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prove equally injurious to the public domain, and ultimately to the settlement itself.

12. Lead Mines near Genevieve and other settlements in Louisiana. Two extensive claims of a doubtful nature, are laid to some of these. The first derived from Philip Renaut, to whom a grant had been made in 1723, by the local authorities, and who returned to France in 1744, from which time his claim had lain dormant till the year 1807. The power of the officers who made the grant is doubted; and if the charter of the French Western or Mississippi Company, was similar to that of Crozat, mines on being abandoned for three years reverted to the crown. The other rests on an application of St. Vrain Lassus, to the Governor of Louisiana, for ten thousand acres, to be located on lead mines, salt springs, &c. where, and in as many tracts as the applicant might choose. The Governor, in February 1796, writes at the bottom of the petition “ Granted.” But no warrant of survey was given, nor any attempt made to take up any land during the continuance of the Spanish authorities. The present holder of the supposed grant claims, by virtue of it, and has taken possession of a number of the most valuable mines belonging to tlie public.

13. Dubuque's lead mines in Louisiana, about 500 miles above St. Louis. The claim to these, and including 140,000 acres of land, is derived from a cession by the Indian tribe of Foxes; which appears to have been a mere personal permission to Dubuque to occupy and work mines as long as he pleased. The confirmation by the Spanish Governor of Louisiana only grants the petitioner's request to keep peaceable possession according to the tenor of the Indian permission. There was neither order of survey or patent, but the land is nevertheless claimed as if held under a perfect title.

14. The New-Orleans Batture. The documents respecting this claim, which rests on a supposed right of alluvion, were too voluminous for insertion. And exclusively of other considerations derived from the nature of

the batture and from the laws of Louisiana ; it is sufficient here to observe, 1st. That no title or survey has been produced, proving that the land was bounded by the river. 2dly. That that land was converted into a suburb, and all the front lots sold to individuals. 3dly. That if the first purchasers from the crown had any right to the batture, this does not appear to have been legally vested in the present claimants. 4thly. That it is incoi t stibly proven that during a period of near forty years, which elapsed between the purchase of the plantation from the crown and the cession to the United States, the batture was neither possessed or claimed by the owners of that plantation, and was during the whole time, in the exclusive and undisturbed possession of the public.

Some other vague claims to the public lands have been mentioned, respecting which no documents have been obtained ; and it is probable that the reports of the commissioners for the territories of Louisiana and Orleans, will exhibit others as yet unknown.

PART I.
TREATIES, CHARTERS, CESSIONS,

AND OTHER ACTS,
RELATIVE TO THE TITLE .

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THE UNITED STATES
TO THE “PUBLIC LANDS.”

SECTION I.

EXTRACTS FROM TREATIES BETWEEN THE UNI

TED STATES AND FOREIGN NATIONS.

lent.

Definitive Treaty of Peace between the United Paris, 3d States of America and his Britannic Majesty. Sept. 1783.

ARTICLE I. HIS Britannic Majesty acknowledges the United States said United States, viz. New Hampshire, Massa- acknowledg. chusetts-Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Planta. ed to be indetions, Connecticut, New York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia, to be free, sovereign, and independent states that he treats with them as such ; and for himself, his heirs, and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof,

ARTICLE II. And that all disputes which might arise in future, Boundaries an the subject of the boundaries of the said United establis States, may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their boundaries, viz. From the north-west angle of Nova.

ablished.

Scotia, viz. that angle which is formed by a line, drawn due north from the source of Saint Croix river to the Highlands ; along the said Highlands which divide those rivers, that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut river, thence down along the middle of that river, to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude ; from thence, by a line due west on said latitude, until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river into lake Ontario, through the middle of said lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and lake Erie ; thence along the middle of said communication into lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water-communication between that lake and lake Huron ; thence along the middle of said water-communication into the lake Huron ; thence through the middle of said lake to the watercommunication between that lake and lake Superior; thence through lake Superior northward of the isles Royal and Philipeaux, to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, and the watercommunication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods ; thence through the said lake to the most north-western point thereof, and from thence on a due west course to the river Mississippi; thence by. a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Mississippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude. South by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line last mentioned, in the latitude of thirty-one degrees north of the equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouche ; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint river; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's river; and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's river to the Atlantic ocean. East by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north to the aforesaid Highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic ocean from those which fall into the river St. Lawrence: comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the

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