Smokeless Tobacco and Some Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines
IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer
World Health Organization, 2007 - 626 páginas
This eighty-ninth volume of the IARC Monographs is the third and last of a series on tobacco-related agents. Volume 83 reported on the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking (second-hand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke) (IARC 2004a). Volume 85 summarized the evidence on the carcinogenic risk of chewing betel quid with and without tobacco (IARC 2004b). That volume explored the variety of products chewed in South Asia and other parts of the word that contain areca nut in combination with other ingredients, often including tobacco. In this eighty-ninth volume, the carcinogenic risks associated with the use of smokeless tobacco, including chewing tobacco and snuff, are considered in a first monograph. The second monograph reviews some tobacco-specific nitrosamines. These agents were evaluated earlier in Volume 37 of the Monographs (IARC 1985) and information gathered since that time has been summarized and evaluated.
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acid adducts adenomas alcoholic aldehyde animals betel quid brands Brunnemann buccal Carcinogenesis carcinogenicity cardiovascular Carmella case–control study cells chewers chewing tobacco cigarette smoking contd controls cotinine detected disease Djordjevic DMBA dry snuff enzymes etal evaluation exposure female former smokers gene golden hamsters Gupta gutka hamsters Health Hecht Hoffmann human IARC incidence increased India induced injections Keto aldehyde khaini Lactol lesions leukoplakia levels liver lung tumours male metabolism metabolites mice microsomes mishri moist snuff mucosa mutagenic mutations Nair never users nicotine nitrosamines NNAL-Gluc non-users of tobacco observed odds ratio oral cancer oral cavity papillomas prevalence rats relative risk reported response rate saliva significantly smokeless tobacco products smokeless tobacco users snuff tobacco snuff users squamous-cell carcinomas Sweden Table tissues tobacco chewing tobacco smoke tobacco-specific nitrosamines toombak TSNA tumours urine users of smokeless users of tobacco weeks of age women