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LAKE OF WALLENSTADT. A steam-boat was established on this lake, between Wesen and Wallenstadt, in 1837. It made 3 voyages to and fro daily in summer, 2 in autumn, and 1 in winter. The voyage takes up about 1 hour and 10 minutes; by the common boats it occupied between 2 and 3 hours. Fares—1st place 1 florin (=1Fr. fr. 35 cents.); carriages, with 2 horses, 4 florins ( = 9 fr. 41 cents.) ; with 3, 7 florins ( = 16 Fr. fr. 47 c.); with 4, 10 florins (=23 F. fr. 53 cents.)

A diligence is provided at either end of the lake to carry on passengers as soon as landed.

Previous to the construction of the Linth canal, the only outlet for the lake of Wallenstadt was a small stream called the Magg, which encountered the Linth, after a course of about 2 iniles, and was arrested by the debris and stones , brought down by that river, so that not only were its waters often dammed up behind, but the surface of the lake was raised several feet above its ordinary level, in consequence of which, they overflowed the valley both above and below it, and laid the villages of Wallenstadt, at the one end, and Wesen, at the other, under water for many months during the spring. By Escher's correction of the course of the Linth, its waters are now carried into the Lake, where they have already formed, by their deposit of mud and gravel, å delta nearly half a mile long. Another canal, deep and protected at the side with strong dykes, now supplies the place of the Magg, and drains the lake of Wallenstadt into that of Zurich.

The lake of Wallenstadt is about 12 miles long by 3 broad; its scenery is grand, but not first-rate; far inferior to that of the lake of Lucerne. Its N. shore consists of colossal cliffs of lime and sand-stone, regularly stratified, and so nearly precipitous that there is room for no road, and only for a very few cottages at their base, while their steep surface, almost destitute of verdure, give to this lake a savage and arid character. The S. side consists of more gradually sloping hills, covered with verdure and overtopped by the tall bare peaks of more distant mountains. On this side there are several villages, and a very rough and irregular road runs along it. The lake had once the reputation of being dangerous to navigate, on account of sudden tempests; but in this respect it does not differ from other mountain-lakes; and there can be little risk in intrusting oneself to experienced boatmen. The courier who has passed it 3 times a-week for many years remembers no instance of an accident.

The precipices along the N. bank vary between 2000 and 3000 feet in height, and the stranger is usually surprised to learn that above them are situated populous villages and ex

tensive pastures crowded with cattle. Such a one is the village of Ammon containing 3000 inhabitants, nearly 2500 feet. above the lake, with a church, gardens, and orchards. It is approached by one narrow and steep path, which may be traced sloping upwards from Wesen along the face of the mountain. Several waterfalls precipitate themselves over this wall of rock, or descend, by gashes or rents in its sides, into the lake; but they dwindle into insignificance by the end of summer, and add no beauty to the scene. The principal ones are the Beyerbach, 1200 feet high (above which lies Ammon), and the Serenbach, 1600 feet high.

The Hamlet of St.-Quentin is the only one on this side of the lake. On the opposite (S.) side there are numerous villages at the mouths of the streams and gullies. The principal of them is Murg, near which a large colton-factory has been recently built. Behind it rises the inountain Murtschenstock. Its summit, 7270 feet high, and almost inaccessible, is traversed through and through by a cavern, which though of large size, looks from the lake like the eye of a bodkin. The hole is best seen when abreast of the village of Mühlehorn; by those not aware of the fact, it might be mistaken for a patch of snow. This peak is the favourite resort of chamois.

The N. E. extremity of the lake is bounded by the seven picturesque peaks of the Sieben Khurfürsten (7 Electors ; some say Kuhfirsten). At their feet lies the village of

4 Wallenstadt.-(Inns : Rössli (Cheval); Hirsch (Cerf, or Poste); not good. À new inn, called the Aigle d'Or, has been built at the side of the lake, close to the landing-place of the steamer. It is far better situated than the others, and is probably as good as they are in other respects.)

