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and Phelipeaux, to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, and the water-communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most north-western point thereof, and from thence on a due west course to the river Missisippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Missisippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude. South by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line last mentioned, in the latitude of thirty-one degrees north of the Equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint river ; thence strait to the head of St. Mary's river; and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's river to the Atlantic ocean. East by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north to the aforesaid Highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic ocean, from those which fall into the river St. Lawrence; comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova-Scotia on the one part, and EastFlorida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic ocean; excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have been within the limits of the said province of Nova-Scotia.

ARTICLE III. Right of fishe.

It is agreed that the people of the United States shall continue to ry secured.

enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand Bank, and on all the other banks of Newfoundland; also in the gulph of St. Lawrence, and at all other places in the sea, where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish; and also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use (but not to dry or cure the same on that island); and also on the coasts, bays and creeks of all other of his Britannic Majesty's dominions in America; and that the American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbours and creeks of Nova-Scotia, Magdalen islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled; but so soon as the same or either of them shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement, without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprietors or possessors of the ground.

ARTICLE IV. Debts to be It is agreed that creditors on either side, shall meet with no lawful paid.

impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money, of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.

ARTICLE V. Congress to It is agreed that the Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the recommend to legislatures of the respective states, to provide for the restitution of all the states resti- estates, rights and properties, which have been confiscated, belonging cated estates.

to real British subjects, and also of the estates, rights and properties of persons resident in districts in the possession of his Majesty's arms, and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other description shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States, and therein to remain twelve months, unmolested in their endeavours to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights and properties, as may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws regarding the premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent, not only with justice and equity, but with that spirit of conciliation, which on the return of the blessings of peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states, that the estates, rights and properties of such last mentioned persons, shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession, the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights or properties, since the confiscation. And it is agreed, that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.

ARTICLE VI. That there shall be no future confiscations made, nor any prosecu- No further tions commenced against any person or persons for, or by reason of the confiscations or part which he or they may have taken in the present war; and that no prosecutions. person shall, on that account, suffer any future loss or damage, either in his person, liberty or property; and that those who may be in confinement on such charges, at the time of the ratification of the treaty in America, shall be immediately set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued.

ARTICLE VII. There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his Britannic Hostilities to Majesty and the said States, and between the subjects of the one and cease, and Brithe citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities, both by sea and land, be withdrawn. shall from henceforth cease: all prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and his Britannic Majesty shall, with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any negroes or other property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons and fleets from the said United States, and from every post, place and harbour within the same; leaving in all fortifications the American artillery that may be therein; and shall also order and cause all archives, records, deeds and papers, belonging to any of the said states, or their citizens, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of his officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper states and persons to whom they belong.

ARTICLE VIII. The navigation of the river Missisippi, from its source to the ocean, Navigation of shall for ever remain free and open to the subjects of Great-Britain, and the Mississippi

be the citizens of the United States.

both nations. ARTICLE IX. In case it should so happen that any place or territory belonging to Conquests beGreat-Britain or to the United States, should have been conquered by the fore arrival of arms of either from the other, before the arrival of the said provisional these articles in articles in America, it is agreed, that the same shall be restored without restored. difficulty, and without requiring any compensation.

ARTICLE X. The solemn ratifications of the present treaty, expedited in good and Ratification. due form, shall be exchanged between the contracting parties, in the space of six months, or sooner if possible, to be computed from the day of the signature of the present treaty. In witness whereof, we the undersigned, their Ministers Plenipotentiary, have in their name and in virtue of our full powers, signed with our hands the present definitive treaty, and caused the seals of our arms to be affixed thereto.

Done at Paris, this third day of September, in the year of our Lord
one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.

D. HARTLEY, (L. S.)
JOHN ADAMS, (L. s.)
B. FRANKLIN, L. S.)
JOHN JAY, (L. s.)

A TREATY OF AMITY AND COMMERCE,

Between his Majesty the King of Prussia and the United

States of America. (a) July, August, His Majesty the King of Prussia, and the United States of America, and September, desiring to fix, in a permanent and equitable manner, the rules to be 1785.

observed in the intercourse and commerce they desire to establish between their respective countries; His Majesty and the United States have judged that the said end cannot be better obtained than by taking the most perfect equality and reciprocity for the basis of their agreement.

