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the proletariat, facilitates the fundamental purpose of expropriation of the bourgeoisie and the preparation of conditions necessary for the equality of all citizens of Russia in the production and distribution of wealth. To this end it sets forth as its task the supplying of the organs of the Soviet power with all necessary funds for local and state needs of the Soviet Republic, without regard to private property rights.

80. The state expenditure and income of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic are combined in the state budget.

81. The All-Russian Congress of Soviets or the All-Russian Central Executive Committee determine what matters of income and taxation shall go to the state budget and what shall go to the local Soviets; they also set the limits of taxes.

82. The Soviets levy taxes only for the local needs. The state needs are covered by the funds of the state treasury.

83. No expenditure out of the state treasury not set forth in the budget of income and expense shall be made without a special order of the central power.

84. The local Soviets shall receive credits from the proper People's Commissars out of the state treasury, for the purpose of making expenditures for general state needs.

85. All credits allotted to the Soviets from the state treasury, and also credits approved for local needs, must be expended according to the estimates, and cannot be used for any other purposes without a special order of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Soviet of People's Commissars.

86. Local Soviets draw up semi-annual and annual estimates of income and expenditure for local needs. The estimates of urban and rural Soviets participating in county congresses, and also the estimates of the county organs of the Soviet power, are to be approved by provincial and regional congresses or by their executive committees; the estimates of the urban, provincial, and regional organs of the Soviets are to be approved by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars.

87. The Soviets may ask for additional credits from the respective People's Commissariats for expenditures not set forth in the estimate, or where the allotted sum is insufficient.

88. In case of an insufficiency of local funds for local needs, the

necessary subsidy may be obtained from the state treasury by applying to the All-Russian Central Executive Committee or the Council of People's Commissars.

ARTICLE VI

THE COAT OF ARMS AND FLAG OF THE RUSSIAN

SOCIALIST FEDERATED SOVIET REPUBLIC

CHAPTER XVII

89. The coat of arms of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic consists of a red background on which a golden scythe and a hammer are placed (crosswise, handles downward) in sunrays and surrounded by a wreath, inscribed:

Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic

Workers of the World, Unite! 90. The commercial, naval, and army flag of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic consists of a red cloti, in the left corner of which (on top, near the pole) there are in golden characters the letters R. S. F. S. R., or the inscription: Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic.

Chairman of the fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets and of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, J. Sverdloff.

Executive Officers, All-Russian Central Executive Committee: T. I. Teodorowitch, F. A. Rosin, A. P. Rosenholz, A. C. Mitrofanoff, K. G. Maximoff.

Secretary of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, V. A. Avanessoff.

APPENDIX E

IRELAND

CONSTITUTION OF THE IRISH FREE STATE

PRELIMINARY

These presents shall be construed with reference to the articles of agreement for a treaty between Great Britain and Ireland set forth in the schedule hereto annexed (hereinafter referred to as “the Scheduled Treaty”) which are hereby given the force of law, and if any provision of this constitution or of any amendment thereof or of any law made thereunder is in any respect repugnant to any of the provisions of the Scheduled Treaty, it shall, to the extent only of such repugnancy be absolutely void and inoperative and the Parliament and the Executive Council of the Irish Free State shall respectively pass such further legislation and do all such other things as may be necessary to implement the Scheduled Treaty.

SECTION I

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

ARTICLE 1. The Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) is a coequal member of the community of nations forming the British Commonwealth of Nations.

Art. 2. All powers of government and all authority, legislative, executive, and judicial, are derived from the people and the same shall be exercised in the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) through the organizations established by or under, and in accord with, this constitution.

Art. 3. Every person domiciled in the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) at the time of the coming into operation of this consti* Text published in The N. Y. Nation, issue of July 26, 1922.

tution who was born in Ireland or either of whose parents was born in Ireland or who has been so domiciled in the area of the jurisdiction of the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) for not less than seven years is a citizen of the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) and shall within the limits of the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) enjoy the privileges and be subject to the obligations of such citizenship, provided that any such person being a citizen of another state may elect not to accept the citizenship hereby conferred; and the conditions governing the future acquisition and termination of citizenship in the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) shall be determined by law. Men and women have equal rights as citizens.

Art. 4. The national language of the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) is the Irish language, but the English language shall be equally recognized as an official language. Nothing in this article shall prevent special provisions being made by the Parliament (Oireachtas) for districts or areas in which only one language is

in use.

Art. 5. No title of honor in respect of any services rendered in or in relation to the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) may be conferred on any citizen of the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) except with the approval or upon the advice of the Executive Council of the state.

Art. 6. The liberty of the person is inviolable and no person shall be deprived of his liberty except in accordance with law. Upon complaint made by or on behalf of any person that he is being unlawfully detained, the High Court (Ard Chuirt) and any and every judge thereof shall forthwith inquire into the same and may make an order requiring the person in whose custody such person shall be detained to produce the body of the person so detained before such court or judge without delay and to certify in writing as to the cause of the detention, and such court or judge shall thereupon order the release of such person unless satisfied that he is being detained in accordance with the law.

ART. 7. The dwelling of each citizen is inviolable and shall not be forcibly entered except in accordance with law.

Art. 8. Freedom of conscience and the free profession and practice of religion are inviolable rights of every citizen, and no law may be made either directly or indirectly to endow any

religion, or prohibit or restrict the free exercise thereof, or give any preference, or impose any disability on account of religious belief or religious status, or affect prejudicially the right of any child to attend a school receiving public money without attending the religious instruction at the school, or make any discrimination as respects state aid between schools under the management of different religious denominations, or divert from any religious denomination or any educational institution any of its property except for the purpose of roads, railways, lighting, water, or drainage works or other works of public utility, and on payment of compensation.

Art. 9. The right of free expression of opinion as well as the right to assemble peaceably and without arms, and to form associations or unions is guaranteed for purposes not opposed to public morality. Laws regulating the manner in which the right of forming associations and the right of free assembly may be exercised shall contain no political, religious, or class distinction.

Art. 10. All citizens of the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) have the right to free elementary education.

Art. 11. The rights of the state in and to natural resources, the use of which is of national importance, shall not be alienated. Their exploitation by private individuals or associations shall be permitted only under state supervision and in accordance with conditions and regulations approved by legislation.

SECTION II

LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS

A. The Legislature

Art. 12. A Legislature is hereby created to be known as the Parliament of the Irish Free State (Oireachtas). It shall consist of the King and two houses: the Chamber of Deputies (Dail Eireann) and the Senate (Seanad Eireann). The power of making laws for the peace, order, and good government of the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) is vested in the Parliament (Oireachtas).

Art. 13. The Parliament (Oireachtas) shall sit in or near the city of Dublin or in such other place as from time to time it may determine.

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