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eastern Asia. Such chances for international misunderstanding are ever present, with the possibility of a devastating war.
Effect upon Internal Policies and Politics.—The effect of the acquisition of dependencies upon internal issues is no less marked. Italian ministries have fallen and the government changed as a result of colonial policies in Africa. The English Parliament has ceased to legislate solely for the British Isles, but has become the legislative center for a vast empire whose ramifications extend around the world. In the United States the effect of the decision in the Insular Cases and the action subsequently taken by Congress has enormously increased the power and prestige of the central government as contrasted with the several commonwealth governments.
Problems with Respect to Dependencies.— Important and difficult problems for the controlling powers have resulted from the acquisition of dependencies inhabited by alien peoples of a low degree of civilization. The education and civilization of savage or semi-savage peoples brought under their control, the protection of such peoples from exploitation, the equitable adjustment of the laws of a higher civilization to the customs and habits of a lower—these broadly are problems which have tasked the best statesmanship of the period.
Broadening of View and Deepening of Patriotism among People of Great States.- Perhaps the best result of the acquisition of dependencies has been the result upon the mental and political attitude of the people in the great colonial powers. A general broadening of view with a simultaneous deepening of patriotism is noticeable. The Englishman is no longer interested only in the affairs of his own small group of islands: he is interested also in Persia, Afghanistan, Australia, and the uttermost bounds of the globe. His pride in and love of the English flag is increased as he realizes that it is the flag of the sovereign power of one sixth part of the earth's surface. Similarly the Italians and the French look beyond the strict confines of their territory in Europe to their possessions abroad. In our own country the acquisition of Hawaii, Porto Rico, and the Philippines, the lease of the Canal Zone, the virtual protectorate over Cuba, and the attitude toward the whole hemisphere implied in the Monroe Doctrine have widened our political horizon enormously. We feel that the United States definitely occupies a place among the great nations of the world; we desire to uphold its dignity and increase its prestige. STATISTICS AND ILLUSTRATIVE CITATIONS
TREATY TO ILLUSTRATE THE SPHERE OF INFLUENCE
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, etc., etc., and His Most Faithful Majesty the King of Portugal and Algarves, etc., etc., with a view to settle definitely the boundaries of their respective sphere of influence in Africa, and being animated with the desire to confirm the friendly relations between the two Powers, have determined to conclude a Treaty to this effect and have named . . . their respective Plenipotentiaries. :
Who, having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found in good and due order, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles:
ARTICLE I. Great Britain agrees to recognize, as within the dominion of Portugal in East Africa, the territories bounded: [boundaries given.)
ART. III. Great Britain engages not to make any objection to the extension of the sphere of influence of Portugal south of Delagoa Bay, as far as a line following the parallel of the confluence of the river Pongolo with the river Maputo to the seacoast.
ART. IV. It is agreed that the western line of division separating the British from the Portuguese sphere of influence in Central Africa shall follow the centre of the channel of the upper Zambesi, starting from the Katima Rapids up to the point where it reaches the territory of the Barotse kingdom. ...
ART. V. Portugal agrees to recognize, as within the sphere of influence of Great Britain on the north of the Zambesi, the territories extending from the line to be settled by the Joint Commission mentioned in the preceding Article to lake Nyassa, including the islands in that lake south of parallel 11° 30', south latitude, and to territories reserved to Portugal by the line described in article I.
ART. VI. Portugal agrees to recognize, as within the sphere of influence of Great Britain to the south of the Zambesi, the territories bounded on the east and north-east by the line described in article II.
ART. VII. All the lines of demarcation traced in articles I to VI shall be subject to rectification by agreement between the two Powers, in accordance with local requirements. ...
ART. VIII. The two Powers engage that neither will interfere with any sphere of influence assigned to the other by articles I to VI. One Power will not, in the sphere of the other, make acquisitions, conclude treaties, or accept sovereign rights or protectorates. It is understood that no companies nor individuals subject to one Power can exercise sovereign rights in a sphere assigned to the other, except with the assent of the latter.
ART. IX. Commercial or mineral concessions and rights to real property possessed by Companies or individuals belonging to either Power shall, if their validity is duly proved, be recognized in the sphere of the other Power. For deciding on the validity of mineral concessions given by the legitimate authority, within 30 miles of either side of the frontier south of the Zambesi, a Tribunal of Arbitration is to be named by common agreement.
It is understood that such Concessions must be worked according to local Regulations and Laws.
ART. XVI. The present Convention shall be ratified and the ratification shall be exchanged at London or Lisbon as soon as possible.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.
Done in duplicate at Lisbon the eleventh day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-one. (L. S.)
(a) GEORGE G. PETRE.
THE ORDINANCE OF 1787 An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the
United States Northwest of the River Ohio Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled, that the said territory, for the purpose of temporary govern
ment, be one district; subject, however, to be divided into two districts, as future circumstances may, in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient.
Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the estates both of resident and non-resident proprietors in the said territory, dying intestate, shall descend to, and be distributed among their children, and the descendants of a deceased child in equal parts; the descendants of a deceased child or grandchild, to take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them; and where there shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the next of kin, in equal degree; and among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister of the intestate shall have in equal parts among them their deceased parent's share; and there shall in no case be a distinction between kindred of the whole and half blood; saving in all cases to the widow of the intestate, her third part of the real estate for life, and one-third part of the personal estate; and this law relative to descents and dower, shall remain in full force until altered by the legislature of the district. And until the governor and judges shall adopt laws as hereinafter mentioned, estates in the said territory may be devised or bequeathed by wills in writing, signed and sealed by him or her, in whom the estate may be (being of full age) and attested by three witnesses; and real estates may be conveyed by lease and release or bargain and sale signed, sealed and delivered by the person, being of full age, in whom the estate may be, and attested by two witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, and such conveyances be acknowledged, or the execution thereof duly proved, and be recorded within one year after proper magistrates, courts, and registers shall be appointed for that purpose; and personal property may be transferred by delivery, saving, however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers of the Kaskaskias, Saint Vincents, and the neighboring villages, who have heretofore professed themselves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in force among them, relative to the descent and conveyance of property.
Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid that there shall be appointed from time to time, by Congress, a governor, whose commission shall continue in force for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked by Congress; he shall reside in the