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be exhibited whensoever required, as well in the open sea as in port. But if the said vessel be under convoy of one or more vessels of war, belonging to the neutral party, the simple declaration of the officer commanding the convoy, that the said vessel belongs to the party of which he is, shall be considered as establishing the fact, and shall relieve both parties from the trouble of further examination.

ARTICLE XV. How vessels And to prevent entirely all disorder and violence in such cases, it is are to be treat. stipulated, that when the vessels of the neutral party, sailing without ships of war or

convoy, shall be met by any vessel of war, public or private, of the privateers. other party, such vessel of war shall not approach within cannon shot

of the said neutral vessel, nor send more than two or three men in their boat on board the same, to examine her sea-letters or passports. And all persons belonging to any vessel of war, public or private, who shall molest or injure, in any manner whatever, the people, vessels or effects of the other party, shall be responsible in their persons and property for damages and interest, sufficient security for which shall be given by all commanders of private armed vessels before they are commissioned.

Vessels not to be detained.

ARTICLE XVI. It is agreed that the subjects or citizens of each of the contracting parties, their vessels and effects, shall not be liable to any embargo or detention on the part of the other, for any military expedition, or other public or private purpose whatsoever. And in all cases of seizure, detention or arrest, for debts contracted or offences committed by any citizen or subject of the one party, within the jurisdiction of the other, the same shall be made and prosecuted by order and authority of law only, and according to the regular course of proceedings usual in such


ARTICLE XVII. When re-cap

If any vessel or effects of the neutral power be taken by an enemy tured, vessels

of the other, or by a pirate, and retaken by that other, they shall be shall be restored.

brought into some port of one of the parties, and delivered into the custody of the officers of that port, in order to be restored entire to the true proprietor, as soon as due proof shall be made concerning the property thereof.

ARTICLE XVIII. Vessels driven If the citizens or subjects of either party, in danger from tempests, by stress of

pirates, enemies or other accident, shall take refuge with their vessels into poris, shall or effects, within the harbours or jurisdiction of the other, they shall be be protected. received, protected and treated with humanity and kindness, and shall

be permitted to furnish themselves, at reasonable prices, with all refreshments, provisions and other things necessary for their sustenance, health and accommodation, and for the repair of their vessels.

ARTICLE XIX. Vessels of war

The vessels of war, public and private, of both parties, shall carry may carry prizes freely wheresoever they please, the vessels and effects taken from their into the ports enemies, without being obliged to pay any duties, charges or fees to of each nation. officers of admiralty, of the customs, or any others, nor shall such

prizes be arrested, searched or put under legal process, when they come to and enter the ports of the other party, but may freely be carried out vaisseau retournera dans son port, et seront exhibés à chaque requisition tant en pleine mer que dans le port. Mais si le navire se trouve sous le convoi d'un ou plusieurs vaisseaux de guerre appartenants à la partie neutre, il suffira que l'officier commandant du convoi déclare que le navire est de son parti moyennant quoi cette simple déclaration sera censée établir le fait, et dispensera les deux parties de toute visite ultérieure.

ARTICLE XV. Pour prévenir entiérement tout désordre et toute violence en pareil cas, il a été stipulé que lorsque des navires, de la partie neutre, navigeans sans convoi, rencontreront quelque vaisseau de guerre public ou particulier de l'autre partie, le vaisseau de guerre n'approchera le navire neutre qu' au delà de la portée du canon, et n'enverra pas plus de deux ou trois hommes dans sa chaloupe à bord, pour examiner les lettres de mer ou passeports. Et toutes les personnes appartenantes à quelque vaisseau de guerre public ou particulier, qui molesteront ou insulteront en quelque maniére que ce soit l'equipage, les vaisseaux ou effets de l'autre partie, seront responsables en leurs personnes et en leurs biens, de tous dommages et intérêts; pour lesquels il sera donné caution suffisante par tous les commandans de vaisseaux armés en course, avant qu'ils reçoivent leurs commissions.

ARTICLE XVI. Il a été convenu que les sujets ou citoyens de l'une des parties contractantes, leurs vaisseaux ni effets, ne pourront être assujettis à aucun embargo, ni retenus de la part de l'autre pour quelque expédition militaire, usage public ou particulier de qui que ce soit. Et dans les cas de saisie, de detention, ou d'arrêt, soit pour dettes contractées, ou offenses commises par quelque citoyen ou sujet de l'une des parties contractantes dans la jurisdiction de l'autre, on procedera uniquement par ordre et autorité de la justice et suivant les voyes ordinaires en pareil cas usitées.

ARTICLE XVII. S'il arrivoit que les bâtimens ou effets de la puissance neutre fussent pris par l'ennemi de l'autre, ou par un pirate, et ensuite repris par la puissance en guerre, ils seront conduits dans un port de l'une des deux parties contractantes et remis à la garde des officiers du port, afin d'être restitués en entier au proprietaire legitime, dès qu'il aura duement constaté son droit de propriété.

