Imagens das páginas
PDF
ePub

METHOD OF CHOICE, SIZE OF CONSTITUENCIES, QUALIFICATIONS OF MEMBERS, TENURE OF

OFFICE, ETC., OF LEGISLATIVE IN DIFFERENT STATES (Continued)

[blocks in formation]

Italy

508

5 years

15,000 lire per annum

Electoral

districts Direct election, with Qualified citizens at
consist of Provinces Scrutin de liste. least 30 years of
represented by at Voters, male and age. Government
least 10 deputies. female, must be officials and ecclesi-
The largest district, adult citizens astics are not eligi-
Milan, sends 20

ble deputies

[blocks in formation]

Life

None

Number which may Nomination by the Over 40 years of age be appointed by king

and of special disking is not limited Princes of the blood tinction in any of 1 representative for Direct election by Qualified citizen, 25 2 years $7500 a year each 212,407 popu- qualified voters in years of age, 7 years

Italy

(1920) 368

have the right to several branches membership upon the attainment of their majority

METHOD OF CHOICE, SIZE OF CONSTITUENCIES, QUALIFICATIONS OF MEMBERS, TENURE OF

OFFICE, ETC., OF LEGISLATIVE IN DIFFERENT STATES (Continued)

TENURE OF

OFFICE

SALARY

and travel-
lation
single electoral dis- a resident of the

ing expenses
A reapportionment tricts

at 20€ per
is made after each

mile
census, but thus far

Speaker has
none has been made

sa la ry of
to correspond to

$12,000
figures of the 1920

year
census

a

LOWER CHAMBER

COUNTRY

TOTAL
MEMBERSHIP

SIZE OF CONSTITUENCIES

METHOD OF CHOICE

QUALIFICATIONS OF

MEMBERS

United States 135 divided

among the
common-
wealths on
a basis of
population

United States, and

resident of the

commonwealth from

which chosen

UPPER CHAMBER

COUNTRY

TOTAL MEMBERSHIP

SIZE OF CONSTITUENCIES

METHOD OF CHOICE

QUALIFICATIONS OF

MEMBERS

TENURE OF

OFFICE

SALARY

United States

96

size

2 members from each By direct election Qualified citizen, 30 6 years Same as for
commonwealth ir- by qualified voters years old, 9 years

lower house,
respective of the

a resident of the

but the Vice
or population

United States, and

President of
of the

resident
the

the United wealth

commonwealth from

States acts which chosen

as presiding officer

common

in

CHAPTER V

THE EXECUTIVE

I. EXECUTIVE AS AGENT OF THE LEGISLATIVE

The executive is primarily that organ of government which is responsible for putting the laws into effect and securing their due operation throughout the state. Thus, primarily, the executive is the administrative agent of the legislative.

Duties and Functions of Executive as Administrative Agent of Legislative.—The duties and functions of the executive when acting in his primary capacity as the administrative agent of the legislative are varied and important. The executive is responsible for the coilection of all public moneys, whether from internal taxation or from tariff on imports, and for the expenditure of such moneys; for the relations of the state with all other states in the family of nations; for the maintenance of the national defense by the use of the army and navy if needful; for the preservation of civil rights to individual citizens by the use of the police power if necessary; for the utilization of the natural resources of the country in a manner which shall most benefit the whole body of the citizens of the state; for the efficient supervision of all agencies affecting the general interests of all citizens, as agencies of transportation, communication, and the like; for the insurance of equitable relations between the great bodies of capital and labor, that the general prosperity of business may be forwarded at the same time that the rights of individuals are safeguarded. Such are among the most important functions of the executive organ acting as the administrative agent of the legislative in a modern democratic state.

Personnel of Executive Necessary to Act as Administrative Agent of Legislative.—The personnel of the executive department charged with administering the laws of the country is large in number. All members of the army and navy, all the officials of the various departments of state, as the State Department, the Treasury Department, the Department of the Interior, etc., all diplomatic and consular representatives, all revenue collectors of whatever kind, all of the thousands of assistants, clerks, and the like necessary for the subordinate duties in the various departments,-all these are a part of the executive in that they are concerned, however humbly, with the administration of the laws of the state. In its personnel the executive far outnumbers the other branches of government.

Unity Advisable for Executive Head. For the headship of this great department experience has proved that it is wise to have a single person. For legislative deliberation many heads are better than one, but for executive action, the requirements of unity, resolution, and at times quickness of decision are best served by one head. Thus we find a king, an emperor, a czar, a sultan, a president, or the like at the head of each of the governments in the civilized world to-day. Switzerland presents the single notable exception to this general rule in that it has an executive head composed of a council of seven persons, each sharing the actual executive power equally with his colleagues.

Nominal and Actual Executive Heads.-A distinction should be observed between those states in which the executive head is actually in control of his functions, and those in which the executive head is only nominally in control, his functions being actually determined by others. In the United States the executive head, the President, is an actual executive. He may receive advice and may consult with many persons both in and out of official life, but the final decision and all the responsibility rest with him. In England, France, post-war Germany, and Italy, on the contrary, a body of ministers determines the policy and dictates the action of the executive

head. The executive head in these states is still a single person, and all executive action must be taken nominally by him, but in actual fact decision and responsibility rest upon the body of ministers.

Appointment of Assistants to Executive Head.—To cope with the vast amount of business included in the administration of the laws, a correspondingly vast number of officials is necessary. The selection and supervision of these officials in a large measure fall upon the executive head. Thus he appoints diplomatic representatives, postmasters, officers of the army and navy (although these appointments are now largely a matter of regular promotion), revenue agents, and the like. Much of the success of his administration depends upon the wisdom of his choice.

In various countries the abuse of the appointing power in its exercise to repay political debts, thus ousting worthy employees of the state and replacing them with inexperienced persons, has led to the establishment of a civil service system, whereby a large number of positions in the service of the state are open to merit as shown by competitive examinations. Thus, in the United States, certain grades of postmasters and a large proportion of the clerks engaged in executive departments hold their positions secure from political changes. The number and importance of the offices remaining under the direct appointing power of the President in this country, however, still make this power one of the most important he wields for the good or evil of the administration.

Responsibility of Executive Head for the Work Done by His Appointees. It is not to be understood that the responsibility of the executive head ends with the appointment of a subordinate in the department. If the governor-general of India is at fault in any matter, the responsibility falls upon the English ministry to whom he is subordinate; if the French representative in Tangiers makes trouble for his nation, the attack in France is made upon the ministry conducting the government; if our foreign minister to Mexico involves us in

« AnteriorContinuar »