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these pages, and only notice a whimsical circumstance which occurs in p. 362. Mention is there made of the ' map of Hungary by the Artarian Society' at Vienna. Having never had the advantage of hearing of this learned body, we were a good deal at a loss, till we discovered that Messrs Artaria & Co. are map and print-sellers in Vienna; and concluded, that MrPinkerton, who, in another place, exults greatly, because, ''on the Continent, venders of maps.are not styled geographers,' has here inadvertently erected a firm of them into a society.
Nothing can be more imperfect than his account of those parts of the German empire the situation of which has been altered by the late treaties. The chahges are neither fully admitted into the text, nor yet entirely confined to the supplement: so that the whole presents a confused medley of the past and the present state of those countries, without giving us any accurate idea of either. Thus Manheim and Heidelberg, are mentioned amongst the towns belonging to the electorate of Bavaria, though Baden, to which they were ceded when that principality was raised to the electoral dignity, is mentioned as an electorate. In the account of Hanover, the bishopric of Hildesheim is said to be in the possession of its own bishop, though, at the conclusion of the same chapter, it is placed among those which have been secularized. In speaking of Saxony, the singularity, of the people and the court having different religions, should not have been passed over. Under the title of Mecklenburg, we find a strange blunder. It is said to be ' divided into two parts, known by the additions of ' Schwerin and Gustro' (Giistrow). If this latter division is to be mentioned at all, then Mecklenburg must be stated to consist of three, and not of two parts, viz. Schwerin, Giistrow and Strelitz. But the truth is, that only those of Schwerin and Strelitz are preserved, the dutchy of Mecklenburg Giistrow having fallen to the House of Schwerin, become incorporated with it, and lost its distinctive name. In like manner Wismar, which was purchased from the King of Sweden, and now belongs to this branch of the House of Mecklenburg, is omitted in its proper place, and ranked among the King of Sweden's German possessions.
Before leaving this part of the subject, we shall notice Mr Pinkerton's inaccuracy in matters where still less exertion is necessary in order to be right. He is beyond all belief careless, even in copying over numbers; witness his abstract of the population tables of England and Wales (I. 23.), where the population of the West Riding (563,953) is set down for the population of all Yorkshire, instead of 858,892; the inhabitants of Herefordshire are stated at 81,191, instead of 89,191; those of Breck
L 2 nockshire nockshire at 33,633, instead of 31,633. In p. 55, also, the number of females is given at 4,433,490, instead of 4,343,499 and the total of the inhabitants at 9,343,178 instead of 9,343,578. Errors of no great importance in themselves, but indicative of unbecoming carelessness in one who freely confesses his superiority over all his fellow labourers, and whose fame must rest on his close attention to many little things.
We are now to look at another department of the improvements which this republication presents, and are to see how the defects in the former edition have been supplied. This has evidently been accomplished in two ways r—when the subject, before left out, could be found ready treated in an English book, a due portion of this book was just printed into Mr Pinkerton's volumes ::—when the book did not happen to be in iLnglish, about as much pains was bestowed in extracting a sufficient quantity of the contents, and putting it into paragraphs, as might have enabled Mr Pinkerton to translate the requisite portion. The success with which each of these most laborious efforts of the mind has been accomplished, can only be estimated by a number of examples; and, first, let us attend to the method of reprinting, so happily practised by our author, and alluded to, we should imagine, in the words ' long, sedulous and painful researches.' (I. xx.)
