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In the Middle Ages, seven liberal arts were
studied, divided into the Trivium, which comCONTENTS.—No 162.
prised grammar, logic and rhetoric, and the QuadNOTES:- On the Modern Use of the Word " Art,” 89 - rivium, which comprised music, arithmetic, geoLetter of James Earl of Glencairn to James VI., March 4,
metry, and astronomy. The university degree of 1607. 90 - Staffordshire and American Folk Lore. 91 Typwald Hill, Isle of Man, 92 - Lord Plunkett - Anti magister artium implied a command of these quity of Ladies' Chignons ---Coincidence of Thought - liberal arts. They are constantly referred to in The Straight Gate and Narrow Way - Kintyre Supersti. tions - Thread Buttons - Curious Epitaph - The Sup.
early writers, e. g., Dialogus in defensionem septem posed Miltonic Epitaph - Photography : the War and | Artium liberalium, by Th. Gresmond, 1497. The Times," 93.
The term "art" was widely used in the classical QUERIES:-- Authors wanted -- Mediæval Barns - Legend
| sense by early writers; thus the Ars Magna of on Bells—The Bird Cage Walk-British Scythed Chariots : Mrs. Markham - Denarius of Drusus, Senior - Curious
| Jerome Cardan, published in 1545, is a treatise Engraving - Meaning of " Fog" – The Kobold of Gröben on algebra. Erasmus published in 1526 a trans- Many Cats and Fowls - Wife of George Nevill, &c.Phi-Beta-Kappa Society of Boston - The “ Potters” of
| lation of Galen's Exhortatio ad bonas Artes prethe Northern Counties - "The Hearts of Men which sertim Medicinam. So also we meet with Syntaxis fondly." &c. - Quotations wanted - St. Joseph's Eve
Artis Mirabilis, 1581, De Arte Occulta, 1612, of Thomas Stanley, Bishop of Sodor and Man " Thoughts of Patricius"-"The Times Whistle," &c., by “R. C." Certayne Sinistral and Divelish Artes, 1561. Mental Equality of the Sexes - Thomson a Druid - The Many of the arts · above named would at the Canal of Xerxes - Government Stamp on Picture Canvas, 95.
present day be rather termed sciences. The disREPLIES:-A Rectorsbip of Eighty-one Years, 97—“Some
tinction between art and science is well expressed go to Church," &c.: Old Rhymes, 99 Orders of Knight by Dr. Whewell in his History of the Inductive hood, 100 - Barbarous Massacre, 101-King William III.'s
Sciences : Stirraps and other Relics at Carrickblacker, co. Armagh, 102 - Old Sandown Castle, Isle of Wight - Mount Calvary “The object of art is work, the solution of some pro- Godwin Swift - Descendants of Bishop Bedell-"Dun”
blem, the production of some visible result. The object as a Local Prefir-Richard Terrick, Bishop of London, 1764
of science is knowledge. Hence in art, though know1777 - Fert - Marriage of Infants - Local Tournaments - Shard or Sharn - Parodies - The Patronymic “-ing" ledge is useful, it is useful as a means to an end. But in in North-English Place-Names -" His own opinion was science it is itself the end.” his law" - Aurora Borealis, &c., 103.
Archbishop Whately, in the introduction to his Notes on Books, &c.
Elements of Logic, says:
“ It is to be remembered, that as a science is conNotes.
versant about speculative knowledge only, and art is the ON THE MODERN USE OF THE WORD “ART.” | application of knowledge to practice, hence logic (as well
Within the memory of the present generation | as any other system of knowledge) becomes, when applied the popular use of the word art has greatly in
- to practice, an art; while confined to the theory of reason
ing, it is strictly a science.” creased, while its popular signification has been much modified. It is indeed not uncommon to
The terms “fine arts," " polite arts" appear meet with fairly well-informed men who would | to have come into vogue about the middle of the deny its appropriateness when they hear it ap- last century. In the opening address of Sir Joshua plied to certain pursuits and studies which from | Reynolds to the Royal Academy on January 2, time immemorial have been classed among the
1769, he says: “An academy in which the arts. I venture to ask for space in “ N. & Q." for
polite arts may be regularly cultivated is at last some few remarks on this subject, in the hope
opened among us by royal munificence." that they may elicit replies and suggestions from
From this date onwards numerous works on the your readers.
fine arts appeared ; thus-in 1782 Valentine Green The Latin word ars, genitive artis, whence art | published — is derived, signified with the Romans acquired "A Review of the Polite Arts in France at the Time of skill, whether mental or manual. Hencē art. their Establishment under Louis XIV. compared with according to Roman notions, was both theoretical
their present State in England." and practical, and the arts either liberal or il
Thomas Robertson's “ Inquiry into the Fine Arts."
1785. liberal. A master of the liberal arts-artes liberales
Sealey's “ Concise Analysis of the Belles Lettres, the or ingenue-was termed artifex, while one who
Fine Arts, and the Sciences.” 1788. laboured with his hands at the illiberal arts-artes
Bromley's well-known “History of the Fine Arts, sordide-was termed opifex. This distinction re
Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture." 1793. mains in our own language, as artist and artisan, or artist and craftsman.
As compared with these, let us take two works Among the various arts, liberal and illiberal,
issued respectively in 1765 and 1767:named by Roman authors, we meet with ars Harris, Jas. (Author of Hermes), “ Three Treatises. medica, rhetorica, grammatica, musica, mechanica, 1. Art; 2. Music, Painting, Poetry ; 3. Happiness."