With this view, His Majesty the King of Prussia has nominated and constituted as his Plenipotentiary, the Baron Frederick William de Thulemeier, his Privy Counsellor of Embassy, and Envoy Extraordinary with their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands; and the United States have, on their part, given full powers to John Adams, Esquire, late one of their Ministers Plenipotentiary for negotiating a peace, heretofore a Delegate in Congress from the state of Massachusetts, and Chief Justice of the same, and now Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States with His Britannic Majesty ; Doctor Benjamin Franklin, late Minister Plenipotentiary at the court of Versailles, and another of their Ministers Plenipotentiary for negotiating a peace; and Thomas Jefferson, heretofore a Delegate in Congress from the state of Virginia, and Governor of the said state, and now Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States at the court of His Most Christian Majesty, which respective Plenipotentiaries, after having exchanged their full powers, and on mature deliberation, have concluded, settled and signed the following articles.

ARTICLE I. Peace and There shall be a firm, inviolable and universal peace and sincere friendship be- friendship between His Majesty the King of Prussia, his heirs, succestween the two nations,

sors and subjects, on the one part, and the United States of America, and their citizens, on the other, without exception of persons or places.

ARTICLE II. Subjects of The subjects of his Majesty the King of Prussia may frequent all the Prussia entitled coasts and countries of the United States of America, and reside and to same privi

trade there in all sorts of produce, manufactures and merchandize; and leges in U, S. as the most fa. shall pay within the said United States no other or greater duties, charges voured nation. or fees whatsoever, than the most favoured nations are or shall be obliged

to pay; and they shall enjoy all the rights, privileges and exemptions in navigation and commerce, which the most favoured nation does or shall enjoy ; submitting themselves nevertheless to the laws and usages there established, and to which are submitted the citizens of the United States, and the citizens and subjects of the most favoured nations.

ARTICLE III. In like manner the citizens of the United States of America may frequent all the coasts and countries of his Majesty the King of Prussia,

(a) The treaties between the United States and Prussia have been:

A Treaty of Amity and Commerce between his Majesty the King of Prussia and the United States of America, July, August, and September, 1785.

TRAITÉ D'AMITIÉ ET DE COMMERCE,
Entre sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse et les États Unis de

l'Amérique.
Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, &c. &c. et les Etats Unis de l'Ame-
rique, désirant de fixer d'une maniére permanente et équitable les regles
qui doivent être observées relativement à la correspondance et au com-
merce á établir entre les États respectifs des deux parties; sa Majesté
et les Etats Unis ont cru ne pouvoir mieux remplir ce but, qu'en posant
pour base de leurs engagemens la plus parfaite égalité et reciprocité.

Dans cette vue sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse a nommé et constitué pour son Plenipotentiaire le Baron Frédéric Guillaume de Thulemeier, son Conseiller Privé d'Ambassade et Envoyé Extraordinaire auprés de L. H. P. les États Généraux des Provinces Unies; et les Etats Unis ont de leur côté pourvu de leurs pleinpouvoirs le Sieur John Adams cidevant l'un de leurs Ministres Plenipotentiaires pour traiter de la paix, Délegué au Congrés de la part de l'etat de Massachusetts et Chef de Justice du dit état, actuellement Ministre Plenipotentiaire des États Unis près sa Majesté le Roi de la Grand Bretagne, le Docteur Benjamin Franklin en dernier lieu leur Ministre Plenipotentiaire à la cour de S. M. T. C. et aussi l'un de leurs Ministres Plenipotentiaires pour traiter de la paix ; et le Sieur Thomas Jefferson, ci-devant délegué au Congrès de la part de l'etat de Virginie et gouverneur du dit etat, actuellement Ministre Plénipotentiaire à la cour de S. M. T. C., lesquels Plénipotentiaires respectifs, après avoir échangé leurs pleinpouvoirs, et en consequence d'une mure déliberation, ont conclu, arrêté et signé les articles suivans.

