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such a thing on him. Can any man believe that God is the just and gracious Ruler of the world, (that is, thatt here is a God,) and yet that he would so long suffer such things to be published as his undoubted laws, and give no testimony against it, if it were not true? As Perkins saith, ' Cases of Cons.' (lib. ji.c. 3. p. 130. sect. 1.) If it had not been God's word, the falsehood had been detected long ago. For there hath been nothing falsely said of God at any time which he himself hath not, at some time or other, opened and revealed; as he did the false prophets.


The Fourth Argument.

Sect. I. My fourth and last argument, which I will now produce to prove the Scripture to be the word and perfect law of God, is this:

Either the Scriptures are the written word and law of God, or else there is no such extant in the world : but there is a written word and law of God in the world : ergo, this is it.

Here I have these two positions to prove; First, That God hath such a written word in the world. Secondly, That it can be no other but this.

That there is such a word, I prove thus : If it cannot stand with the welfare of mankind, and consequently with that honour which the wisdom and goodness of God hath by their welfare, that the world should be without a written law, then, certainly, there is such a written law. But that it cannot stand with the welfare of the creature, or that honour of God, appears thus: that there be a certain and sufficient revelation of the will of God to man, more than mere nature and creatures do teach, is necessary to the welfare of man, and the aforesaid honour of God. But there is now no such certain and sufficient revelation unwritten in the world: therefore, it is necessary that there be such a revelation written.

The proof of the major is the main task, 9 which if it be well

9 I do of purpose pass over those things which others have fully written of, because I would nut trouble the world so often with the same words which others have said before us. In particular, to prove the absolute necessity that there must be some written word among and above others, great Camero hath done it fully, · Prælect. de Verbo Dei,' c. 4-6, Operum, (fol.) pp. 450, 451, &c., and shows how lamentably even the wisest of the philosophers were besotted and ignorant.

performed, will clearly carry the who.e cause ; for I believe all the rest will quickly be granted, if that be once plain. Therefore, I shall stand a little more largely to prove it, viz., that there is a necessity for the welfare of man, and the honour of God's wisdom and goodness, that there be some further revelation of God's will, than is in mere nature or creatures to be found. And first I prove it necessary to the welfare of man, and that thus : If man have a happiness or misery to partake of after this life, and no sufficient revelation of it in nature or creatures, then it is necessary that he have some other revelation of it, which is sufficient. But such a happiness or misery man must partake of hereafter, which nature and creatures do not sufficiently reveal, (either end or means,) therefore some other is necessary. I will stand the largelier on the first branch of the antecedent, because the chief weight lieth on it; and I scarce ever knew any doubt of Scripture, but they also doubted of the immortal state and recompense of souls; and that usually is their first and chiefest doubt.

I will, therefore, here prove these three things in order thus : 1. That there is such a state for man hereafter. 2. That it is necessary that he know it, and the way to be so happy. 3. That nature and creatures do not sufficiently reveal it.

For the first, I take it for granted, that there is a God, because nature teacheth that ;r and I shall pass over those arguments drawn from his righteousness and just dispensation, to prove the variety of men's future conditions, because they are commonly known; and I shall now argue from sense itself, because that works best with sensual men: and that thus. If the devil be very diligent to deceive men of that happiness, and to bring them to that misery, then sure there is such a happiness and misery: but the former is true, s ergo the latter. They that doubt of the major proposition, do most of them doubt, whether there be any devil, as well as whether he seek our eternal undoing. I prove both together. First, By his temptation ; Secondly, Apparitions ; Thirdly, Their possessions and dispossessions; Fourthly, His contracts with witches. I hope these are palpable discoveries.

See Justin Martyr, Serm. ad Gent., proving the unity of the Godhead out of the heathens themselves, Orpheus, the Sybils, Sophocles, Homer, Plato, Pythagoras, &c.

& Hear what a heathen saith of the life to come. Miraris hominem ad Deos ire? Deus ad homiues venit; immo, quod propius est, ju homines venit. Nulla sive Deo mens bona est Semiva in corporibus humanis divina dispersa sunt; quæ si bonus cultor excipit, similia origine prodeunt, et paria his ex qui. bus orta sunt surguut; si malus, non aliter quam humus sterilis ac palustris necat, ac deinde creat purgamenta pro frugibus.–Senec. Epist. Ixxiii. p. 278, 279. edit. Elsev, 1672.

1. The temptations of Satan are sometimes so unnatural, so violent, and so importunate, that the tempted person even feels something besides himself persuading and urging him: he cannot go about his calling, he cannot be alone, but he feels somewhat following him, with persuasions to sin, yea, to sins that he never found his nature much inclined to, and such as bring him no advantage in the world, and such as are quite against the temperature of his body. Doth it not plainly tell us, that there is a devil, labouring to deprive man of his happiness, when men are drawn to cominit such monstrous sins ? t Such cruelty as the Romans used to the Jews at the taking of Jerusalem ; so many thousand Christians so barbarously murdered ; such bloody actions as those of Nero, Caligula, Sylla, Messala, Caracalla, the Roman gladiators, the French massacre, the gunpowder-plot, the Spanish inquisition, and their murdering fifty millions of Indians in forty two years, according to the testimony of Acosta, their Jesuit; men invading their own neighbours and brethren, with an unquenchable thirst after their blood, and merely because of their strictness in the common professed religion : I say, How could these come to pass, but by the instigation of the devil? When we see men making a jest of such sins as these, making them their pleasure, impudently, and implacably against knowledge and conscience, proceeding in them, hating those ways that they know to be bet