The first edition was peculiarly deficient in its account of those new quarters of the world which Mr Pinkerton, after the President De Brosses, calls Australasia and Polynesia. Accordingly, in the present edition, a space of eighty pages is allottecf-to Australasia. After the short general description of New Holland, objected to as defective, our author finds, that, as the subject is very interesting, and as Mr Collins has treated it fully,
* the reader may not be displeased with his details,'—' more especially as they are very striking to the philosophical reader.' Whereupon, above thirty whole pages are printed over from the work of ' that intelligent writer ;' and an apology is added, not for the extent of the excerpt, but for the length at which the subject has been treated. The reason it seems is, that, ' in the year 1900 or 2000, New Holland (or Notasta, as he will have us call it) may require a large volume of * Geography from a learned and precise pen.' He then comes to New Guinea; and, after a little more extract, says, ' Here follows Valentyne's account of the birds of paradise accordingly it does follow,—and through more than eight pages. He now breaks off the excerpt to say,
* The same voyager gives the following account of the natives ;' so his account of the natives follows. But Mr Walckenaer's notes to his French translation of the first edition are ' excellent good :' He is likewise * a man of property and information, far superior to the usual pretensions of translators,' (I. xvii.); therefore he is made to club his share like other people. Then Mr Collins is so intelligent and so recent, that he must not bo let off for trie thirty pages on Notasia. 'He gives the following account of discoveries in the south of Van Dieman's Land.' In fine, by the contributions of all these writers, Mr Pinkerton has inserted about fifty-five pages into the eighty, which ' just proportion and harmony of parts' has required him to set apart for Australasia.
Polynesia is treated of in 10a pages. In discoursing of the Pellew Islands, we have, first, a detail in Mr Pinkerton's own words (II. 668.); but that not being long enough, a long passage from Keate is inserted, comprehending, among others, the very points which Mr Pirikerton had gone over in the preceding pages. The voyage of Cantova, in the Histoire Getierak, ' retains its merit;' and the Carolines -are therefore described by extracts from that collection. Mr Pinkerton's work has been blamed for not giving sufficient descriptions of manners; therefore, seventy pages are taken at once from the missionary voyage; so, about eighty pages, in 105, devoted to Polynesia, are f;yrly reprinted from those excellent authors.
Under the head of the Asiatic Islands, we meet with more examples of the same method of ' writing.' After giving a short account of Sumatra, in his own language, our author remarks (II. 526'.), that Mr Marsden's large and interesting work enabled him to give those detaiks; hut ' that the account of the other islands must be more restricted.' Instead of this, the account of the two islands which follow, viz. Java and Borneo, is much more extensive; being reprinted from the voyages of Barrow, Valentyne, and Thunberg, with scarcely a paragraph of Mr Pinkerton's own.
North America, and the West Indies, are treated of in the same manner. The state of religion in the United States • may prove extremely interesting to many readers ;' and Dr Morse's account of it ' is very particular and instructive :' and ' because the sentiments of an American, on a subject'of such delicacy, have a claim to superior attention,' therefore, twenty-six pages are taken from his book, including a good deal of what he has himself taken in the same way from other writers. Almost the whole of the article on Canada is copied over from Boulton and Weld. Then comes Halifax. But ' the late excellent Mr Pennant has given a capital sketch of arctic geography in general; and, as the work has become rare, the following extract may net be unacceptable.' (III. 312.) So Halifax is discussed, and makes
L 3 way way for Newfoundland. But it is discovered again, that ' Mr Pennant, in his valuable work, entitled, Arctic Zoology, gives the following account of the fisheries.' (317.) After one page devoted according to the preestablished ' harmony' to the Bermudas, we reach Greenland. Once more, * a celebrated naturalist (Mr Pennant still) gives the following account of the animals.' (324.) We get at last to Hudson's Bay; but we only go deeper into Mr Pennant; in praise of whose work the very same sentence above quoted is reprinted from our author's own words; and, because of the scarcity of the arctic zoology, the * following extract may not be unacceptable.' (p. 331.)