ARTICLE I. Il y aura une paix ferme, inviolable et universelle et une amitié sincère, entre sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, ses heritiers, successeurs et sujets, d'une part, et les Etats Unis d'Amérique et leurs citoyens, d'autre part, sans excéption de personnes ou de lieux.

ARTICLE II. Les sujets de sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse pourront fréquenter toutes les côtes et tous les pays des États Unis de l'Amérique, y résider et trafiquer en toutes sortes de productions, manufactures et marchandises, et ne payeront d'autres ni de plus forts impôts, charges ou droits dans les dits États Unis, que ceux que les nations les plus favorisées sont, ou seront obligées de payer; et ils jouiront de tous les droits, privileges et éxemptions dans la navigation et le commerce dont jouit, ou jouira la nation la plus favoriseé; se soumettant néanmoins aux loix et usages y établis, et auxquels sont soumis les citoyens des Etats Unis et les citoyens et sujets des nations les plus favorisées.

ARTICLE III. Pareillement les citoyens des Etats Unis de l'Amérique pourront fréquenter toutes les côtes et tous les pays de sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, Treaty of Amity and Commerce between his Majesty the King of Prussia and the United States

Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the United States of America and his Majesty the King of Prussia. May 1, 1828 ; post, 378.

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tercourse.

Citizens of and reside and trade there in all sorts of produce, manufactures and U.S. entitled to merchandize, and shall pay in the dominions of his said Majesty no same privileges other or greater duties, charges or fees whatsoever than the most the most fa- favoured nation is or shall be obliged to pay; and they shall enjoy all voured nations, the rights, privileges and exemptions in navigation and commerce which

the most favoured nation does or shall enjoy; submitting themselves nevertheless to the laws and usages there established, and to which are submitted the subjects of his Majesty the King of Prussia, and the subjects and citizens of the most favoured nations.

ARTICLE IV. Regulation of More especially each party shall have a right to carry their own procommercial in- duce, manufactures and merchandize, in their own or any other vessels

to any parts of the dominions of the other, where it shall be lawful for all the subjects or citizens of that other freely to purchase them; and thence to take the produce, manufactures and merchandize of the other, which all the said citizens or subjects shall in like manner be free to sell them, paying in both cases such duties, charges and fees only, as are or shall be paid by the most favoured nation. Nevertheless the King of Prussia and the United States, and each of them, reserve to themselves the right, where any nation restrains the transportation of merchandize to the vessels of the country of which it is the growth or manufacture, to establish against such nations retaliating regulations; and also the right to prohibit, in their respective countries, the importation and exportation of all merchandize whatsoever, when reasons of state shall require it. In this case, the subjects or citizens of either of the contracting parties shall not import nor export the merchandize prohibited by the other; but if one of the contracting parties permits any other nation to import or export the same merchandize, the citizens or subjects of the other shall immediately enjoy the same liberty.

ARTICLE V. Vessels not to The merchants, commanders of vessels, or other subjects or citizens be forced to un- of either party, shall not, within the ports or jurisdiction of the other, load merchandize, &c.

be forced to unload any sort of merchandize into any other vessels, nor to receive them into their own, nor to wait for their being loaded longer than they please.

ARTICLE VI. Goods to be

That the vessels of either party loading within the ports or jurisdicexamined be

tion of the other, may not be uselessly harassed or detained, it is agreed, fore loaded, and that all examinations of goods required by the laws, shall be made less in case of before they are laden on board the vessel, and that there shall be no fraud.

examination after ; nor shall the vessel be searched at any time, unless articles shall have been laden therein clandestinely and illegally, in which case the person by whose order they were carried on board, or who carried them without order, shall be liable to the laws of the land in which he is; but no other person shall be molested, nor shall any other goods, nor the vessel be seized or detained for that cause.

ARTICLE VII. Each party shall endeavour, by all the means in their power, to protect and defend all vessels and other effects belonging to the citizens or subjects of the other, which shall be within the extent of their jurisdic

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