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Art. 76. As respects departmental property, assets, rights, and liabilities, the Government of the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) shall be regarded as the successors of the Provisional Government, and, to the extent to which functions of any department of the British Government become functions of the Government of the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann), as the successors of such department of the British Government.

Art. 77. After the date on which this constitution comes into operation the House of the Parliament elected in pursuance of the Irish Free State (Agreement) Act, 1922 (being the constituent assembly for the settlement of this constitution) may, for a period not exceeding one year from that date, but subject to compliance by the members thereof with the provisions of Article 17 of this constitution, exercise all the powers and authorities conferred on the Chamber (Dail Eireann) by this constitution, and the first election for the Chamber (Dail Eireann) under Articles 26 and 27 hereof shall take place as soon as possible after the expiration of such period.

Art. 78. The first Senate (Seanad Eireann) shall be constituted immediately after the coming into operation of this constitution in the manner following, that is to say:

(a) The first Senate (Seanad) shall consist of two members elected by each of the universities in the Irish Free State (Saorstat Eireann) and fifty-six other members, of whom twenty-eight shall be elected and twenty-eight shall be nominated;

(b) The twenty-eight nominated members of the Senate (Seanad) shall be nominated by the president of the Executive Council who shall, in making such nominations, have special regard to the providing of representation for groups or parties not adequately represented in the Chamber (Dail);

(c) The twenty-eight elected members of the Senate (Seanad) shall be elected by the Chamber (Dail Eireann) voting on principles of proportional representation;

(d) Of the university members one member elected by each university, to be selected by lot, shall hold office for six years, the remaining university members shall hold office for the full period of twelve years;

(e) Of the twenty-eight nominated members fourteen, to be selected by lot, shall hold office for the full period of twelve years,

the remaining fourteen shall hold office for the period of six years;

(f) Of the twenty-eight elected members the first fourteen elected shall hold office for the period of nine years, the remaining fourteen shall hold office for the period of three years;

(9) At the termination of the period of office of any such members, members shall be elected in their place in manner provided by Article 31;

(h) Casual vacancies shall be filled in manner provided by Article 33;

(i) For the purpose of the election of members for any university under this article, all persons whose names appear on the register for the university in force at the date of the coming into operation of this constitution shall, notwithstanding anything in Article 14, be entitled to vote.

Art. 79. The passing and adoption of this constitution by the Constituent Assembly and the British Parliament shall be announced as soon as may be, and not later than the sixth day of December, nineteen hundred and twenty-two, by proclamation of His Majesty and this constitution shall come into operation on the issue of such proclamation.




(September 17, 17874)

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


SECTION 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.

SEC. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding

* This is the date upon which the constitution was agreed upon by the constitutional convention; according to the terms of the constitution it became effective on June 21, 1788, after ratification by nine states. The date set by Congress for proceedings to begin under the constitution was March 4, 1789, but the government was actually not organized until April of that year.

to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 1 Amended by the second section of the fourteenth amendment, p. 564.

According to the present apportionment, based on the 1910 census, there are now 435 members of the House of Representatives, there being approximately one member to 212,000 people.


The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

Sec. 4. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Sec. 5. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the

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