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forest called Selwood. This was about the end HERALDIC. —-1. Supposing a woman, not an of the ninth century.

R. C. A. P. heiress, to marry and to become a widow, and then

to marry again, what arms should her second THE DRAGON.-- What is the earliest delinea

| husband impale? Those of her father, or those tion of the dragon, and had it two or four legs? l of her first husband ?

M. D. 1 2. If a man who, though in the position of a EASTERN STORY. At the end of the thirty- gentleman, is not legally entitled to any armorial eighth chapter of Great Expectations allusion is / bearings should marry an heiress, can the issue of made to the Eastern story of a heavy slab that this marriage bear the mother's arms in any waywas to fall on a bed of state. Where is the story?

i. e, simply, or with some difference ? Don.

W. M. H. C. SIR CHARLES EGERTON, KNIGHT. -- Wanted,

HERBERT OF MUCKRUSS.—Mr. Henry Arthur information on this “knight” (probably a foreign

Herbert of Muckruss married on Oct. 28, 1781, honour), who was living in 1651. Henry Vaughan,

Elizabeth, second daughter of Viscount Sackville. the Silurist, dedicated two volumes to him. I

Did this lady, who was born July 4, 1762, prehave searched in vain in many quarters, and

decease her husband? What are the dates of others for me, with equal unsuccess. Required

their respective deaths ?

H. O. M. immediately, and therefore answers will please be ROBERT KECK.-Can any of your readers inaddressed to Rev. A. B. GROSART, St. George's, form me whether there is any portrait in existBlackburn, Lancashire.

ence of Mr. Robert Keck, who purchased the EQUIVALENT FOREIGN TITLES.-By what court

portrait of Shakespeare (afterwards known as the

Chandos portrait) of Mrs. Barry the actress ? I can foreign titles used in England be tested? So

believe I have a portrait of this gentleman, which far as I can understand, an English armiger ranks with a foreign noble, while English peers are de

came from Minchenden House, Southgate, but

cannot identify it for certain unless by comparison facto more than a match for mere titular princes,

| with an undisputed picture of Mr. Keck. whose claims cannot be referred to a committee

F. L. COLVILE. of privileges, and who are therefore only to be

Leek-Wotton, Warwick. taken for what they may be worth in each one's opinion. It does seem wrong, however, that tests

LAIND.-Can a " portioner" of land be proapplied to our own nobles and gentry should be

| perly styled “Laird," as I see Mr. ROGERS, in his waived in the case of strangers. At this rate

account of the Roger family, portioners of Coupar many noblemen and untitled gentry have equal

Grange (4th S. vi. 482), treats the designations as pretensions to royal descent from Saxon and Welsh

synonymous ? The possession of an entire barony kings and princes, but how absurd were Lord

in fee-simple appears to me to be necessary to Howden to style himself H.R.II. Prince Caradoc.

constitute a landed proprietor a laird. If every T-N.

“ portioner," i. e. every proprietor of one or more

| portions of a parish or barony, be a laird, that title "LE FARCEUR DU JOUR ET DE LA NUIT." — has lost its meaning-laird or lord = baron, one I have a very badly printed and faulty copy of who, originally at least, held a barony directly this little book. Will some one oblige me with from the crown.

C. S. K. the words given below? The lines count from St. Peter's Square, Hammersmith, W. the top of the page.

PEDIGREE OF NORTIMER. — Sir Edmund de Page 16. Two first words of lines 4, 5, 14, 17, 18. Mortimer, of Wigmore, mortally wounded at the Page 29. The whole of lines 23, 24.

battle of Builth, 1303, married Margaret, daughPage 47, Two first words of lines 21-24 inclusive. Page 70. Two last words of lines 23, 24.

ter of Sir William de Fenolles, and a kinswoman Page 84. The whole of line 2.

of Queen Eleanor. IIow was this Margaret L. X.

