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origin, ...... 130

(i) Organic character of moral sentiments, . . 132

Resultant attitude of evolutionism to intuitionism, . 133

2. On egoism: relation of egoism to altruism, . . . 134

(a) Social nature of the individual, . . . 135

(6) Limits to conciliation of egoism and altruism, . 141

(a) Continued existence of competition, . . 142

($) Different and conflicting degrees of altruism, . 143

(y) Altruism of interest and altruism of motive, . 143

(8) Weakness of altruistic feelings, . . . 146

(c) Tendency of evolution opposed to egoism, . . 148

Evolution not the basis of psychological hedonism, ■ 148

Nor of ethical hedonism, .... 150

3. On utilitarianism, . . . . . .152

Modification of the utilitarian method, . . .153

And of its principle, . . . . . .155

Evolutionist objections to utilitarianism, . . 155

(a) As prescribing an unprogressive ideal, . .156

(b) As a theory of consequences, . . .160

(c) As related solely to sensibility, . . .161

CHAPTER VII.

HEDONISM AND EVOLUTIONISM.

1. Alliance of evolutionism and hedonism, . . . 164

(a) From interpreting greatest happiness by the laws

of life, . . . . . . 164

(6) From interpreting life by pleasure, . . .165

2. Evolutionist argument for concomitance of life and

pleasure, . . . . . .167

3. Objections to this argument, .... 168

(a) That life cannot bring more pleasure than pain, . 169

(a) From the negative nature of pleasure, . . 171

(0) From the facts of human life, . . . 172

(b) That the evolution of life does not uniformly tend to

pleasure, ...... 172

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