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alternates shall be decided, subject to an appeal to the Council of State, by the council of the prefecture, and, in the colonies, by the privy council.

“Delegates whose elections may be set aside because they do not satisfy the conditions demanded by law, or because of informality, shall be replaced by the alternates.

“In case the election of a delegate and of an alternate is annulled, or in the case of the refusal or death of both of them after their acceptance, new elections shall be held by the munieipal council on a day fixed by an order of the prefect.

"Art. 14. The first ballot shall begin at eight o'clock in the morning and close at noon. The second shall begin at two o'clock and close at five o'clock. The third shall begin at seven o'clock and close at ten o'clock. The results of the balloting shall be canvassed by the bureau and announced immediately by the president of the electoral college.

"Art. 16. Political meetings for the nomination of senators may be held from the date of the promulgation of the decree summoning the electors up to the day of the election, inclusive.

“The declaration prescribed by Article 2 of the law of June 30, 1881, shall be made by two voters, at least.'

“The forms and regulations of this article, as well as those of Article 3, shall be observed.

"The members of Parliament elected or electors in the department, the senatorial electors, delegates and alternates, and the candidates, or their representatives, may alone be present at these meetings.

“The municipal authorities shall see to it that no other person is admitted.

"Delegates and alternates shall present as a means of identification a certificate from the mayor of the commune; candidates or their representatives, a certificate from the official who shall have received the declaration mentioned in paragraph 2.

"Art. 19. Every attempt at corruption or constraint by the employment of means enumerated in Arts. 177 and following of the Penal Code, to influence the vote of an elector or to keep him from voting, shall be punished by imprisonment of from

1 The law of June 30, 1881, relates to notice which must be given to the authorities before any public meeting can be held.

three months to two years, and by a fine of from fifty francs to five hundred francs, or by either of these penalties.

"Art. 463 of the Penal Code is applicable to the penalties provided by the present article.

"Art. 23. Vacancies caused by the death or resignation of senators shall be filled within three months; however, if the vacancy occurs within six months preceding the triennial elections, it shall not be filled until those elections.”

Art. 9. There are repealed :

(1) Arts. 1 to 7 of the law of February 24, 1875, on the organization of the Senate.

(2) Arts. 24 and 25 of the law of August 2, 1875, on the elections of senators.





PREAMBLE The German People, united in all their branches, and inspired by the determination to renew and strengthen their Commonwealth in liberty and justice, to preserve peace both at home and abroad, and to foster social progress, have adopted the following Constitution.





Commonwealth and States
ARTICLE 1. The German Commonwealth is a republic.
Political authority is derived from the People.

Art. 2. The territory of the Commonwealth consists of the territories of the German States. Other territories may be incorporated into the Commonwealth by national law, if their inhabitants, exercising the right of self-determination, so desire.

Art. 3. The national colors are black, red, and gold. The merchant flag is black, white, and red, with the national colors in the upper inside corner.

1 Transl. by W. B. Munro and A. N. Holcombe, and published by the World Peace Foundation in League of Nations. Vol. II, No. 6, December, 1919,

Art. 4. The generally recognized principles of the law of nations are accepted as an integral part of the law of the German Commonwealth.

Art. 5. Political authority is exercised in national affairs by the National Government in accordance with the Constitution of the Commonwealth, and in State affairs by the State Governments in accordance with the State constitutions. ART. 6. The Commonwealth has exclusive jurisdiction over :

1. Foreign relations;
2. Colonial affairs;
3. Citizenship, freedom of travel and residence, immigration

and emigration, and extradition;
4. Organization for national defense;
5. Coinage;
6. Customs, including the consolidation of customs and trade

districts and the free interchange of goods;
7. Posts and telegraphs, including telephones.
Art. 7. The Commonwealth has jurisdiction over:

1. Civil law;
2. Criminal law;
3. Judicial procedure, including penal administration, and

official co-operation between the administrative authori

ties; 4. Passports and the supervision of aliens; 5. Poor relief and vagrancy; 6. The press, associations and public meetings; 7. Problems of population; protection of maternity, infancy,

childhood and adolescence; 8. Public health, veterinary practice, protection of plants from

disease and pests; 9. The rights of labor, social insurance, the protection of

wage-earners and other employees, and employment

bureaus; 10. The establishment of national organizations for vocational

representation; 11. Provision for war-veterans and their surviving dependents; 12. The law of expropriation; 13. The socialization of natural resources and business enter

prises, as well as the production, fabrication, distribution, and price-fixing of economic goods for the use of the

community; 14. Trade, weights and measures, the issue of paper money,

banking, and stock and produce exchanges; 15. Commerce in foodstuffs and in other necessaries of daily

life, and in luxuries; 16. Industry and mining; 17. Insurance; 18. Ocean navigation, and deep-sea and coast fisheries; 19. Railroads, internal navigation, communication by power

driven vehicles on land, on sea, and in the air; the construction of highways, in so far as pertains to gen

eral intercommunication and the national defense; 20. Theaters and cinematographs. ART. 8. The Commonwealth also has jurisdiction over taxation and other sources of income, in so far as they may be claimed in whole or in part for its purposes. If the Commonwealth claims any source of revenue which formerly belonged to the States, it must have consideration for the financial requirements of the States.

Art. 9. Whenever it is necessary to establish uniform rules, the Commonwealth has jurisdiction over:

1. The promotion of social welfare;

2. The protection of public order and safety. Art. 10. The Commonwealth may prescribe by law fundamental principles concerning:

1. The rights and duties of religious associations;
2. Education, including higher education and libraries for

scientific use;
3. The law of officers of all public bodies;
4. The land law, the distribution of land, settlements and

homesteads, restrictions on landed property, housing, and

the distribution of population; 5. Disposal of the dead. Art. 11. The Commonwealth may prescribe by law fundamental principles concerning the validity and mode of collection of State taxes, in order to prevent: 1. Injury to the revenues or to the trade relations of the


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