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dence of city administration. The powers taken from the council have in many cases been vested in separate boards appointed by the mayor, as, in New York, the board of estimate and apportionment.

2. Commission Government. The most conspicuous of the several schemes for municipal reform is what is known as the commission form of government. This form was first adopted in Galveston, Texas, after the storm and flood of 1900 created an emergency before which the city government became utterly paralyzed.

The chief features of the Galveston plan are as follows: (a) the entire legislative and executive powers of the city are vested in a commission of five men, a mayor and four commissioners, elected by the city at large; (b) the administrative work of the city is divided among four departments: (1) police and fire, (2) streets and public property, (3) water works and sewers, (4) finance; (c) one commissioner has the headship of each department, leaving the mayor as a member of the commission without a special department but with general supervision over all departments. The commission is expected to administer the business of a city in the same way that managing directors manage the business of a corporation.

The sensational circumstances under which this government was established and the degree of success it achieved led many cities to seek charters embodying similar principles of organization. The city of Des Moines, Iowa, instituted a refinement of the Galveston plan by adding articles providing for the initiative, referendum, and recall.

3. City-Manager Plan.-A further innovation in municipal government was introduced by Dayton, Ohio. Influenced by suspicions of inefficiency in the city government, a group of leading citizens advocated during the first decade of the century radical reforms in the organization of local administration. September 3, 1912, the Ohio state legislature adopted a constitutional amendment allowing such cities as desired “to exercise all powers of local self-government, and to adopt and

enforce within their limits such local police, sanitary, and other
similar regulations, as are not in conflict with general laws."
This amendment provided the authority for municipal self-
government, but the greatest impetus was given to the move-
ment by the practical demonstration of the existing govern-
ment's inefficiency during the disastrous floods of March, 1913.
In the elections of May, 1913, a commission was elected
pledged to a charter revision which would provide-

1. A commission of five members.
2. A city manager selected by the commission, who would

have charge of all administrative duties relating to the

government of the city. 3. Provisions for a referendum and protest on proposed mu

nicipal legislation. At the end of June, the commission submitted its charter; and by an election August 12, 1913, the charter was adopted by a vote of 13,318 to 6,010.

The announced purpose of the agitators in Dayton was to establish a government for the city which would function like the management of a business. As one of the leaders of the movement expressed it:

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"A city is a great enterprise whose stockholders are the people. ... Our municipal affairs would be placed on a strict business basis, and directed, not by partisans either Republican or Democratic, but by men who are skilled in business management and social science."

1

Under the charter adopted in 1913, the following administration was provided to insure this result: (a) A commission of five, elected at large for a four-year term, to control all municipal powers, except those relating to the schools and the public library; (b) a city manager, selected by the commission, and entrusted with the control and supervision of all the administrative functions of the city; (c) five administrative departments under the city manager's supervision-Law, Finance, Public Safety, Public Service, Public Welfare; (d)

Provisions for recall of any of the officers of the city, including the city manager; and (e) careful provisions for handling the money affairs of the city, including budget-making, accounting, and municipal borrowing.

The city manager plan has spread rapidly since its adoption by Dayton. Over seventy-five cities now have it in operation, including cities of such size as San Antonio (Texas), Springfield (Ohio), and Wheeling (West Virginia). Most of the cities which have adopted it up to the present time, however, are relatively small, i. e., less than ten thousand inhabitants.

In general, the advantages of the city manager plan are appealing more and more to municipalities throughout the country. A skilled and trained man may be secured under this plan for the head of the administrative service of the city; municipal financing methods have been notably improved; and adequate personal supervision of public works and of public employees has been insured. In spite of the fact that the system places heavy responsibilities upon the shoulders ultimately of a few men—the commissioners and the city manager-representative citizens have been selected and have served with marked efficiency. The best evidence of its success as compared with older forms of local government is its general popularity with the people of the cities which have adopted it.

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THREE-CLASS SYSTEM OF INDIRECT ELECTIONS IN PRUSSIA

Prussia is divided into electoral districts, from each of which a certain number (ranging from 1 to 33) of representatives to the Abgeordenetenhaus are chosen. These representatives are elected by electors who are in turn elected by the voters in smaller electoral precincts (known as Urwahlbezirke, or original electoral precincts). Each electoral precinct is

ed to one elector to each 250 souls in the precinct. For the purpose of choosing these electors from the precincts, the voters in the precinct are divided into the following classes:

1st Class
2p CLASS

3D CLASS Those who pay an amount Those who, individually pay. Those who, individually pay.

equal to 13 the total taxes, ing taxes of an amount ing taxes of an amount counting from the largest less than the voters in the less than the voters of the taxpayer down.

The num.

first class, collectively pay class above, collectively ber seldom equals more an amount equal to the contribute

a mount than 5% of the voters, second third of the total equal to 143 of the total

an

taxes, counting from the taxes. In this class is the large taxpayers down. The great majority of voters, number equals about 12% from 80% to 83% of the or 15% of the voters. population.

1

The voters in this class elect The voters in this class elect The voters in this class elect one third of the total one

third
of the total

one third of the total number of electors from number of electors from number of electors from the precinct. the precinct.

the precinct.

The electors chosen by these three classes in the precincts
meet together and themselves choose the representa-
tive or representatives of the district to the Abge-

ordenetenhaus (or house of representatives).* * Where the number of inhabitants is not a multiple of three, an extra elector is allotted to the district, or two extra electors, to make up the proper proportion. If one extra elector is allotted, he is chosen by the 2d class of voters; if two extra electors are allotted, they are chosen by the 1st and 3d classes of voters respectively. For example, if a precinct (Urwahlbezirke) contained 1000 souls, it would be entitled to 4 electors, one chosen by each of the 3 classes of voters, and one extra chosen by the 2d class of voters ; if a district had 2000 souls, it would be entitled to 8 electors, two chosen by each of the three classes, and one additional by class 1 and one by class 3.

? As in all cases where electors have no function except to elect, the electors in Prussian precincts are chosen in the name of the candidate whom they are pledged to support for a seat in the Abgeordenetenhaus.

II

COMMISSION FORM OF GOVERNMENT FOR CITIES

Law (The Des Moines Act) passed by the Iowa legislature, March 29, 1907, "to provide for the government of certain cities."

Cities Affected by the Act WECTION 1. That any city of the first or second class, or with special charter, now or hereafter having a population of seven' thousand or over, as shown by the last preceding state census, may become organized as a city under the provisions of this act by proceeding as hereinafter provided.

Provision for the Submission of the Question of Commission

Government to the Electors SEC. 2. Upon petition of electors equal in number to twentyfive per centum of the votes cast for all candidates for mayor at the last preceding city election of any such city, the mayor shall, by proclamation, submit the question of organizing as a city under this act at a special election to be held at a time specified therein, and within two months after said petition is filed; provided, however, that in case any city is located in two or more townships said petition shall be signed by twentyfive per centum of the qualified electors of said city residing in each of said townships. . . If the majority of the votes cast shall be in favor thereof, cities having a population of twentyfive thousand and over shall thereupon proceed to the election of a mayor and four councilmen, and cities having a population of seven thousand, and less than twenty-five thousand, shall proceed to the election of a mayor and two councilmen, as hereinafter provided. Immediately after such proposition is adopted, the mayor shall transmit to the governor, to the secretary of state, and to the county auditor, each a certificate stating that such proposition was adopted. At the next regular city election after the adoption of such proposition there shall be elected a mayor and councilmen. In the event, however, that the next regular city election does not occur within one

"Originally this figure was 25,000. It was amended March 30, 1909.

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