ARTICLE XVIII. Lorsque les citoyens ou sujets de l'une des deux parties contractantes seront forcés par des tempêtes, par la poursuite des corsaires ou vaisseaux ennemis, ou par quelqu' autre accident, à se réfugier avec leurs vaisseaux ou effets dans les havres, ou dans la jurisdiction de l'autre, ils seront reçus, protégés et traités avec humanité et honnêteté. Il leur sera permis de se pourvoir à un prix raisonable de rafraichissemens, de provisions et de toutes choses nécessaires pour leur subsistance, santé et commodité, et pour la reparation de leurs vaisseaux.

ARTICLE XIX. Les vaisseaux de guerre publics et particuliers des deux parties contractantes, pourront conduire en toute liberté, par tout où il leur plaira, les vaisseaux et effets qu'ils auront pris sur leurs ennemis, sans être obligés de payer aucune impôts, charges ou droits aux officiers de l'amirauté, des douanes ou autres. Ces prises ne pourront être non plus ni arrêtées, ni visitées, ni soumises à des procédures légales, en entrant again at any time by their captors to the places expressed in their commissions, which the commanding officer of such vessel shall be obliged to show. But no vessel which shall have made prizes on the subjects of his Most Christian Majesty the King of France, shall have a right of asylum in the ports or havens of the said United States; and if any such be forced therein by tempest or dangers of the sea, they shall be obliged to depart as soon as possible, according to the tenor of the treaties existing between his said Most Christian Majesty and the said United States.

ARTICLE XX. Citizens of No citizen or subject of either of the contracting parties shall take either party from any power with which the other may be at war, any commission shall not take commissions

or letter of marque for arming any vessel to act as a privateer against or letters of the other, on pain of being punished as a pirate; nor shall either party marque from a

hire, lend or give any part of their naval or military force to the enemy state at war with the other. of the other, to aid them offensively or defensively against that other.

Regulations to be observed in case of war.

ARTICLE XXI. If the two contracting parties should be engaged in war against a common enemy, the following points shall be observed between them.

1. If a vessel of one of the parties, retaken by a privateer of the other, shall not have been in possession of the enemy more than twentyfour hours, she shall be restored to the first owner for one third of the value of the vessel and cargo; but if she shall have been more than twenty-four hours in possession of the enemy, she shall belong wholly to the recaptor. 2. If in the same case the recapture were by a public vessel of war of the one party, restitution shall be made to the owner for one thirtieth part of the value of the vessel and cargo, if she shall not have been in possession of the enemy more than twenty-four hours, and one tenth of the said value where she shall have been longer, which sums shall be distributed in gratuities to the recaptors. 3. The restitution in the cases aforesaid, shall be after due proof of property, and surety given for the part to which the recaptors are entitled. 4. The vessels of war, public and private, of the two parties, shall be reciprocally admitted with their prizes into the respective ports of each; but the said prizes shall not be discharged nor sold there, until their legality shall have been decided, according to the laws and regulations of the states to which the captor belongs, but by the judicatures of the place into which the prize shall have been conducted. 5. It shall be free to each party to make such regulations as they shall judge necessary for the conduct of their respective vessels of war, public and private, relative to the vessels which they shall take and carry into the ports of the two parties.

Convoys in certain cases.

ARTICLE XXII. Where the parties shall have a common enemy, or shall both be neutral, the vessels of war of each shall, upon all occasions, take under their protection the vessels of the other going the same course, and shall defend such vessels as long as they hold the same course, against all force and violence, in the same manner as they ought to protect and defend vessels belonging to the party of which they are.

ARTICLE XXIII. If war should arise between the two contracting parties, the merchants of either country, then residing in the other, shall be allowed to remain dans le port de l'autre partie, mais elles pourront en sortir librement, et être conduites en tout temps par le vaisseau preneur aux endroits portés par les commissions, dont l'officier commandant le dit vaisseau sera obligé de faire montre. Mais tout vaisseau qui aura fait des prises sur les sujets de S. M. T. C. le Roi de France, ne sauroit obtenir un droit d'asile dans les ports ou havres des États Unis; et s'il étoit forcé d'y entrer par des tempêtes ou dangers de mer, il sera obligé d'en repartir le plutôt possible, conformement à la teneur des traités subsistants entre S. M. T. C. et les Etats Unis.

ARTICLE XX. Aucun citoyen ou sujet de l'une des deux parties contractantes n'acceptera d'une puissance avec laquelle l'autre pourroit être en guerre, ni commission, ni lettre de marque, pour armer en course contre cette derniere, sous peine d'être puni comme pirate. Et ni l'un ni l'autre des deux Etats ne louera, prêtera ou donnera une partie de ses forces navales ou militaires à l'ennemi de l'autre, pour l'aider à agir offensivement ou défensivement contre l'état qui est en guerre.

ARTICLE XXI. S'il arrivoit que les deux parties contractantes fussent en même temps en guerre contre un ennemi commun, on observera de part et d'autre les points suivants.

