813, and by Lebensbilder,' sketches of character and life; but the Freiherr von