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åt already, or sought for that which he knew not he had lost? “ The whole need not the physician, but they that are sick.” (Matt. ix. 12.)
Sect.VI. 6. Here is also supposed, a superior, moving cause, and an influence therefrom, else should we all stand still, and not move à step forward towards our rest; any more than the inferior wheels in the watch would stir, if you take away the spring, or first mover. This primum movens is God. What hand God hath in evil actions, or whether he afford the like influence to their production, I will not here trouble this discourse and the reader to dispute. The case is clear in good actions. If God move us not, we cannot move: therefore, it is a most necessary part of our christian wisdom, to keep our subordination to God, and dependance on him ; to be still in the path where he walks, and in that way where his Spirit doth most usually move. Take heed of being estranged or separated from God, or of slacking your daily, expectations of renewed help, or of growing insensible of the necessity of the continual influence and assistance of the Spirit. When you once begin to trust your stock of habitual grace, and to depend on your own understanding or resolution for duty and holy walking, you: are then in a dangerous, declining state. In every duty remember Christ's words, “Without me ye can do nothing;” (John xv. 5;) and, “ not that we are sufficient of ourselves, to do any thing as of ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God.” (2 Cor. ii. 5.)
Seet. VII. 7. Here is supposed an internal principle of life in the person. God moves not man like a stone, but by enduing him first with life, not to enable him to move without God, but thereby to qualify him to move himself, in subordination to God the first Mover. What the nature of this spiritual life is, is a question exceeding difficult. Whether, as some think, (but, as Ijudge, erroneously,)'it be Christ himself in person or essence, or the
c Qui rixas et disputationes inanes de hac re sapienter pensabit, et simul rei altitudinem et humani ingenii imbecillitatem, mirabitur procul dubio hominum pervicaciam, et audacem ignorantiam, qui nec adhuc hanc litem et animorum acerbitatem deponere volunt! Qui tandem produxit inter pontificiorum doctissimos protracta hac contentio ? viz. inter Jesuitas et Domini. canos, quos prædeterminantes vocant! Frustra tandem conciliante Aribal (ut ex D. Petavii et Richardi scriptis contra August, et Vincent. Lirinensem, et aliorum patet.) Quid tandem profecerunt nostrorum de hisce dissidia ? et tamen nec unanimés sunius qui videmur unanimes. O quando cognoscent Theologi quam minimum de inscrutabilibus hisce norint præcipue de actibus Dei immanentibus, qui sunt ipsius essentia!
a I speak not here de grutiâ operante, but de gratia operatd í nót of the
Holy Ghost personally; or as some will distinguish, with what sense I know not, it is the person of the Holy Ghost, but not personally. Whether it be an accident or quality; or whether it be a spiritual substance, as the soul itself; whether it be only an act, or a disposition, or a habit, as it is generally taken; whether a habit infused, or acquired by frequent acts, to which' the soul hath been morally persuaded; or whether it be somewhat distinct from a habit ; i. e, a power ; viz., potentia proxima intelligendi, credendi, volendi, 8C. in spiritualibus; which some think the most probable. A multitude of such difficulties occur, which will be difficulties while the doctrine of spirits and spiritualities is so dark to us, and that will be while the dust of mortality and corruption is in our eyes. This is my comfort, that death will shortly blow out this dust, and then I shall be resolved of these and many more. In the meantime, I am a sceptic, and know little in this whole doctrine of spirits and spiritual workings, further than Scripture clearly revealeth, and think we might do well to keep closer to its language. .
Sect. VIII. Here is presupposed before rest, an actual motion : rest is the end of motion: no motion, no rest. Christianity is not a sedentary profession or employment, nor doth it consist in mere negatives. It is not for feeding, or clothing, &c., that Christ condemns. Not doing good, is not the least evil : sitting still will lose you heaven, as well as if you run from it. I know when we have done all, we are unprofitable servants; and he cannot be a Christian, that relies upon the supposed merit of his works, in proper sense ; but yet he that hides his talent, shall receive the wages of a slothful servant.