1. Si les bâtimens de l'une des deux nations repris par les armateurs de l'autre, n'ont pas été au pouvoir de l'ennemi au de la de 24 heures, ils seront restitués au premier proprietaire moyennant le payement du tiers de la valeur du bâtiment et de la cargaison : si au contraire le vaisseau repris a été plus de 24 heures au pouvoir de l'ennemi, il

appartiendra en entier à celui qui l'a repris. 2. Dans le cas qu'un navire est repris par un vaisseau de guerre de l'une des puissances contractantes, il sera rendu au propriétaire, moyennant qu'il paye un trentieme du navire et de la cargaison, si le batiment n'a pas été plus de 24 heures au pouvoir de l'ennemi, et le dixieme de cette valeur, s'il y a été plus long-temps, lesquelles sommes seront distribuées en guise de gratification à ceux qui l'auront repris. 3. Dans ces cas la restitution n'aura lieu qu'après les preuves faites de la propriété, sous caution de la quotepart qui en revient à celui qui a repris le navire. 4. Les vaisseaux de guerre publics et particuliers des deux parties contractantes seront admis réciproquement avec leur prises dans les ports respectifs ; cependant ces prises ne pourront y être dechargées ni vendues, qu'après que la légitimité de la prise aura été décidée suivant les loix et réglemens de l'état dont le préneur est sujet, mais par la justice du lieu où la prise aura été conduite. 5. Il sera libre à chacune des parties contractantes de faire tels réglemens qu'elles jugeront nécessaires, relativement à la conduite que devront tenir respectivement leurs vaisseaux de guerre publics et particuliers, à l'égard des bâtiments qu'ils auront pris et amenés dans les ports des deux puissances.

ARTICLE XXII. Lorsque les parties contractantes seront engagées en guerre contre un ennemi commun, ou qu'elles seront neutres toutes deux, les vaisseaux de guerre de l'une prendront en toute occasion, sous leur protection, les navires de l'autre, qui font avec eux la même route, et ils les defendront, aussi long-temps qu'ils feront voile ensemble, contre toute force et violence et de la même manière qu'ils protegeroient et défendroient les navires de leur propre nation.

ARTICLE XXIII. S'il survient une guerre entre les parties contractantes, les marchands de l'un des deux Etats qui resideront dans l'autre, auront la permission In case of war, nine months to collect their debts and settle their affairs, and may depart nine months to freely, carrying off all their effects, without molestation or hindrance: be allowed to

And all women and children, scholars of every faculty, cultivators of citizens to settle their affairs. the earth, artizans, manufacturers and fishermen unarmed and inhabit

ing unfortified towns, villages or places, and in general all others whose occupations are for the common subsistence and benefit of mankind, shall be allowed to continue their respective employments, and shall not be molested in their persons, nor shall their houses or goods be burnt,

or otherwise destroyed, nor their fields wasted by the armed force of Principles of the enemy, into whose power, by the events of war, they may happen conducting war. to fall; but if any thing is necessary to be taken from them for the use

of such armed force, the same shall be paid for at a reasonable price. And all merchant and trading vessels employed in exchanging the products of different places, and thereby rendering the necessaries, con

veniences and comforts of human life more easy to be obtained, and No commis

more general, shall be allowed to pass free and unmolested; and neither sions to be of the contracting powers shall grant or issue any commission to any granted to prior private armed vessels, empowering them to take or destroy such trading

ves sels.

vessels or interrupt such commerce.

ARTICLE XXIV. Treatment of And to prevent the destruction of prisoners of war, by sending them prisoners of war into distant and inclement countries, or by crouding them into close and regulated.

noxious places, the two contracting parties solemnly pledge themselves to each other, and to the world, that they will not adopt any such practice; that neither will send the prisoners whom they may take from the other into the East-Indies, or any other parts of Asia or Africa, but that they shall be placed in some part of their dominions in Europe or America, in wholesome situations; that they shall not be confined in dungeons, prison-ships, nor prisons, nor be put into irons, nor bound, nor otherwise restrained in the use of their limbs; that the officers shall be enlarged on their paroles within convenient districts, and have comfortable quarters, and the common men be disposed in cantonments open and extensive enough for air and exercise, and lodged in barracks as roomly and good as are provided by the party in whose power they are for their own troops; that the officers shall also be daily furnished by the party in whose power they are, with as many rations, and of the same articles and quality as are allowed by them, either in kind or by commutation, to officers of equal rank in their own army; and all others shall be daily furnished by them with such ration as they allow to a common soldier in their own service; the value whereof shall be paid by the other party on a mutual adjustment of accounts for the subsistence of prisoners at the close of the war; and the said accounts shall not be mingled with, or set off against any others, nor the ballances due on them, be witheld as a satisfaction or reprisal for any other article, or for any other cause, real or pretended, whatever; that each party shall be allowed to keep a commissary of prisoners of their own appointment, with every separate cantonment of prisoners in possession of the other, which commissary shall see the prisoners as often as he pleases, shall be allowed to receive and distribute whatever comforts may be sent to them by their friends, and shall be free to make his reports in open letters to those who employ him; but if any officer shall break his parole, or any other prisoner shall escape from the limits of his cantonment, after they shall have been designated to him, such individual officer or other prisoner, shall forfeit so much of the benefit of this article as provides for his enlargement on parole or cantonment. And it is declared, that neither the pretence ihat war dissolves all treaties, nor any other whatever, shall be considered

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