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Control Act and which are no longer necessary to the administration of the affairs of such agency.
SEC. 312. Prior to September 1, 1920, each carrier shall pay to such employee or subordinate official thereof wages or salary at a rate not less than that fixed by the decision of any agency, or railway board of adjustment in connection therewith, established for executing the powers granted the President under the Federal Control Act, in effect in respect to such employee or subordinate official immediately preceding 12.01 a. m. March 1, 1920. Any carrier acting in violation of any provision of this section shall upon conviction thereof be liable to a penalty of $100 for each such offense. Each such action with respect to any such employee or subordinate official and each day or portion thereof during which the offense continues shall constitute a separate offense. Such penalty shall be recoverable in a civil suit brought in the name of the United States, and shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.
Sec. 313. The Labor Board, in case it has reason to believe that any decision of the Labor Board or of an Adjustment Board is violated by any carrier, or employee or subordinate official, or organization thereof, may upon its own motion after due notice and hearing to all persons directly interested in such violation, determine whether in its opinion such violation has occurred and make public its decision in such manner as may determine.
Sec. 314. The Labor Board may (1) appoint a secretary, who shall receive from the United States an annual salary of $5,000; and (2) subject to the provisions of the civil-service laws, appoint and remove such officers, employees, and agents; and make such expenditures for rent, printing, telegrams, telephone, law books, books of reference, periodicals, furniture, stationery, office equipment, and other supplies and expenses, including salaries, traveling expenses of its members, secretary, officers, employees, and agents, and witness fees, as are necessary for the efficient execution of the functions vested in the board by this title and as may be provided for by Congress from time to time. All of the expenditures of the Labor Board shall be allowed and paid upon the presentation of itemized vouchers therefor approved by the chairman of the Labor Board.
Sec. 315. There is hereby appropriated for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1920, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $50,000, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to be expended by the Labor Board, for defraying the expenses of the maintenance and establishment of the board, including the payment of salaries as provided in this title.
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW ON THE ORGANIZATION OF
THE PUBLIC POWERS
(February 25, 1875)
Article 1. The legislative power shall be exercised by two assemblies: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
The Chamber of Deputies shall be elected by universal suffrage, under the conditions determined by the electoral law.
The composition, the method of election, and the powers of the Senate shall be regulated by a special law.'
Art. 2. The President of the Republic shall be chosen by an absolute majority of votes of the Senate and Chamber of Deputies united in National Assembly.
He shall be elected for seven years. He is re-eligible.
Art. 3. The President of the Republic shall have the initiative of laws, concurrently with the members of the two chambers. He shall promulgate the laws when they have been voted by the two chambers; he shall look after and secure their execution.
He shall have the right of pardon; amnesty may only be granted by law.
He shall dispose of the armed force.
He shall preside over state functions; envoys and ambassadors of foreign powers shall be accredited to him.
1 See constitutional law of February 24, 1875, and law of December 9, 1884, pp. 451, 456.
Every act of the President of the Republic shall be countersigned by a minister.
Art. 4. As vacancies occur on and after the promulgation of the present law, the President of the Republic shall appoint, in the Council of Ministers, the councilors of state in regular service.
The councilors of state thus chosen may be dismissed only by decree rendered in the Council of Ministers.
The councilors of state chosen by virtue of the law of May 24, 1872, shall not, before the expiration of their powers, be dismissed except in the manner provided by that law. After the dissolution of the National Assembly, they may be dismissed only by resolution of the Senate."
Art. 5. The President of the Republic may, with the advice of the Senate, dissolve the Chamber of Deputies before the legal expiration of its term.
In that case the electoral colleges shall be summoned for new elections within the space of two months, and the Chamber within the ten days following the close of the elections."
Art. 6. The ministers shall be collectively responsible to the chambers for the general policy of the government, and individually for their personal acts.
The President of the Republic shall be responsible only in case of high treason.'
Art. 7. In case of vacancy by death or for any other reason, the two chambers assembled together shall proceed at once to the election of a new President.
In the meantime the Council of Ministers shall be vested with the executive power.'
Art. 8. The chambers shall have the right by separate resolutions, taken in each by an absolute majority of votes, either upon their own initiative or upon the request of the President of the Republic, to declare a revision of the constitutional laws necessary.
After each of the two chambers shall have come to this de* By the law of May 24, 1872, councilors of state were elected by the National Assembly for a term of nine years. This clause therefore ceased to have any application after 1881.
* As amended by Art. 1 of the constitutional law of August 14, 1884. See 1. 4.56.
3 See Art. 12 of the constitutional law of July 16, 1875, p. 455. * See Art. 3 of the constitutional law of July 16, 1875, p. 453,
cision, they shall meet together in National Assembly to proceed with the revision.
The acts affecting revision of the constitutional laws, in whole or in part, shall be passed by an absolute majority of the members composing the National Assembly.
During the continuance, however, of the powers conferred by the law of November 20, 1873, upon Marshal de MacMahon, this revision shall take place only upon the initiative of the President of the Republic. [The republican form of government shall not be made the subject of a proposed revision. Members of families that have reigned in France are ineligible to the presidency of the Republic.']
Art. 9. The seat of the executive power and of the two chambers is at Versailles.'
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW ON THE ORGANIZATION OF
THE SENATE 3
(February 24, 1875)
ARTICLE 1. The Senate shall consist of three hundred members: two hundred and twenty-five elected by the departments and colonies, and seventy-five elected by the National Assembly.
Art. 2. The departments of the Seine and of the Nord shall each elect five senators.
The following departments shall elect four senators each: Seine-Inférieure, Pas-de-Calais, Gironde, Rhône, Finistère, Côtesdu-Nord.
The following departments shall elect three senators each: LoireInférieure, Saône-et-Loire, Ille-et-Vilaine, Seine-et-Oise, Isère, Puy-de-Dôme, Somme, Bouches-du-Rhône, Aisne, Loire, Manche, Maine-et-Loire, Morbihan, Dordogne, Haute-Garonne, CharenteInférieure, Calvados, Sarthe, Hérault, Basses-Pyrénées, Gard, Aveyron, Vendée, Orne, Oise, Vosges, Allier.
As amended by Art. 2 of the constitutional law of August 14, 1881.
Repealed by constitutional law of June 21, 1879. See law of July 22, 1879, p. 456.
* Arts. 1 to 7 of this law were deprived of their constitutional character by the constitutional law of August 14. 1884, and were repealed by law of December 9, 1884. See pp. 456, 458ff.