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are enrolled in the party enrollment of said party, equal to not less than two per centum nor more than four per centum of the number of votes that such party cast for Secretary of State at the last preceding November election.

Nomination Petitions, Form of SEC. 29. All nomination petitions shall be in the following form:

We, the undersigned, enrolled voters (or if a new party, qualified electors) of the. party of the city of... or the township of... in the county of..

.and State of Michigan, hereby nominate.

who resides at No..... Street, city of..

or in the township of

in the county of

as a candidate of the

party for the office of

to be voted for at the primary election to be held on the

day of .. as representing the principles of said party, and we further declare that we intend to support the political party named herein.

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Name.

Residence.

Street number in cities

having street nos.)

Date of signing.

Primary Elections, How Held, etc.

Sec. 32. All primary elections for the nomination of party candidates for office shall be held by election precincts the same as general elections are held, and the polls thereof shall be kept open in the respective precincts for the same length of time: Provided, That in any city of five thousand population or over, the polls of the primary election shall be kept open until eight o'clock P.M. standard time, and in cities having

*In following sections, similar provisions are incorporated for nominations to state, city, county, and district offices.

a population of two hundred thousand or more the polls shall be kept open until ten o'clock P.M. standard time: Provided further, That the township board of any township or the common council of any city of less than five thousand population may direct that the polls be held open until eight o'clock P.M., standard time. .

Who Declared Nominee

SEC. 39. The candidate of each political party for nomination for any office who receives the greatest number of votes cast for candidates for any such office as set forth in the returns or as determined by the board of canvassers on the recount by it of said ballots, shall be declared the nominee of that political party for said office at the next ensuing November election, or at the next city election, or at the next election for United States Senator, as the case may be, and the board of canvassers shall forthwith certify such nominations to the respective boards of election commissioners affected thereby: Provided, That in the case of a candidate for the office of United States Senator, the Board of State Canvassers shall forthwith certify the result of the primary election to the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of State shall certify said result to the next succeeding legislature on the first day of the session. ..

State Convention

Sec. 43. The State convention of all political parties for the nomination of candidates for State offices and the selection of State central committees, if such committees have not been selected by previous conventions held during the same year, shall be held within forty days after the September primary, but not less than ten days after the day appointed for the meeting of the Board of State Canvassers for the purpose of canvassing the primary election returns mentioned in this act. The particular day and the time and place of meeting shall be designated by the State central committees of the various political parties in the calls for said State conventions, which calls shall be issued at least thirty days prior to the first Wednesday in September preceding a November election. .

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PRIMARY ELECTIONS

Presidential primaries are provided for, either by direct election of convention delegates or by presidential preference votes, in the following commonwealths:

Alabama [Permissive)
California
Florida [Permissive]
Georgia [Permissive]
Illinois
Indiana
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Montana
Nebraska

New Hampshire
New Jersey
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Dakota
West Virginia
Wisconsin

CHAPTER IX

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Local Government.-In the preceding chapters we have dealt especially with the central government of a state. In none but the smallest state, however, as the republic of San Marino, does this central government directly administer the affairs of local areas. In states of any appreciable size the details of government of portions of the area of the state are administered by local governing bodies. This chapter deals with the government of these local areas.

Two Types of Local Government.—Considered from the viewpoint of their systems of local government, the prominent states may be divided into two main classes, (1) unitary governments and (2) federative governments.

Unitary Governments.—These are distinguished by the fact that all authority for local officials in local areas proceeds from and rests upon the central government. Local governing officials and bodies are not trusted with independent powers; their 'acts are always subject to the scrutiny of an agent or representative of the central government of the state; their very existence is in large measure determinable by the central government. New local boards or functionaries may be created by the central government for local areas designated by that government, or old local boards or functionaries may be arbitrarily abolished or displaced. All local government is subject to the will and action of the central government of the whole state. Such system, to be described in more detail later, is to be noted in France, Italy, and England.

Federative Governments. These types are distinguished by the fact that under the constitution of the state certain powers

of independent organization and action are guaranteed to the local governments. In their own constituted province, local governing bodies in a federative government are free to act according to their best judgment without reference or appeal to the central government. In local affairs, the local governing bodies in general jealously protest against any encroachment on the part of the central government.

In a sense the local governing bodies do not consider themselves as subordinate bodies at all, but as free and independent governments operating without interference in all local matters. They are inclined to resent the term local government as applied to them, because such application implies a subordination to the wider central government, which subordination does not under the constitution exist. They argue that the same constitution which creates the central government in a federative state guarantees to the local areas governmental rights forever free from infringement or impairment, and hence in the exercise of their powers they are as free and untrammeled as the central government itself. This argument is well based, and yet the fact remains that the local government may be distinguished as such by the fact that it exercises control over only a portion of the territory and people of a state, whereas the central government exercises control over all the territory and people of a state. However independent the local government's powers as guaranteed by the state constitution, such powers extend to but a limited portion of the state as compared with the state-wide authority of the central government.

Prominent federative states in which local governments are thus constituted with independent powers are Switzerland, Germany, and the United States.

Areas of Local Government. The determination of the boundaries and extent of the local areas within a state is (1) in unitary states commonly the result of the action of the central government, and (2) in federative 'states commonly a result of historical evolution.

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