related to the good queen? W. M. H. C. LETTER OF GALILEO.--In a book, called The Pools, 'OR MOUTHS OF STREAMS.—The creeks Private Life of Galileo, published by Macmillan or mouths of streams opening into the Mersey, at and Co., 1870, the author's name not attached, least as high as the tide flows, are designated there is given in a note (p. 74) a very remarkable “ Pools," and I shall be glad to know whether letter of Galileo to Father Benedetto Castelli, Pro- this is a local peculiarity, or prevails in other fessor of Mathematics at Pisa, 1013, on the inter- rivers. On the south bank of the Nersey ve have pretation of Scripture. The reference not being Wallasey Pool, Birket or Tranmere Pool, Bromgiven, I should feel greatly obliged to any of your boro' Pool, Nether and Over Pool, Stanlaw Pool, readers if they could give me the authority, and Boat-house Pool at Runcorn, and Wilder's Pool assure me of the authenticity of the letter. near Warrington. Then on its north bank we

M. M. have Pool Mouth, or Fresh Pool, also near War

rington; Lady Pool at Hale, Garston Pool, Ot- a medal with fourteen clasps ? Or what is the ter's Pool, and lastly, Liverpool.

M. D. | greatest number of clasps that anyone could be PRIVATELY-PRINTED Books. — What is the

entitled to ?

Don. earliest instance of a book bearing on its title | WULFRUNA.—Who was Wulfruna ? Three of page that it is “ privately printed” or "printed | your correspondents (4th S. vi. 536) name her as for private circulation"? Am I correct in sup the sister of three different Saxon kings, and give posing that there is no example of such an an- | two dates, twenty-six years apart, for the foundanouncement previous to 1750, if as early ?

tion of her monastery. Wulfruna, wife of Earl

'F. M. S. Aldhelm, must have been Edgar's sister, if her [The earliest privately-printed book mentioned by

foundation were in 970; for had she been the Martin in his Bibliographical Catalogue, p. 3, is De Anti sister of Ethelred II., her age in that year would quitate Britannica Ecclesiæ et Pririlegiis Ecclesia Can have been six years at the utmost. She appears tuariensis, cum Archiepiscopis ejusdem 70. [Attributed to Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury.] Excu

| to have been the only daughter of Edmund I, and sum Londini in ædibus Johannis Daii. Lond. 1572, fol.

Elgiva, and the sister of Edwy and Edgar. The See Bohn's Loundes, p. 1776 ; 0;borne's Harleian Cata

sister of Egbert would in 996 have attained the logue, iii. 2; and Jones's Papery Tracts, ii. 522, Chetham venerable age of 200 years. IIERMEN TRUDE. Society.] TIE PRINT OF 6 Guido's AURORA."-Can any

YORKSHIRE PRAYER-BOOK.- A friend of mine, of your readers inform me who is the author of Das an old will, in which occurs the passag the lines which appear at the bottom of the well

of the well. “I leave the sum of sixpence to —-, to buy a Yorkknown print of “Guido's Aurora." I have in

shire Prayer-book, therewith to quiet his conscience, if

indeed he have any conscience.” quired in vain of anyone whom I know; and the

What was the Yorkshire Prayer-book ? In subject is so celebrated, and the lines themselves are so accurately descriptive of it, and so poetical,

Lowndes' Bibliographer's Manual I find :that I venture to think that an answer to my

“Book of Common Prayer, Sheffield, 1765, 4to, with

an Exposition, being a few foot-notes to evade the law.” query may gratify others beside myself. It is a question of some interest, whether the lines were

Is this the Prayer-book referred to, and has it written for the picture, or the picture was com- | any further peculiarities?

M. D. posed after the lines :*Quadrijugis invectus equis Sol aureus exit,

Replies.
Cui septem variis circumstant vestibug IIorw;
Lucifer antevolat: rapidi fuge lampada solis,

THE BLOCK BOOKS.
Aurora, umbrarum victrix, ne victa recedas.”

(4th S. ii. 313, 361, 387, 421, 447.) I quote the lines from memory.

SAM. ROBINSON.

