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which consists only in apt numbers, fit quantity of syllables, and the sense variously drawn out from one verse into another, not in the jingling sound of like endings, a fault avoided by the learned Ancients, both in poetry and all good oratory. This neglect then of rhyme so little is to be taken for a defect, though it may seem so perhaps to wulgar readers, that it rather is to be esteemed an example set, the first in English, of ancient liberty recovered to heroic poem, from the troublesome and modern bondage of rhyming.

BOOK THE FIRST.

THE ARGUMENT.

This first Book proposes, first in brief, the whole subject, Man's disobedience,

and the loss thereupon of Paradise wherein, he was placed : Then touches the prime cause of his fall, the Serpent, or rather Satan in the serpent ; who revolting from God, and drawing to his side many legions of Angels, was, by the command of God, driven out of Heaven with all his crew into the great deep. Which action passed over, the poem hastens into the midst of things, presenting Satan with his Angels now falling into Hell described here, not in the centre (for Heaven and Earth may be supposed as yet not made, certainly not yet accursed), but in a place of utter darkness, fitliest called Chaos: Here Satan with his Angels lying on the burning lake, thunderstruck and astonished, after a certain space recovers, as from confusion, calls up him who next in order and dignity lay by him ; they confer of their miserable fall, Satan awakens all his legions, who lay till then in the same mane ner confounded. They rise, their numbers, array of battle, their chief leaders named, according to the idols known afterwards in Canaan and the countries adjoining. To these Satan directs his speech, comforts them with hope yet of regaining Heaven, but tells them lastiy of a new world, and new kind of creature to be created, according to an ancient prophecy or report in Heaven; for that Angels were long before this visible creation, was the opi. nion of many ancient Fathers. To find out the truth of tbis prophecy, and what to determine thereon, he refers to a full council. What his associates thence attempt. Pandemonium, the palace of Satan, rises, suddenly built out of the deep : The infernal peers there sit in council.

OF Man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste
Brought death into the world, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful seat,
Sing, heav'nly Muse, that on the secret top

то

Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
That shepherd, who first taught the chosen sced,
In the beginning how the heav'ns and earth
Rose out of Chaos : Or if Sion hill
Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flow'd
Fast by the oracle of God; I thence
Invoke thy aid to my advent'rous song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above th’ Aonian mount, while it pursues
Things unattempted yet in prose or rhime.
And chiefly Thou, O Spi'rit, that dost prefer
Before all temples th' upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first
Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread 20
Dove-like sat’st brooding on the vast abyss,
And niad'st it pregnant : What in me is dark
Illumine, what is low raise and support;
That to the height of this great argument
I may assert eternal Providence,
And justify the ways of God to Men.

Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view,
Nor the deep tract of Hell, say first what cause
Mov'd our grand parents, in that happy state,
Favour’d of Heav'n so highly, to fall off
From their Creator, and transgress his will
For one restraint, lords of the world besides ?
Who first seduc'd them to that foul revolt ?
Th’infernal Serpent; he it was, whose guile,
Stirr'd up with envy and revenge, deceiv'd
The mother of mankind, what time his pride

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Had cast him out from Heav'n with all his host ..
Of rebel Angels, by whose aid aspiring
To set himself. in glory' above his peers,
He trusted to have equal'd the most High,
If he oppos'd; and with ambitious aim
Against the throne and monarchy of God
Rais'd impious war in Heav'n, and battle proud
With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power
Hurl'd headlong flaming from th' ethereal sky, 45
With hideous ruin and combustion, down
To bottomless perdition, there to dwell
In adamantine chains and penal fire,
Who durst defy the Omnipotent to arms.
Nine times the space that measures day and night 50
To mortal men, he with his horrid crew ,
Lay vanquish'd, rolling in the fiery gulf,
Confounded though immortal : But his doom
Reserv'd him to more wrath; for now the thought
Both of lost happiness and lasting pain

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Torments him; round he throws his baleful eyes,
That witness'd huge affliction and dismay
Mix'd with obdurate pride and stedfast hate :
At once, as far as Angels ken, he views
The dismal situation waste and wild;
A dungeon horrible on all sides round
As one great furnace flam'd, yet from those flames
No light, but rather darkness visible
Serv'd only to discover sights of woe,
Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace 65
And rest can never dwell, hope never comes

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'That comes to all; but torture without end
Still urges, and a fiery deluge, fed
With ever-burning sulphur unconsum'd :
Such place eternal Justice had prepar'd
For those rebellious, here their pris’on ordain'd
In utter darkness, and their portion set
As far remov'd from God and light of Heav'n,'
As from the centre thrice to th’utmost pole.
O how unlike the place from whence they fell ! 75
There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelm'd
With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire,
He soon discerns, and weltring by his side,
One next himself in power, and next in crime,
Long after known in Palestine, and nam'd

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Beëlzebub. To whom th' Arch-Enémy,
And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold words
Breaking the horrid silence, thus began.

If thou beest he; but O how fall’n! how chang'd From him, who in the happy realms of light, 85 Cloth'd with transcendent brightness, didst outshine Myriads though bright! If he whom mutual league, United thoughts and counsels, equal hope And hazard in the glorious enterprise Join'd with me once, now misery hath join'd 90 In cqual ruin : into what pit thou seest From what height fall'n, so much the stronger prov'd He with his thunder : and till then who knew The force of those dire arms ? yet not for those, Nor what the potent victor in his rage Can else inflict, do I repent or change,

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