cause, but the effect; for I doubt not to affirm, so far as these obscure things are known to us on the ordinary grounds, that it is the very essence of God which worketh grace on the soul; for it is his velle effectivum, his will. God needs do no more to produce the creature or any quality in it, but only to will it, as Dr. Twisse saith, and Bradwardine more fully and peremptorily: and God's will is bis essence, I speak on the supposition of God's immediate operation ; for if God work grace by angels, or any second causes, then it cannot be thus said of the act of the second cause, at least so certainly : but of God's act it is still true. So Clemens Alexandr. As God's will is his work, and that is called the world; so his will is man's salvation, and that is called the church.-Cl. Al. Pædagog. 1. i. c. 6.
e Nos enim qui totam fidem in carne administrandum credimus, immo et per carnem cujus est, et os, ad proferendum optimum quemque sermonem, et Jingua ad non blasphemandum, et cor ad non indignandum, et manus ad operaħdum et largiendum, tam vetustatem hominis quam novitatem ad moralem, non ad substantialem differentiam pertinere defendimus. Tertul. I. De Anima. c, xlv, p. (mibi) 412.
Sect. IX. 9. Here is presupposed, also, as motion, so such motion as is rightly ordered and directed toward the end ; not all motion, labour, seeking, that brings to rest. Every way leads not to this end; but he whose goodness hath appointed the end, hath in his wisdom, and by his sovereign authority, appointed the way. Our own invented ways may seem to us more wise, comely, equal, pleasant; but that is the best key that will open the lock, which none but that of God's appointing will do. O the pains that sinners take, and worldlings take, but not for this rest! O the pains and cost that many an ignorant and superstitious soul is at for this rest, but all in vain ! How many have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge; who, being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God: nor known, “ that Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.” (Rom. x. 2—4.) Christ is the door; the only way to this rest. Some will allow nothing else to be called the way, lest it derogate from Christ. The truth is, Christ is the only way to the Father; yet faith is the way to Christ; and Gospel obedience, or faith and works, the way for those to walk in, that are in Christ. There be, as before, many ways requisite in subordination to Christ, but none in co-ordination with him; so then it is only God's way that will lead to this end and rest.
Cum enim homo sit per naturam mobilis, et si honesta sponte sua refugit, non tamen à motu quievit. Movetur itaque non jam quidem ad virtutem, Dec ad videndum Deum; sed quæ non sunt, versans vires suas pervertit; abutens his ad eas, quas excogitavit concupiscentias carnis; est quippe condita libera; potest bona ut eligere, ita et adversari, &c.-Athanas. lib. 1. cont. Gen. Trans.
8 Object. If many conditions are required in those that are to be justified, then we are not justified of mere grace. Answ. I distinguish of conditions. If many conditions are required in the justified which bear proportion with God's justice, I grant all. But if the conditions which are required in those that must be justified do bear no proportion with God's justice, I deny that it thence follows that justification is not of mere grace. For it is not all conditions that are excluded by grace, but those which may bear the nature of merit. Camero, in “Op. Fol. impres. p. 365 ; “ Cum igitur operibus justifi. catio negatur, vis justificandi meritoria negatur.” John Crocius De Justif.,' disput. xii. p. 666. So Rivius Tractat. de Redemp. Dr. Fownds, of Christ's three Offices ;' Rivet. • On Genes.,' and generally our divines, against the papists, do oppose the merit of works, as the point wherein our difference lieth. They make it all one to say that works do not justify, and they do not merit: meaning by works, as Paul doth, such as make the reward to be not of grace, but of debt. (Rom. iv. 3, 4.) But obedience to Christ, as a condition only, they deny not.
Sect. X. 10. There is supposed, also, as motion rightly ordered, so strong and constant motion, which may reach the end. If there be not strength put to the bow, the arrow will not reach the mark: the lazy world, that think all too much, will find this to their cost one day. They that think less ado might have served, do but reproach Christ for making us so much to do: they that have been most holy, watchful, painful, to get faith and assurance, do find, when they come to die, all too little. We see, daily, the best Christians, when dying, repent their negligence : I never knew any, then, repent his holiness and diligence. It would grieve a man's soul to see a multitude of mistaken sinners lay out their wit, and care, and pains, for å thing of nought, and think to have eternal salvation with a wish. If the way to heaven be not far harder than the world imagines, then Christ and his apostles knew not the way, or else have deceived us; for they have told us, “that the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence; that the gate is strait, and the way narrow; and we must strive, if we will enter; for many shall seek to enter, and not be able,” ” which implies the faintness of their seeking, and that they put not strength to the work; and,“ that the righteous themselves are scarcely saved.” If ever souls ob tain salvation in the world's common, careless, easy way, then I will say there is a nearer way found out than ever God, in Scripture, hath revealed to the sons of men. But when they have obtained life and rest in this way, let them boast of it; till then, let them give us leave, who would fain go upon sure grounds, in point of eternal salvation, to believe that God knows the way better than they, and that his word is a true and infallible discovery thereof.
