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City-MANAGER MUNICIPALITIES CORRECTED TO JUNE 1, 1922.*

1920 Pop.

IN
EFFECT

8,240 Dec. 1918
4,393

Dec. 1921
13,252 Apr. 1919
3,500
Jan.

1921
10,457 Jan. 1922
39,141

June

1920
6,000

Oct. 1916
12,360 Apr. 1921

2,500 Apr. 1921
10,995 July 1917
2,339 May 1919
1,885 Apr. 1922

371 May 1919
1,321

May 1921
15,085 Apr. 1922
1,324

Apr. 1921
72,128 Apr. 1917

7,933 Apr. 1921
16,985

Jan. 1918
6,255
Feb.

1921
,543

Jan. 1921
12,627

Jan. 1915
6,865

Jan. 1922
30,891

Jan. 1918
8,354

1918
7,542

May 1919
11,101

Apr. 1916
47,554 Apr. 1921
12,227 July 1921
5,100 Apr. 1914
3,694 Apr. 1918
9,734

Mar.

1914
3,394 Apr. 1918
13,103 Apr. 1922
7,224 Apr. 1915

Jan.

STATE

CITY

1920
Pop. .

IN
EFFECT

STATE

CITY

Ariz.
Cal.

Colo.

Phoenix
Alameda
Alhambra
Bakersfield
Chico
Glendale
Long Beach
Pasadena
Sacramento
San Jose
Santa Barbara
Boulder
Colorado Springs
Durango
Grand Junction
Montrose
New London
Stratford
W. Hartford
Bartow
Fort Myers
Lake City
Miami
New Smyrna
Ocala
Punta Gorda
St. Augustine
Sanford
Tallahassee
Tampa
W. Palm Beach.
Brunswick
Cartersville
Columbus
Decatur

Conn.

29,053 Apr. 1914||Ga, 28,806 May 1917

9,096 July 1915
18,638 Apr. 1915

9,339 Apr. 1923||Ind.
13,536 July 1921||Iowa
55,593 July 1921
45,334 May 1921||Kans.
65,857 July 1921
39,604 July 1916
19,441 Jan.

1918
10,989 Jan.

1918
29,572 Apr. 1921
5,300
Mar.

1915
8,665

Jan. 1922
3,581 Feb. 1914
25,688 Oct. 1921
12,347 Oct. 1921
8,854 Apr.

1921|Maine
5,000 Jan.

1922||Mass.
3,678 June 921
3,341 June 1921
29,549

June

1921
3,000 Jan. 1921
5,610 Feb. 1918||Mich.
1,295 July 1921
6,192 July 1915
5,588

1920
5,637

Feb. 1920
51,252 Jan. 1921
8,659 Dec.

1919
14,413 Jan. 1921

5,810 Aug. 1917
31,125 Jan. 1922
6,150

Jan. 1921

Griffin
Quitman
Rome
Tifton
Michigan City
Dubuque
Webster City
Atchison
Belleville
El Dorado.
Hays
Kinsley
McCraeken
St. Mary's
Salina
Stockton
Wichita
Winfield
Auburn
Mansfield
Middleboro
Norwood
Stoughton
Waltham
Albion
Alma
Alpena
Bay City
Benton Harbor
Big Rapids
Birmingham
Cadillac
Crystal Falls
Escanaba
Grand Haven

Fla.

Jan.

Ga.

* From The Story of the City-Manager Plan, published by the National Municipal League.

CITY MANAGER MUNICIPALITIES CORRECTED TO JUNE 1, 1922.

(Continued.)

STATE

CITY

1920 Pop.

IN
EFFECT

STATE

CITY

1920 Pop.

IN
EFFECT

Mich.

Jan.

Jan.

Grand Rapids
Grosse Pte. Shores.
Jackson
Kalamazoo
Lapeer
Manistee
Maryville
Mt. Pleasant
Muskegon
Muskegon Heights
Onaway
Otsego
Petoskey
Plymouth
Pontiac
Portland
Royal Oak
St. Johns
Sault Ste. Marie.
Sturgis
Three Rivers
Anoka
Columbus Heights
Morris
White Bear Lake.
Excelsior Springs
Bozeman
Alliance
Albuquerque
Auburn
Newburgh
Niagara Falls
Sherrill

137,634 Mar. 1917||N. Y.

400 June 1916||N. 0.
48,374 Jan. 1915
48,487 June 1918
4,500 May 1919
9,690 May 1914
3,000 Jan.

1921
4,880

Mar.

1921
36,570

Jan.

1920
12,000

Apr. 1922
2,789 Apr. 1920
4,000 May

1918||Ohio
5,064

Apr. 1916
2,500
Dec.

1917
34,273 Nov. 1920
2.747

1919
6,000 May 1918
4,035
Aug.

1918
12.096

Dec.

1917
5.995 Apr. 1921
5,209 Apr. 1918
4,287 Apr. 1914
4,000 Aug. 1921
3.500 Jan. 1914
2,022 Oct.

1921
4,167 Apr. 1922 Okla.
6,183
Aug

1921
3,737 Apr. 1921
15,157

Jan.