+ Suadent autem miris invisibilibus modis, per illam subtilitatem suorum corporum, corpora hominuin non sentientium penetrando, seseque cogitationibus eorum per quædam imaginaria, visa misceudo, sive vigilantium, sive dormientium.- Aug. de Divin. Demon. cap. 5. Nou potest dæmon instruere novas formas in materiam corporalem, unde nec per consequens in sensum et imaginatjouein in quibus mil recipitur siue organo corporali, unde relin, quitur, ut aliquid præexistat in corpore, quod per quandaw transmutationem localem spirituum et humorum reducitur ad principia sensualiuin organorum; ut sic videantur ab anima imaginaria vel sensuali visiove.- Aquin. 1.9. 16. a. 1. Experimur multas sæpe nobis invitis malas cogitationes in mentem ubrepere. Unde vero bæ cogitationes ? Ab aliquo certe agente eas commovente. Non à nobis ; quia inviti illas patimur; non ab angelis bonis, neque à Deo per illos, quia cogitationes malæ sunt. A diabolis igitur sunt.--Zanch, tom. 3. lib. iv. «De Potent. Dæmon.'c. d. p. 191.

ter, and all those persons that would help to save them; yea, choosing sin, though they believe it will damn them; despairing, and yet sinning still : doth not this tell men plainly, that there is a devil; their enemy? When men will commit the sin which they abhor in others, which reason is against; when men of otherwise a good nature, as Vespasian, &c., shall be so bloody murderers; when men will not be stirred from sin by any entreaty, though their dearest friends should beg, with tears, upon their knees; though preachers convince them, and beseech them in the name of the Lord; though wife and children, body and soul, be undone by it; nay, when men will be the same under the greatest judgment, and under the most wonderful convincing providences, as appears in England, yea, under miracles themselves.

Surely I think all this shows that there is a devil, and that he is diligent in working our own ruin. Why else should it be so hard a thing to persuade a man to that, which he is convinced to be good ?

Sect. II. But yet if this be not evidence sufficient, the frequent apparitions of Satan in several shapes, drawing men, or frighting them into sin, is a discovery undeniable. u I know many are very incredulous herein, and will hardly believe that there have been such apparitions. For my own part, though I am as suspicious as most in such reports, and do believe that most of them are conceits or delusions, yet having been very diligently inquisitive in all such cases, I have received undoubted testimony of the truth of such apparitions ; some from the mouths of men of undoubted honesty and godliness, and some from the report of multitudes of persons, who heard or saw. Were it fit here to name the persons, I could send you to them yet living, by whom you would be as fully satisfied as I : houses that have been so frequently haunted with such terrors, that the inhabitants successively have been witnesses of it.

Learned godly Zanchius, in his tom. 3. lib. iv. cap. 10. “De Potentia Dæmonum,' saith, “ he wonders that any should deny that there are such spirits, as from the effects are called hags, or fairies, that is, such as exercise familiarity with men, and do, without hurting men's bodies, come to them, and trouble them, and, as it were, play with them. I could (saith he) bring

u Lege Epistolam Vossii de Samuele apparente Saulo, in Joan. Beverovicii Epistolis ; et D. Reignul. de Samuele apparente, in variis prælectionibus de lib. Apoc.

many examples of persons yet alive, that have experience of these in themselves. But it is not necessary to name them, nor indeed convenient. But hence it appears that there are such spirits in the air : and that when God permits them, they exercise their power on our bodies, either to sport, or to hurt.” So far Zanchy. And he makes this use of it: “Of this (saith he), besides the certainty of God's word, we have also men's daily experience. These devils, therefore, do serve to confirm our faith of God, of the good angels, of the kingdom of heaven, of the blessed souls, and of many things more which the Scripture delivereth. Many deny that the soul of man remaineth and liveth after death, because they see nothing go from him but his breath; and they come to that impiety, that they laugh at all that is said of another life. But we see not the devils; and yet it is clearer than the sun, that this air is full of devils ; because, besides God's word, experience itself doth teach it.” Thus Zanchy pleads undeniable experience, (lib. iv. c. 20. p. 212.)

Luther affirmed of himself that at Coburge, he ofttimes had an apparition of burning torches; the sight thereof did so affright him, that he was near swooning; also, in his own garden, the devil appeared to him in the likeness of a black boar, but then he made light of it. Sozomen, in his Ecclesiastical History, writes of Apelles, a smith, famous in Egypt for working miracles, who, in the night, while he was at work, was tempted to uncleanness by the devil, appearing in the shape of a beautiful woman. The like he tells of a strange apparition in Antioch, the night before the sedition against Theodosius. Theodorus mentions a fearful sight that appeared to Gennadius, patriarch of Constantinople, and the threatening words which it uttered. The writings of Gregory, Ambrose, Austin, Chrysostom, Nicephorus, &c., make frequent mention of apparitions, and relate the several stories at large. You may read in Lavater de Spectris,? several other relations of apparitions out of Alexander ab Alexandro, Baptista Fulgosius, and others. Ludovicus Vives, (lib. i.) ' De Veritate Fidei,' saith, “that among the savages in America, nothing is more common than to hear and see spirits in such shapes both day and night.”a The like do other writers testify of those Indians : so saith Olaus Magnus of the islanders. Cardanus de Subtilit. hath many such stories,

* Melch. Adam. in Vita Luther. y Suzomen. lib. vi. c. 28, lib. vii. c. 23. 2 Lavater, pp. 64, 65. . a De Gent, Sep. lib. ii. c. 3. VOL. XXII.

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