The West Indies, having been scantily treated of in the first edition, are now copiously described by Bryan Edwards and Dr Pinckard, and Mr Mackinnon. As a specimen of this, we may just observe, that after giving the meagre account of Jamaica, from the former edition, our author says, its brevity was complained of, and he ' will give some amplifications from Mr Edwards, in his own words,' for a reason not easily guessed,—' for the sake of greater authenticity.' So there follows an excerpt of thirty pages from Mr Edwards's well known book; then fourteen pages on the Caribs; and twenty-three on the Caribbee Islands; besides various excerpts of different sizes from the travellers formerly alluded to, and Dr Anderson. And this is Mr Pinkerton's way of supplying the detects of his first edition, and of increasing its bulk above one half, by ' long, sedulous and painful researches.'
Where the books which he wishes to incorporate are written in a foreign language, he has somewhat more work; but does not come off as well. The acquisitions from Spanish writers, with which he has enriched his account of America, are the parts he boasts chiefly of. Our limits do not permit us to follow him closely over this part of his additions; but we shall give a few specimens of his manner of reading Spanish books, for the purpose of shewing how much care he has bestowed on his subject, and how safely his new edition may be trusted, as containing an accurate description of the Spanish colonies.
Vol. III. p. 160.—< The oidor, or chief judge, is an officer of great importance.' The oidor is not the chief judge, but one of the inferior or puisne judges. The chief judge is called Rfgente, or Regent of the Audience. Viager. Univ. xxvi. 283.
Ibid.—' There are also several inferior tribunals, among which that of the acordada judges small causes without expense; and with great promptitude.' The acordada, instead of resembling the small debt court of Edinburgh, as Mr Pinkertoh gives us to understand in this passage, is the most formidable criminal court in Mexico• The judge of the acordada, or as he is otherwise called, the Captain of the Holy Brotherhood, has 8 or 10,000 men under him; and formerly there was no appeal from his sentence, even in capital cases; but, at present, they are reviewed by the viceroy and two or three oideres. The particular province of the acordada is to maintain order and tranquillity throughout the kingdom, and to punish robbery, murder, and other acts of violence. Viag. Univ. xxvL 280.
P. 167.—* Assignments on the Windward Islands.' It should be, ' Assignments (z. e. on the treasury of Mexico) for .the use of the Windward Islands.' Viag, Univ. xxvii. 217.
P. 168.—' All which are under the management of the minister of state.' It should be, ' though the last is under,' &c. Viag. Univ. xxvii. 217.
Ibid.—* The whole of the passage, beginning ' The branch of tributes,' is nonsense, from ignorance of the Spanish.
P. 190.—* The College of St Mary of all Saints, is the only' one of the first rank in the Spanish American possessions.J Colegio Mayor, is not, college of the first rank, but, college for young nobles.
P. 206.—' There being no money of bullion as in Spain.' This has evidently no meaning; and shews clearly, that Mr Pinkerton does not use his mind, but his hand, when he writes geography. All money is made of bullion; and all bullion ceases to be so called when it is coined into money. The original is, * Moneda de Vellon, '—' copper coin. '—Vellon never, by any chance whatever, means bullion.
P. 211.—Another example of Mr Pinkerton's haste, and want of thought when he writes. He tells us gravely, that ' the religious women of Vera Cruz are occupied in teaching grammar to the parrots of Alvarado.' The original is, ' Hay en esta cuidad unas beatas que ganan su vida ensenando a. hablar a los loros, '— i. e. by teaching parrots to speak. Mr Pinkerton has probably seen hablar in the title-page of some spelling book, and supposed that it meant grammar.
P. 230.—The passage beginning ' The imposts,' is absolutely unintelligible from the mistranslation of Viag. Univ. xxvii. 209.
P. 267.—' They (the inhabitants of California) imagine, that, after death, they are changed into owls, .which is not improbable !.
P. 387.—* In 1792, the products of cotton were computed at six thousand arrobas, while that of fruits amounted to the surprising sum of 25,600,000 pecas; but under this article he includes coffee, chocolate,' &c. In this short sentence there are three blunders; 1. Frutqs, in Spanish, does not mean fruits, but
L 4 produce