This interesting subject having been revived in THE PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK AND LATIX.

connection with my name in the Art Journal of

November, and in the Builder of the 19th ult., I Will some of the ripe scholars who write in

venture to resume it after a lapse of two years, “ N. & Q." settle this matter for us? Skilket and

during which it has been impossible I could O kiwes! sound rather awful; and must we really accept Kikero? Mr. Blakiston of Rugby, writing

attend to it with that care its importance demands

If however, by your indulgence, I am now per-, to the Globe, asserts that the Latin voi was always

mitted to continue it in " N. & Q.," I shall be equivalent to our w, or oo"; so that vinum was

prepared to do so as long as may be necessary for pronounced “weenum," and via weea." Another

à complete elucidation of the numerous questions correspondent asks how we would pronounce

which yet remain to be solved. vivida vis animi," or the following well-known

One of the most mischievous fentures connected

with the “ History of Early Printing and En“Nen patriæ validas in viscera vertite vires.”

graving” has been the system adopted by authors Vivida would clearly become “ Oui oui-dà !” A

of indulging in “ general possibilities," and aftergreat number of those who love the Latin writers

wards dealing with them as “ admitted truths.” without pretending to scholarship would be thank

The extent to which this pernicious practice has ful for an authoritative guidance in this matter.

been carried is indeed almost inconceivable. An NLA KROCHEIR.

instance of it may be readily found in Mr. H. VON SAVIGNY's “TREATISE ON OBLIGATIONS." Noel Humphrey's work entitled A History of the Is there any English translation of this work? | Art of Printing. London, 1868: where, in pp. Where could I find an analysis, review, or notices 30, 31, the following crowd of imaginary theories generally of the work in either French or Eng- | occurs : lish ?

T. A. M. 1 “ It is highly probable"-" which may be WAR MEDALS.-The late Lord Hotham had a fairly attributed to ""It is more than prowar medal with four clasps. Could anyone have bable"-"There is yet some reason to sup

verse

66

pose "-"It is evident from”—“which had Humphreys (1868), “1423.” has been treated by, probably for"_" which could only be obtained one and all as the true date of the St. Christopher, by' we may presume

"
« These last may

and they have accordingly eagerly seized upon however which latter were possibly”- and adopted it as their sheet-anchor-the foun

appears highly probable” — “It is therefore dation stone of their building - the compass possible' may have been brought"-" The by which all their theories have been guided, knowledge may have spread ”—“ may however and their “dreams” attempted to be justified: have been "- may have been turned ”—“ may whereas my showing in September 1868 that possibly have never been,” &c., &c.

the date “ 1423" was not that of the engraving, As the result of these possibilities," several but, with the inscription, had direct and exclusive startling but positive statements appear in the reference to the “Legend of St. Christopher," same two pages, unqualified by doubt of any kind, whose jubilee year was “1423” (as shown by and authoritatively announced as facts to be relied Mr. Troms), added to the undeniable fact that on, and to be accepted as such by the reader. the woodcut was printed with printing ink, and Ex. gr. :

produced by a printing press — altogether ex" Engraving on wood had however been used in ploded the deception, and, as a necessary conseEurope, in a crude form, long before the time of the quence, utterly destroyed at one fell swoop all Polos."

the legion of unsound speculative theories founded “ It is known that images of saints were produced by on such universal belief in the imaginary date similar means as early as the ninth century."

assigned to the engraving. It is wholly useless “The art of printing patterns on stuffs, by means of for any one of those who have written on the engraved tablets of wood or metal, was in use in Europe subject to now attempt to deny that all were in the twelfth century."

thoroughly misled by the date on the “ St. These declarations only equal in boldness that Christopher"; and such being the case, I find in of Mons. J. Ph. BERJEAU (in “N. & Q.,” Oct. 31, that simple but important fact (as well as in 1868, p. 421), who therein affirmed that thou- the circumstance that every writer on Early sands of such images of saints (viz., like the “ St. Engraving and the Block Books” has altogether Christopher" called of “1423"] were printed before overlooked the labour of ten of the most active the invention of typography, and distributed for years expended on wood engraving by the greatest cash at the doors of the convents”-an assertion, master in that branch of art of the fifteenth cenI venture to state, as reckless and unfounded as tury) a perfect justification for my altogether reever escaped the pen of the most careless writer. jecting either of the theories heretofore propounded