1918
36,142

1920
30,272

Jan. 1916
50,760 Jan. 1916
1,500 June 1916

Watertown
Durham
Elizabeth City
Gastonia
Goldsboro
Greensboro
Hickory
High Point
Morganton
Reidsville
Thomasville
Akron
Ashtabula
Cleveland
Cleveland Heights
Dayton
E. Cleveland
Gallipolis
Lima
Painesville
Sandusky
S. Charleston
Springfield
Westerville
Xenia
Ardmore
Cherokee
Coalgate
Collinsville
Duncan
Grandfield
Lawton

31,263

Jan. 1920
21,000 May 1921
8.925 Apr.

1915
12,871 Aug. 1919
11,296 July 1917
19,746 May 1921
5,076 May

1913
14,302 May 1915
2,867

May 1913
5,333 May 1922

5,676 May 1915
208,435

Jan. 1920
22,082

1916
796.836

Jan.

1924
15,236

Jan.

1922
152,559

Jan. 1914
27,292 Jan. 1918

6,070 Jan. 1918
41,306

Jan. 1922
6.886 Jan. 1920
22,897

Jan. 1916
1.500 Jan. 1918
60,840 Jan. 1914
3,500
Jan.

1918
9,110 Jan. 1918
14,181

May 1921
3,100 Oct. 1920
4,000 July 1914
3,500 Feb. 1914
3,463 Nov, 1920
2,000 Apr. 1921
9,000 Apr. 1921

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Jan.

CHAPTER X

GOVERNMENT OF DEPENDENCIES

Definition and Nature of a Dependency.-A dependency is any country, province, or territory subject to the sovereignty of a state but not forming territorially a constituent part of that state. Thus India is a dependency of Great Britain, Angola is a dependency of Portugal, the Philippine Islands are a dependency of the United States. These territories may be considered an integral part of the sovereign states to which they owe allegiance; yet the fact of actual separation by intervening land or water has invariably operated to make their form of government different from the government as exercised within the strict territorial confines of the state. Such separated territories have been treated as dependent upon the will of the sovereign state; their people have not possessed the rights of citizens of the home state in the central government of that state, except where such rights have been expressly accorded them; their governments have been subject to the will of the central government of the state.

I. TYPES OF DEPENDENCIES Various Types of Dependencies.—The extension of the sovereign power of great states over detached territories has sprung from a variety of causes and has resulted in radically different types of dependencies.

Colonial Dependencies.-In some cases these detached and perhaps distant territories have been populated by citizens of the parent state, who for one reason or another have left that state to establish their fortunes in a new land. Such citizens

in the new land are willing to acknowledge the sovereignty of the state from which they have emigrated; and such a state on its part is glad to accept as its possession the land which its citizens have settled. Dependencies of this character are more properly called colonies, from the Latin word colonia, meaning a planting place or a group who plant or settle.

Examples of colonial dependencies are numerous. The Puritans who fled from England to escape religious persecution in the seventeenth century and established themselves in the new world developed into one of the American colonies. The Englishmen who, employed by a great English trading company, emigrated to the new world and established the beginnings of Virginia did in actual fact start a colony. The convicts who were transported by judicial sentence to the wilds of Australia formed there the beginnings of an English colony. The French men and women who were bribed or forced to go to North America settled the French colony in what is now Canada. Various reasons caused the emigration from the parent country and the settlement in the new, but the vital character of the colony is due to the fact that in all instances the settlers did establish themselves permanently in their new surroundings, and that a recognized bond of allegiance to the country from which they came was maintained.

Direct Dependencies. In contrast to these colonial dependencies are detached territories of savage or semi-savage races which by one means or another have been brought into subjection to a great power. Thus in many cases states have by force of arms brought a country into subjection, as England conquered large sections of India. Again, states have inveigled half-civilized chieftains into signing away their independence, as agents of Germany and agents of England did for their respective states throughout parts of Africa. Again, a state may be the first to assert a legal claim to a relatively vacant and idle territory, as France did to a large portion of the Desert of Sahara. A characteristic feature of all dependencies of this class is that they are mainly inhabited by a people for

eign in blood and in habits from the people of the sovereign state.

Transitory Stages Toward Direct Dependence.-Two transitory stages which in some cases have marked the progress of these direct dependencies from their primitive freedom to their position of direct dependence may be noted. These stages are called, respectively, spheres of influence and protectorates.

Sphere of Influence.—The sphere of influence is a relatively new development in history, being the result of the disgraceful land-grabbing ambitions which led the great powers of Europe during the nineteenth century to preëmpt much more territory than they could at the moment absorb. England, France, and Belgium, especialiy, pushing ahead to lay claim to great sections of barbarous Africa on slight grounds of discovery and prior assertion of right, soon realized that the forcible assumption of such territories was certain to result in serious misunderstandings and war. By international conferences of the land-grabbing powers, therefore, it was agreed that any single power might, by giving due notice to the other land-grabbing powers (dignifiedly called “colonial powers”), and by a reasonable definition of claims and boundaries, preëmpt territory not belonging to another civilized power. Disputed claims at the time were adjusted by agreement and solemn treaty, and the agreeing nations extended their claims by all conceivable methods. Such preëmption, thus guaranteed by agreements among the land-grabbing powers, simply means that no great power other than the one claiming such preëmption shall exercise or attempt to exercise any measure of political control over the territory in question. The territory need not be actually occupied by the great state which claims it, need not be actually governed by the said great state, but by international agreement no other great state may assert or exercise control therein. "A sphere of influence may be defined as a tract of territory within which a state, on the basis of treaties with neighboring colonial powers, enjoys the exclusive privilege of exercising political influence, of concluding treaties of pro

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