Duff, Rev. W., " An Essay on Original Genius and mathematica, gymnastica, imperatoria, manuaria,
its various Modes of Exertion in Philosophy and the &c.
Fine Arts, particularly in Poetry.”
Here the limitation of the terms “art” and Years elapsed, occasioned by the troublous " fine art” is not so definite as in the other times wbich followed the accession of James VI. works issued after 1769.
to the Scotish diadem. So that it was not until Hazlitt, in the article “ Arts," contributed by James had been quietly placed on the English him to the Encyclopædia Britannica early in the throne that he ventured to interfere between the present century, says:
two powerful families. Whatever may have been “ The term fine arts may be viewed as embracing all the monarch's demerits, and they were not a few, those arts in which the powers of imitation or invention he never omitted any opportunity which presented are exerted, chiefly with a view to the production of itself of mitigating the mischiefs his original unpleasure by the immediate impression which they make
certain tenure of power had produced. His maon the mind. But the phrase has of late, we think, been
jesty, through his privy council, and especially restricted to a narrower and more technical signification, namely to painting, sculpture, engraving and architec- with the aid of his great favourite the Earl of ture, which appeal to the eye as the medium of pleasure, Dunbar, contrived to patch up matters between and by way of eminence to the first two of these arts." the rival noblemen; and it is to this settlement
May it not be assumed that the restriction that the present letter - remarkable for the oddwhich Hazlitt notices was due to the influence of
ness of the spelling, as well as its singular phrasethe Royal Academy of Arts? In the present day | ology-refers. the prevalence of Art Exhibitions, Art Schools, The earldom of Glencairn was originally a Art Museums, et hoc genus omne, has familiarised |
omne, has familiarised creation of James III.- a ruler who has met with the public ear with the word used in this restricted
little justice from the chroniclers of his time. He sense, and has at the same time led the unin was an accomplished man, fond of architecture, structed and the unreflecting to suppose that art is delighting in music, and a patron of the fine arts. something apart not only from the artisan or the Hence his semi-barbarous nobles first despised artificer, but also from the master of arts , and and then rebelled against him. He was, after his that it should be confined solely to the artist and
defeat at what is called the Battle of Sauchie his works.
A. C. K. Burn, assassinated in the village of Sauchie by
some unknown person. The house was in ex
istence some years since. The honours conferred LETTER OF JAMES EARL OF GLENCAIRN TO
by him on his adherents were rescinded. Amongst JAMES VI., MARCH 4, 1607.
these was the earldom of Glencairn, which was The original letter is amongst the valuable subsequently revived in the person of Cuthbert papers belonging to the Faculty of Advocates, Lord Kilmaurs, his grandson. which had been purchased from the representa “PLEISSE YOWR MOIST SACREID MAIESTIE, According tives of Sir James Balfour, the Lord Lyon, to to yowr Maiesteis command, I submittitt the partecular wards the end of the century before last. It refers
bluidis and contrawerseis standing betwix the name of
Mongowmerej, me, and my name* to seike freindis as to the existing feud between the noble families of
was schosin befoir yowr Maiesteis consaill and the day Cunningham and Montgomery, which, like the
appoyntitt be the consaill, to conwene befoir,thame to Corsican “ Vendetta," had subsisted for a long exceptt the samen, qbilke day we haif all keipitt, and period.
the Jugis exceptitt, and ower clames on ather syid was These two families, after the fashion of the
gifin in: then restitt the commoneris to agre on the Capulets and Montagues, being bitter enemies,
owerisman, qubilke thay wald nocht do, and swa it is
cummen in yowr Maiesteis handis, quhairof I am maist took occasion to injure each other when a fitting
glayd, ewer expecting yowr Maiesteis moist gratiowse occasion occurred. At last matters came to a
fawour to me and myne, quba hes and sall ewer carie crisis by the murder committed by the Cuning maist serwyabill hartis as we salbe commanditt. Gif hames of Robertland, Corsehill, and others of the
thair sall cumme any reportis of me to yowr Majestie, I clan, upon Hugh fourth Earl of Eglinton, of the
am sertane, according to yowr Maiesteis wuntitt and
moist gratiowse custowme, I wilbe callitt to my awin name of Montgomery (for the later earls are Se
accont. I dowt nocht bott yowr moist Sacreid Maiestie tons). His lordship was riding from his own will swa settill tbatt turne, as heirefter thay be na house upon April 15, 1586, when he was basely cawisse of gruge on ather syd, and that ewerilke ane of assassinated by these unscrupulous dependents of
ws may joisse ower awin kyndlie rowmes and posesthe house of Glencairn.
siownis in all tymes cummeing. This erectiowne of the Abessej of Kilwyneing, quhilke my lord of Eglingtowne
menis to suite att yowr Maiestie, will nocht faill to in* “ It is for the first time, I believe, in the annals of tertenej the seid of trubill amangis ws, for we wilbe all your university that the fine arts will have received that enterest thairby, and I protest besoir yowr Maiestie, I consideration which I believe to be their due-a con haid rather loisse my lyf or ony occatiowne war gifin be sideration which may, I hope, in time remove the re me to breke that wnitej qubilke yowr Maiestej will comproach that our leading universities confer degrees as mand. I man crawe yowr Maiesteis humbill pardowne masters of arts upon students from whose course of for this my fascheowse lettir and ewill wrytt. M
moist study almost all reference to the fine arts has been, as it humbill serwice presentitt to yowr moist Sacreid Maiestie. were, sedulously expunged."-Sir Digby Wyatt's Lectures on Fine Art, delirered at Cambridge.
• See Balfour's Annals, ii. 16.