Being an utter disbeliever in any theories on the subject of “ Early Engraving and the Block which need so many flights of fancy to maintain Books,” which are repugnant to common sense them, I at once declare my preference for the and antagonistic to truth; and I claim to stand region of "Fact.” and therefore call upon Messrs. excused it, in fighting my present battle singleH. Noel Humphreys and J. Ph. Berjeau for the handed, I unhesitatingly declare the statement authorities on which their surmises are hazarded. “of the Block Books being the production of the If they are forthcoming, well and good; their beginning of the fifteenth century” as thoroughly true value can then be properly estimated; but, illusory and groundless as the supposed st. in any other event, the interest of art demands Christopher of 1423," “ the Brussels Virgin of they should be swept away as mischievous “ Will 1418,” or “the Paris impostures of 1406.” o' the Wisps"--mere decoys—to mislead the My remark applies equally to the statement unwary. Notwithstanding the credit deservedly made by the conceited Heinecken, the critical attached to the well-known name of “ Weigel of Ottley, the volatile Dibdin, the plodding Jackson, Leipsig,” as one of the “oracles" in connection the ponderous Sotheby, the enthusiastic Weigel, - with " Early Engraving and the Block Books," or to Messrs. H. Noel Humphreys and J. Ph. I venture, at the risk of being roundly abused for Berjeau, all of whom I maintain to be utterly my temerity, to positively deny the power of wrong in every cardinal point of their theories, Mr. Weigel to produce a single engraving of the and I challenge literature to make good, by satistwelfth century, to which period he attributes a factory proof, a single one among them. portion of his collection, and I invite him to do This broadcast defiance may pimâ facie appear 80. The truth is (unpalatable as it may be) that indiscreet, if not unjustifiable ; but the propriety all the professors of xylographic art havé per- of it will, if my challenge be accepted, be fully mitted themselves to be thoroughly deceived by justified by the elucidation of a state of things at the so-called “St. Christopher of 1423,” now in present but feebly imagined by the general public, Lord Spencer's collection ; and, misled by Hei- and a death-blow be dealt to illusions which have necken's folly, have blindly wandered into & hitherto sufficed to blind the senses, and mislead labyrinth of difficulties from which they cannot the intelligence of some of the most eminent men now escape. From Heinecken (1771) to H. Noel who have made "early printing and engraving "

their peculiar study. “False dates”—“ wilful in any former edition of their works.” 8vo, London, misstatements "_"inventions "-"ignorance".

1814, pp. 102. and the “wildest flights of imagination," have,

[Attributed to Horace Twiss]. in the course of time, been accepted as fact, and

“ Parodies on Gay. To which is added the Battle of boundless mischief has consequently arisen there

the Busts : a Fable attempted in the Style of Hudibras.” from. Many instances of this being so might Small 8vo, London, n, d., pp. 52.

“Warreniana; with Notes, Critical and Explanatory. be readily adduced, but for the present one will By the Editor of a Quarterly Review.” Small 8vo, Lousuffice.

don, 1824, pp. 208. What document connected with art literature (A series of clever jeur d'esprit in the manner of the can be cited to compare in interest to the Family Rejected Addresses, written by William Frederick DeaDiary of Albert Dürer ? the details of which are

con, a friend and fellow-pupil of the late Serjeant Talunreservedly accepted throughout the civilised fourd, who has prefixed a memoir of him to his tale

Annette, 3 vols. 8vo, 1852. Mr. Deacon wrote also “The world with perfect good faith, as being the simple Sorrows of a Bashful Irishman” in Blackwood's Magaand truthful relation of the great artist himself; zine, and a series of papers entitled “The Picture Gallery.” and yet, no more mendacious relation can be found He died at Islington in 1845, aged forty-six.]