I have seen this doctrine also thrown by with contempt by others, who say, "What, do you set us a-working for heaven? Doth our duty do any thing? Hath not Christ done all ? Is not this to make him a half Saviour, and to preach law?'.
Answ. It is to preach the law of Christ : his subjects are not lawless. It is to preach duty to Christ: no more exact a
h Matt. xi. 12; Matt. vii. 13; Luke xiii. 24, 25; 1 Pet. iv. 18.
1 Age Marcion, omnesque jam commiserones et credibiles ejus hæretici, quid audebitis dicere? Resciditne Christus priora præcepta, non occidendi, nou adulterandi, non furandi, non falsum testandi, diligendi patrem et matrem? An et illa servavit, et quod deerat, adjecit ?-Tertul. udvers. Marcion, lib. 4. €. xxxvi. p. 524. Christus interrogatus à quodam, præceptor optime, quid faciens vitem æternam possidebo? De præceptis creatoris, an ea sciret, id est, faceret, expostulavit: ad contestandum præceptis creatoris vitam acquiri sempiternam.-Tertul. ubi supra.
réquirer of duty, or hater of sin, than Christ. Christ hath done, and will do all his work, and therefore is a perfect Saviour; but yet leaves for us a work too. He hath paid all the price, and left us none to pay; yet he never intended his purchase should put us into absolute, immediate, personal title to glory, in point of law, much less into immediate possession. What title, improperly so called, we may have from his own, and his Father's secret counsel, is nothing to the question: he hath purchased the crown to bestow only on condition of believing, denying all for him, suffering with him, persevering and overcoming. He hath purchased justification, to bestow only on condition of our believing; yea, repenting and believing. That the first grace hath any such condition, I will not affirm; but following mercies have; though it is Christ that enableth also to perform the condition. It is not a Saviour offered, but received also, that must save: it is not the blood of Christ shed only, but applied also, that must fully deliver ; nor is it applied to the justification or salvation of a sleepy soul; nor doth Christ carry us to heaven in a chair of security. Where he will pardon, he will make you pray, “Forgive us our trespasses ; ” and where he will give righteousness, he will give hungering and thirsting. It is not through any imperfection in Christ, that the righteous are scarcely saved ; 110, nor that the wicked perish, as they shall be convinced one day. In the same sense as the prayer of the faithful, if fervent, availeth for outward mercies, in the same sense it prevaileth for salvation also; for Christ hath purchased both. And as baptism is said to save us, so other duties too. Our righteousness, which the law of works requireth, and by which it is satisfied, is wholly in Christ, and not one grain in ourselves ; nor must we dare to think of patching up a legal righteousness of Christ's and our own together : that is, that our doings can be the least part of satisfaction for our sins, or proper merit. But yet ourselves must personally fulfil the conditions of the new covenant, and so have a personal, evangelical righteousness, or never be saved by Christ's righteousness; therefore, say not it is
k Ut actus justificandi, sic ejus modus et ratio tota dependet à Dei voluntate-Johan. Crocius de Justif. Disput. xii. p. 656,
1 Adjunxit plane et addidit legem, certa nos conditione et sponsione constringens, ut sic nobis dimitti debita postulemus, ut ipsi debitoribus nostris dimittimus, scientes impetrari non posse quod pro peccatis petimus, nisi et ipsi, &c.—Cyprian. in Orat. Dominic. sect. xvii. p. 314. Lege Clem. Alexandr. Stromat. lib. 2, pauld post init, against those that cry down law and fear. (Gal. iii. 3.)