Wallenstadt is a scattered township of 800 inhabitants ; nearly half a mile from the lake, of which it commands 110view. The flats of the valley around and above it are marshy, and the neighbourhood was formerly very unhealthy, so long as the irregularities of the Linth obstructed the passage of the waters of the lake. The evil might be entirely cured were similar measures adopted to confine and regulate the course of the Scez, which still overflows the valley at times. Wallenstadt is a dull place, and travellers had better avoid stopping here.

There is considerable beauty in the scenery of the valley of the Scez, between Wallenstadt and

2.1/2 Sargans-(Inns :Kreutz (Croix Blanche); Löwe;)-a town of 723 inhabitants, on an eminence surmounted by a castle, near the junction of the roads from St. Gall and Zurich to Coire. It stands upon the water-shed, dividing the streams which feed the Rhine from those which fall into the lake of Wallenstadt; and this natural embankment is so slight (about 200 paces across and less than 20 feet high) that, as the deposits brought down by the Rhine are constantly raising its bed, it is not impossible, though scarcely probable, that tho river may change its course, relinquish its present route by the lake of Constance, and take a shorter cut by the lakes of Wallenstadt and Zurich. It was calculated by Escher von der Linth, from actual measurements, that the waters of the Rhine need rise but 19 1/2 feet to pass into the lake of Wallenstadt; and it is, indeed, recorded that the river, swollen by long rains in 1618, was only prevented taking this direction by the construction of dams along its banks. Geologists argue,

from the identity of the deposits of gravel in the valley of the Upper Rhine with those in the Vale of Scez, that the river actually did pass out this way at one time.

The remainder of this route of the valley of the Rhine by 1 1/2 Ragatzto

(4) 1 1/2 Coire, together with the excursion to Pfeffers, which no one who passes this way should omit, is described in Route 67.

ROUTE 15.

ZURICH TO ZUG AND LUČERNE, BY HORGEN AND THE RIGHI.

13 stunden=42 314 Eng. miles,

This is the most direct road to Zug and the Righi, but it is practicable for heavy carriages no farther than Horgen; they must therefore be sent round by way of Knonau (Route 16) to meet their owners at Zug or Lucerne. As far as

3 Horgen the road runs along the W. shore of the lake of Zurich, described at p. 40. The best mode of proceeding thus far is in the steam-boat (p. 39). At Horgen-(Inns : Schwan, rather dear;-Löwe)-a char-à-banc, with one horse, may be hired for 12 or 14 franes lo Zug, a drive of about 2 3/4 hours. The ascent of the Albis ridge behind Horgen is very sleep, but commands a fine view of the lake as far as Rapperschwyl and its long bridge. The steep descent which follows leads down to the village of

1 3/4 Sihlbrücke, so called from a bridge over the Sihl , which conducts the traveller from Canton Zurich into Canton Zug. From the ridge which succeeds, the Righi and Pilatus are first seen, and soon after the borders of the lake of Zug are reached.

1 1/2 Zug-(Inn : Hirsch, Cers, good;)– capital of Canton Zug, the smallest state of the Confederation, has 3200 inhabitants, and is prettily situated at the N. E. corner of the lake. It has an antiquated look, surrounded by its old walls, and, being without trade, has a silent and deserted air. Its inhabitants, exclusively Roman Catholics, are chiefly occupied

2

with agricultural pursuits. The rich crops, vineyards, orchards, and gardens, on the borders of the lake, proclaim a soil not ungrateful to the cultivator.

There is a Capuchin Convent and a Nunnery here. The picture by Caracci in the former, mentioned by the guidebooks, is none of his, but is by an inferior artist, Fiamingo, and of no great merit.

The Church of St. Michael, a little way outside of the town, has a curious bone-house attached to it, containing many hundred skulls, each inscribed with the name of jis owner. The church-yard in which it stands is filled with quaint gilt crosses by way of monuments, and the graves are planted with flowers.