" , ), 1828,

pp. 189.

been permitted to reach the nineteenth century. pp.353. Author after author has so interpolated it-first in [These clever imitations of Elia, Cobbett, Ward, Hazone language and then in another, to suit his litt, Leigh Hunt, &c., are, unlike those I have already particular views and strengthen his especial argu

noted, entirely in prose.] inents—that its truth, as a guide to Dürer's real competitors for the Prize of 5001. offered by Mr. B. Web

“Scenes from the

Rejected Comedies, by some of the position in life, has been utterly and wilfully per- ster," &c. 8vo, London (Punch Office), 1814, pp. 48. verted and lost sight of; and yet, to this moment, “ The Shilling Book of Beauty. Edited and Illustrated not a soul eveu imagines such a possibility: by Cuthbert Bede, B.A.” 8vo, London (Blackwood), Knowing it to be so (and being at present engaged n. d., pp. 126. in preparing for publication the proof of what I

“The Puppet-Showman's Album. With Contributions Dow declare), I may well claim indulgence, if, Day. Illustrated by Gavarni.” 8vo, Lendon, n. d., pp. 52.

by the most eminent Light and Heavy Writers of the disregarding all that has been written or ima

“Our Miscellany (which ought to have Come out, gined on the subject of the “Block Books and but Didn't); containing Contributions by W. Harassing Early Printing and Engraving,” I prefer to con- Painsworth, Professor Strongfellow, G. P. R. Jacobus, salt direct the sources whence every author on

&c., and other eminent Authors." Edited by E. H. the subject must, or at all events ought to, have

Yates and R. B. Brough.” Small 8vo, London, 1856, derived his information, and to express my own belief thereon, notwithstanding it may be diame- In addition to these volumes, which contain trically opposed in almost every circumstance and parodies of various anthors, the following may be detail to any and every thing hitherto submitted mentioned as being imitations of some one author to the public.

or book:No easier task can possibly be desired by my

“Whitehall; or, the Days of George IV.” 8vo, Lonopponents (and their name is “Legion") than to don (W. Marsh), 1827, pp. 330. answer and crush my objections, if they have

[This extraordinary and now scarce work was the pro: but truth on their side. Let them furnish the duction of the late W. Maginn, LL.D. “The object," facts upon which they rely to justify their avowed says the Quarterly Review, " is to laugh down the Bramconclusions, and I will then either promptly refute bletye House species of novel; and for this purpose we them, or very thankfully admit my defeat and their

are presented with such an historical romance as an aujust claim to a victory, which will assuredly secure

thor of Brambletye House, flourishing in Barbadoes 200

or 2000 years hence, we are not certain which, nor is the them the grateful remembrance of posterity. circumstance of material moment, might fairly be ex

HENRY F. HOLT. pected to compose of and concerning the personages, King's Road, Clapham Park.

manners, and events of the age and country in which we live .... The book is, in fact, a series of parodies

upon unfortunate Mr. Horace Smith,--and it is paying PARODIES.

the author no compliment to say that his mimicry (with

all its imperfections) deserves to outlive the ponderous (4th S. vi. 476.)

original.” My own opinion is somewhat ato variance

with that of the reviewer; but the work is a very curious The following books consist of parodies, or

one, and merits a place among clever imitations.-See the imitations of modern authors, more or less in the Dublin Univ. Mag., Jan. 1844, p. 86.] style of those in the Rejected Addresses :

"Lexiphanes, a Dialogue imitated from Lucian, and "A Sequel to the Rejected Addresses; or, the Theatrum

suited to the present times. Being an attempt to restore Poetarum Minorum. By another Author.” 4th ed. with

the English tongue to its ancient purity,” &c. 8vo, LonAdditions, small 8vo, London, 1813, pp. 100.

don, 1783. * Posthumous Parodies and other Pieces, composed by (A well-known imitation of the style of Dr. Johnson, several of our most celebrated Poets, but not published by Archibald Campbell.]

“The Whig's Supplication, or the Scot's Hudibras. A vehicle of parody in a manner which would Mock Poem. In Two Parts." By Samuel Colvil. 12mo,

scarcely be admired by that divine. Goethe's St. Andrews, 1796.

Faust has quite recently passed through several “ The Lay of the Scottish Fiddle. A Poem. In Five Cantos. Supposed to be written by W- S

Esq.” dramatic versions, in one of which, " There was a Small 8vo, London, 1814.

king in Thule,” is rendered by “ There was a (Variously attributed to Washington Irving and James man in Tonley Street.” I would suggest that the Kirke Paulding; the latter attribution probably cor- Rejected Addresses are travestied imitations rather rect].

than parodies, as your correspondent has described " Jokeby, a Burlesque on Rokeby: A Poem. In Six them.

