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we already have checks upon the legislative body in the shape of the executive veto and the judicial power to declare measures unconstitutional. Direct legislation would tend to destroy the value of these checks and thus change the whole character of the government. The responsibility of the legislative body would disappear. The legislature might become little more than a committee to draft legislation for the people, the executive would be powerless to veto, and the Supreme Court, after legislation had been passed by the people, would hesitate to declare it unconstitutional. The introduction of direct legislation in the national government of the United States under the present conditions is of doubtful expediency.

Possible Advantages of Direct Legislation under Good Conditions. If the initiative and referendum could be considered and used, not as a means of legislation but as a check upon legislation, as a possible cure for bribery and corruption, as a club to be held in reserve over inefficient or stubborn legislatives, these provisions might be of great value. If, furthermore, the electorate could be elevated to a high degree of intelligence and honesty, so that votes might be given with judgment and we may be sure that the provisions would not be corruptly used for party purposes, direct legislation might be a blessing. Until such ideal conditions be established, however, the disadvantages of introducing the initiative and referendum in states with broad territory and large electorate of mixed character seem to outweigh the possible advantages.

STATISTICS AND ILLUSTRATIVE CITATIONS

I .

STATISTICS SHOWING THE INJUSTICE OF ELECTION BY

MAJORITIES

1 United States. Fifty-second Congress-Election, 1888

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2
Ohio. Representation of the State in Congress from

1877-18971

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Members

DEMOCRATIC

Members

Vote

REPUBLICAN

Members

PROGRESSIVE

Vote

PROHIBITION

SOCIALIST

SCATTERING

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STATE

Vote

93,483
11,389
89,718
72,041
117,775
76,148
22,485
36,092
116,192

Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana

338,724
291,288

59,139
108,712
198,925
62,776

18,077
107,614
105,764
39,331
14,718
43,958
295,226
25,891

81,940
38,457

4,058
26,588
11,010
2,841
1,406
4,436
11,970
14,812

46,861

900
3,339

1 52,914
6
8108,292
2 127,405
1 165,900
8
14 45,223
2

8
9
9

16,796
62,382
55,331
64,409
13,093

96,004
124,781
61,283

6,558

2,303
108,571
130.015

8,574

31,3152

2,351 266 1 Rep. at large 13,987 | 32,207 11 Rep, at large

2

42,476 178,112

23,505

98,115 16,644

302
9,533
10,271

2 Dem, at large

* Public ownership party vote.

Votes for Congressmen in 1912, United States (Continued)

REPRESENTED

UNREPRESENTED

REPUBLICAN

PROGRESSIVE

Members

DEMOCRATIC

Members

REPUBLICAN

PROGRESSIVE

Members

Vote

PROHIBITION

SCATTERING

Vote

SOCIALIST

3

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59,720 65,877

3
7,379

1
40,682

14,472 1
22,139 1
455,009 31 202,805 11
149,569 10

63,375 3
409,771 19 51,075
80,745

6 43,389

42,046
207,740 12 266,673 18
23,785 2 11,718 1
46,298 7

63,486 3
111,928 8 29,417 2
195,307| 18

43,133 2

28.865 2
85,196 9 14,868 1

95,798
48,163 2) 81,366 4
54,250 3 | 146,883 8

19,130

i Rep: } at large

54,331 53,045

10,085
7,311

2,072
35,324 4,307 1,580
13,170 85,348 58,296

17,900 5,883 2,644
179,462 280,412 | 293,985 63,119

2,697 73,440
24,341

8,486
48,689 245,176 | 118,311 90.986
42,125 44,292

39.727
35,285

8,679 13,283
190,217 203,090 97,621 82,876
9,841 19,998 8,844

190
44,577

3,862
42,286 36,391 4,203 2,104
2,564

86 503
37,192

22,358

8,971
23,649

1,220
13,857 8,988 6,895 3,870
74,911

88,442 39,124
73,434 47,798
72,092
61,257

23.937 14,720

4,828 2,230

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2 Dem. at large

1,329

1,147

2 Pro. at large 1 Rep, at large

DEMOCRATIC

STATE

Vote

Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York.
North Carolina
North Dakota.
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island.
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia.

2
149,686 11

Wisconsin
Wyoming

296

4
Australia (Victoria). Election of Senators, 1910 1
SUCCESSFUL

UNSUCCESSFUL
Findley (Lab.)
217,573 Best (Fusionist)

213,976 Barker (Lab.)

216,199 Trenwith (Fusionist) 211,058 Blakey (Lab.) 215,117 M'Cay (Fusionist)

195,477 Goldstein (Independent). 53,583 Ronald (Independent) 18,380

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Art. 89. Federal laws, decrees, and resolutions shall be passed only by the agreement of the two councils.

Federal laws shall be submitted for acceptance or rejection by the people, if the demand is made by 30,000 voters or by eight cantons. The same principle applies to federal resolutions which have a general application, and which are not of an urgent nature.

Chapter III. Amendment of the Federal Constitution 1

ART. 118. The federal constitution may at any time be amended, in whole or in part.

Art. 119. Total revision shall take place in the manner provided for passing federal laws.

ART. 120. When either council of the Federal Assembly resolves in favor of a total revision of the constitution and the other council does not consent thereto, or when fifty thousand Swiss voters demand a total revision, the question whether the federal constitution ought to be revised shall be in either case submitted to a vote of the Swiss people, voting yes or no.

Chapter jii was revised on July 5, 1891, Arts. 118-123 being substituted for the original Arts. 118-221; the important change is in Art. 121, which extends popular initiative to partial revision of the constitution,

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