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is not stated; tha^ the greatest length and breadth of trie former is so and so, from which no conjecture can be formed of its magnitude, and still less of the size of the detached parts, which form, however, more than a tenth of the body of the state. * We learn, moreover, that there was a time when its territory amounted to 56,414 square miles; that since that time it has acquired certain provinces, some of which have been ceded again; but no other measure is given Of their magnitude, than the num-' her of inhabitants which they contain; and if, by dividing this number by 99, (the average number upon a square mile in the rest of the kingdom), we attempt to estimate the extent of the new acquisitions, we shall be led into an error of nearly one third of the whole, f Such and so enlarged are Mr Pinkerton's talents for statistical inquiries:

The historical epochs are necessarily complex, and the earlier ones not very interesting. But an eve"nt of such importance aSthe partition of Poland, should not have been omitted in riotic-" ihg the reign of Frederic II. There is an inaccuracy, too, in calling the prince who began his reign in 171S, Frederic William II. He was the first king of that name; for his father, though the third elector of the name of Frederic, was the first monarch, and is accordingly styled invariably Frederic I. In at work of less overbearing pretensions than the present, such things would signify comparatively little. But a few mistakes of this sort will greatly damage its reputation among the elaborate men of Germany, whose unseemly' volumes it is intended to supplant.

We come next to the chapter upon political geography, which begins with ' religion.' * The ruling religion of Prussia,' says Mr Pinkerton, ' is the Protestant, under its two chief divisions of Lutheran and Calvinistic. But after the recent acquisitions in Poland, it would seem that'the greater number of the inhabitants must be Roman Catholic.' Seem is a favourite word with Mr Pinkerton, and he may fancy that it has its convenience. He1 is mistaken, however, if he expects such a veil to keep a cunning reader from guessing at the real dimensions of his information. A little inquiry would have enabled him to tell us what

the

* Krug eftimates the foperficial extent of the contiguous provinces at 8o,8oo fquare miles, and that of the detached territories at 8,8oo.—* (d&rifs der Neujltn Statijiic dei PreufsStaats. 1805. )

f Haflel gives the extent of the Pruffian acquisitions in Poland, 1793 and 1795, at 31,824 fquare miles. Computing from Mr Pinkerton'* data, we mould make them only 21,213.—(Statijlifchef Uuvrifti the proportion in question really is; or, at least, what it is calculated to fee by Prussian writers. Hassel reckons that of a. population of 9,856,000persons,5,187,900areProtestants, 4,552,000 Roman Catholics, the remaining 316,100 being Jews, Greeks, &c. And Krug, who computes the population at 9,700,000, reckons 4,800,000 •Lutherans alone; so that the Protestants seem to be considerably more numerous, not only than the Catholics, but than all the other sects put together.

As under the title of • Extent,' we were referred to the population of the country; so, upon- the subject of its populationwe are now referred back again to its extent. 'Before the ac-> quisitions in Poland, this kingdom was supposed to contain only about five millions and a half of inhabitants, including one million and a half in Silesia. But the late great acquisition in Poland has greatly enlarged the number of inhabitants, which maybe about eighty to the square mile.' But as we are not informed of how-many square miles this acquisition consisted, the average of eighty to the square mile is of little service in computing the aggregate population; and we are indebted to a note which refers us to another note, for an estimate of what the population was in 1801. In the two following years, Prussia gaiued, by different territorial arrangements, 400,000 subjects; and this augmentation, together with other causes, lias so increased the number of inhabitants since 1801, that the same author, who is cited bv Mr Pinkerton as in that year computing them at 8,021,149, reckoned them at 9,500,000 in 1804. —(See Hoeck'a Appendix.) Hassel gives 9,856,000, and Krug 9,700,000.

The above mentioned note differs also from the text, to a considerable amount, in the statement of the Prussian army. Upon points which are so variable, it must often happen that an author, anxious to furnish the latest information, will be compelled to correct in a note, errors discovered too late for the alteration of the text. But this excuse cannot apply to corrections drawn from documents published five years ago.

This objection is applicable to almost every part of the present work, where attempts are made to follow the changes which the subject has undergone. In those cases, the old statement is retained; sometimes a note is inserted in the same page, alluding to a change having happened; and sometimes we have to correct the passage by another note in a supplement, or under a different head altogether. But to go on with the specimen of statistics now under examination.

The article on the Prussian revenues begins thus. 'Before the additions of Polish territory, the revenue was estimated at 3,880,000l. Sterling and, after enumerating some-heads of ex

1 penditure, penditure, Mr Pinkerton proceeds to say, that c the entire revenue of Poland was not computed to exceed 439,546l. Sterling. If we even suppose half of this added to the Prussian revenue, the result would not be important,' &c. This unfortunate partition of Poland is a constant source of doubt and perplexity to Mr Pinkerton; and when he applies to Hoeck for more recent information, he finds him computing the revenues ' sometimes in dollars, sometimes in florins, and in such minute subdivisions, that the calculation would be very laborious.' He therefore lays him aside, and has recourse to ' the intelligent author of La Prusse £3* sa Neutralite, who puts the revenue at above five * millions Sterling.' Now, the difference between this sum and the calculation made above, which would amount only to 4,099,773l., is so very considerable, that it is surprising he was not led to inquire whether any other event had occurred since this partition of Poland, which could so materially affect the Prussian revenue. He might then have learnt, that other provinces have in the mean time been acquired, the amount of whose revenue equals that of the new Polish provinces. He seems indeed to have been aware, that the entire revenue of Poland, that is to say, its revenue under a different form of government, and more than thirty years ago, might be an imperfect criterion of its present value.