JULIAN SHARMAX. Cantos. By an Amateur of Fashion.” 8vo, London,

30, Eastbourne Terrace, W. 1813.

[By T. Tegg or John Roby. See “ N. & Q.” passim.]

"Fragments, after the Manner of Sterne." By Isaac THE “BLUE LAWS” OF CONNECTICUT. Brandon, 12mó. Printed for the Author.

(4th S. vi. 485.) This list might be greatly extended, but is

Your correspondent NEPHRITE gives an exalready sufficiently long.. I must not, however, tract relating to smoking tobacco from the " Blue conclude without reminding W. G. D of a few Laws, or the Code of 1850 of the General Court clever parodies buried among other matter. Such, of Connecticut.” I should feel much obliged for instance, are: Pope's “ Imitations of English Poets"; the well-known “ Pipe of Tobacco : in document from which the quotation is made,

if he could give some information as to the Imitation of Six Several Authors,” by Isaac and as to its authenticity. For many years these Hawkins Browne (see bis Poems upon Various “ Blue Laws have been a byword" for sarcasm Subjects

, 8vo, 1763, or the Cambridge Tart, p. 176); and satire at the expense of the stern old Pilgrim the Castle of Indolence," by James Thomson, "writ in the manner of Spenser";

the imitations 1 Fathers, who went forth to people the wilderof the style of Milton, by Thomas Phillips; those ness, the Bible in one hand and the sword in

the other, and who were more conversant with of Milton and Spenser, by T. Warton; and, finally, the code of Moses than with the practices of the the “Curious Fraguents extracted from a Com- beau monde. We often see quotations made, and no mon Place Bock, which belonged to Robert Bur- doubt there is something in existence purporting ton, the Famous Author of the Anatomy of to be the code in question, but that there is any Melancholy,by Charles Lamb; cum multis aliis.

WILLIAM BATES.

authentic document containing the absurdities 80

frequently ascribed to it I cannot admit until it Birmingham.

is demonstrated by satisfactory evidence. I be

lieve it to be a literary imposture, to be classed Though this class of composition is by no with the Epistles of Phalaris and the Chronicles means scarce, very few collections of parodies have of Ingulf. at any time appeared. I may mention Thackeray's I have met with a passage in a work recently series of Old Friends with New Faces as fulfilling published," which confirms this view. The writer the requirements of parody, though they perhaps paid a visit to Dr. John Todd, the author of the fall short of a collection. Among them is to be well-known Student's Manual-one of the oldest found a parody on “Wapping Old Stairs,” in and most respected clergymen in New England. which the usual order of burlesque is inverted, Amongst other things, the following conversation the ridiculous being raised to the heroic instead took place: of the heroic being lowered to the ridiculous. I

“ Speaking of the old Puritan strictness, and of the am acquainted with no more pleasing parody than so-called Blue Laws of Connecticut, the Doctor said: that on Southey's ballad "You are old, Father : I have been amused to see that some of your writers William, the young man cried,” to be found in imagine that there really were such laws in New England. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, though it is English officer who lived for some time in Connecticut;

The whole thing is an absurd fiction, got up by an not so generally known as the almost classical but who disliked so much its strict Sabbath observances parody in Ingoldsby on the “ Death of Sir John that, when he went to New York, he drew up these preMoore." In Hood's works will be found some tended laws out of spite and passed them off for real half-score of them, mostly on songs and ballads

enactments. It was not wonderful, perhaps, that people popular forty years ago, and consequently not very been hoaxed into the belief that there had really been

so ignorant about us as the English were should have telling on the present generation. “We met, laws in Connecticut making it penal for a man to kiss 'twas in a crowd, and I thought he had done his wife on Sundays, and all that nonsense ; but to find me," is one I can at present call to mind. Al- some of your living writers still falling into an error so though the number of parodies of reputation is small, few works escape the ordeal of burlesque. American Men, Manners, and Institutions

. By David

The Americans at Home: Pen and Ink Sketches of Coningsby begat Codlingsby, and Rokeby begat Macrae. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Edmonston & Douglas. Jokeby. The hymns of Dr. Watts are made the 1870.

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