In the year 1435 it is recorded that a part of the foundations of the town, weakened probably by an attempt to draw' off part of the water of the lake, gave way, whereby two streels, built on the ground nearest the water, were broken off and submerged ; 26 houses were destroyed, and 45 human beings perished; among them the chief magistrate of the town. His child, an infant, was found Noating in his cradle on the surface of the lake; he was rescued, and afterwards became landammann of the canton.

Diligences go daily from Zug to Lucernc and Zurich.

The Lake of Zug, whose surface is 1340 feet above the sea, is 8 miles long, and about 3/4 broad. Its banks are low, or gently-sloping hills, except on the S. side, where the Righi, rising abruptly from the water's edge, presents ils precipices towards it, forming a feature of considerable grandeur, in conjunction with the Pilatus rising behind it. The Ruf, or Rossberg, rising in the S. W. corner, is also losty and steep; the lake, at its base, is not less than 1200 st. deep. A capital carriage-road has been formed along the water-side from Zug to Arth and Immensee. Boats are to be found at all these places, and the fare across, with two rowers, is 20 batz. It takes about 2 hours to go by water to Arth. The road to Arth winds round the base of the Rossberg, which has obtained a melancholy celebrity from the catastrophe caused by the fall of a portion of it. (See Route 17.) Near the chapel of St. Adrian a small monument has been erected on the spot where the arrow is supposed to have fallen which Henry Von Hunenberg shot out of the Austrian lines into the Swiss camp, before the battle of Morgarten, bearing the warning words, “Beware of Morgarten. It was in consequence of this that the confederates occupied the position indicated, and it contributed mainly to their victory on that memorable field. Morgarten (R. 74) lies within this canton, about 14 miles W. of Zug, on the Lake of Egeri.

3 Arth-(Inn:Schwarzer Adler, Aigle Noir;- good) is the

best point from which to ascend the Righi; but Arth--the Righi-and the rest of the road to

4 LUCERNE, are most conveniently described in Route 17.

ROUTE 16.

ZURICH TO LUCERNE, OVER THE ALBIS. 10 stunden=32 3/4 Eng. miles. A diligence daily in 7 hours.

The high chain of the Albis intervenes between Zurich and Lucerne, running nearly parallel with the lake of Zurich. Two roads are carried across it.-1. The most northern, which, though somewhat longer, occupies less time than the southern road, because it crosses the mountain where it is lower, as it were turning the flank of the chain, and going round its N. extremity. This is the road taken by the diligence, and the only one practicable for heavy carriages at present (1837). An improved line is in progress, but it does not redound to the credit of the canton that it is not further advanced, and a year or two will probably elapse before it is finished.

The northern road commences the ascent of the Albis at the village of Albisrieden, about 3 miles from Zurich, passing under the highest summit of the chain, called Hülliberg, 2792 ft. above the sea-level, and commanding from its topwhich may be reached by a foot-path in 1 1/2 hour from Zurich-an extensive view. On the opposite descent the road reaches

2 1/2 Bonstetten (Inn: Löwe).

2 3/4 Knonau. There is an inn at the castle. At this place the two roads unite.

2 The second route crosses the High Albis, and in ils prcsent (1837) state is dangerous for a heavy carriage, and not fit for any vehicle but a char of the country. It is exceed ingly steep, and resembles the bed of a torrent rather than a road. This line of route, however, is remarkable for the very beautiful view of the chain of the Alps, and a large part of Switzerland, which is seen from its summit. It skirts the shore of the lakes as far as Adliswyl, where it crosses the river Sihl, and ascends to the

2 1/2 Albis Wirth shaus, or. Inn of the albis, which affords only moderate fare or accommodation, but a magnificent prospect. The best point, however, for seeing the view is the Signal (Hochwach, called also Schnabel), a height off the road, about a mile above the inn: it takes in nearly the whole of the Zurichsee; while, at the foot of the mountain,

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