It might give some relief to this tedious detail of mistated facts* to examine a little the consistency of the speculations which are offered under the title of ' political importance and relations.' Five years ago, the arms and influence of Russia were our author's great terror; but he is now so alarmed from the other side, that, in addition to a strict alliance with Denmark and Sweden, he would put Prussia in possession of Hanover, of all the north of Germany, of the whole dominions formerly belonging to Poland, and of Holland as far as the Rhine, to enable her to oppose the preponderance of France. But as these are points, for the discussion of which we never thought Mr Pinkerton peculiarly qualified, we shall pass them over, and continue our inquiry into those which are more open to the efforts of that habit of laborious investigation for which we had given him credit.

. . . In

* Hoeck, in an appendix to that work, where the calculations of dollars and florins were fo inconvenient to Mr Pinkerton, reckons the revenue at 36,000,000 dollars, or about 6,ooo,oool. Sterling. And Haffel, who quotes him and many other writers upon the fubjeft, computes it at from 38 to 40,000,000 dollars, or about fix millions and a half.—{Statijlifchcr Unvtifs, 1805.)

In the literary history of Prussia, the name of Leibnitz, under whose auspices the Academy of Sciences at Berlin was first established, ought to have found a place; as well as that of Wolff, who, besides the persecutions which he underwent, and the distinctions which he afterwards obtained in the University of Halle, has the additional claim of having been born in what is now a Prussian province: those of Humboldt, Klaproth and others, might also have been added to the list of men of genius and learning.

In the account of the universities, the principal ones * Halle and Erlangen are omitted; and Posen, which is mentioned as a university, is only a royal school. That of Frankfort on the Oder is attributed, by the author of the Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg, to John Cicero, the father of the prince whom Mr Pinkerton names as its founder.

The rapid increase of population in the Prussian dominions, must have rendered the account, which was before given, of the number of inhabitants of the principal towns, very inaccurate; and, accordingly, we find very considerable differences between Mr Pinkerton's estimates and those of the later German authors; a comparative statement of some of which is given below, f The assertion, that, excepting Breslaw, there are only three towns in Silesia which contain more than 6000 inhabitants, is contradicted by Hassel, who enumerates eight others whose population exceeds that number. There are likewise five other towns besides Warsaw, in South Prussia alone, which contain, according to Hassel, above 6000 persons, though Mr Pinkerton asserts, that

no

* The number of ftudents in the principal univerfities are given by Haffel, in 1805, as follows. Halle, in 1802, 634; Erlangen, 1801, 300; Koniglberg, 1802, 300; Frankfort (no date) 180.

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The numbers which Mr Pinkerton reckons for Berlin, are taken from the tables of 1798, when, upon an average taken" from the two preceding years, the number of inhabitants was increaftng at the rate of 3726 yearly.

Vol. x. No. 19. L

no other of the towns recently acquired in Poland even equal this population.

The inland navigation is spoken of more contemptuously than it deserves. The most important canals, indeed, are not remarkable for their extent; but, by joining the Elbe, the Oder and the Vistula, they form an uninterrupted line of navigation of six or seven hundred miles in length; and the traffic upon them, though a good deal fettered by the difference of duties in different provinces, by extravagant tolls and other impediments, is nevertheless very considerable.

The subjects treated of in the fourth chapter, under the title of Natural Geography, not being of a variable nature, no great alterations are to be looked for in this part of the work. But Mr Pinkerton has overlooked one of the principal mineral productions, that of salt, which is calculated to bring in to the state above 300,0001. yearly. The salt springs at Halle are said to be the most productive in the known world, and, on this account alone, deserved to have been particularly mentioned.

It would be tedious, as well as unnecessary, to bestow as much time upon the other states of Germany as has been done upon Prussia. No fairer specimen could have been selected, as no part of that book-making country is more fertile in sources of information upon the subjects whjch we have been examining; and without having to boast, like Mr Pinkerton, of ' communications from many diplomatic men, and men of science of all countries, * we have only applied to printed books, open to any one who would take the pains of looking at them. The few observations to which we must confine ourselves, in turning over the pages relative to Austria and the other parts of Germany, will be founded upon documents equally accessible to all.

After giving Boetticher's statement of the number of inhabitants on a square mile in the Austrian dominions, Mr Pinkerton adds, ' But since he wrote, the Netherlands, a populous region, seem to be withdrawn from the House of Austria.' (I. 360.) Has Mr Pinkerton, who pretends to give, in the same page, the stipulations of the treaty of Presburg, as far as they affect the House of Austria, not yet ascertained whether that House is actually mistress of the Netherlands or not?

Again, if Boetticher, or even Hoeck's work of 1801, are his latest authorities, all the estimates contained in his two first chapters upon historical and political geography, must now be nearly useless; for although, from subsequent treaties, he may furnish us with the names of many of the territories ceded or exchanged since that time, he cannot attempt to state either their population or revenue. We shaM therefore pass over

these

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