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of his country. And, lastly, the pragmatica of Philip II., issued in 1594, states, in its preamble, that the yeomanry and small farmers of the kingdom were reduced, in general, to beggary and want; and that many even of the large farms had been abandoned by their owners, and left uncultivated. But are these complaints, resounding from so many quarters, compatible with that flourishing state of agriculture which could maintain eighteen millions of souls, in a country where hardly ten millions can find subsistence at present?

But, independent of this presumptive evidence, we have positive proof, that many of the provinces of Spain were less populous in the 16th century, than they are at present. We have three enumerations of the inhabitants of Catalonia and Roussillon, in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. In 1368, they amounted to 365,000; in 1495, to 473,000; and in 1553, to 340,000. But, in 1797, the inhabitants of Catalonia alone, amounted to 858,818; while the population of Rousillon is estimated, by the French government, at 106,171 souls, making an increase of population, in the two provinces, of 624,989, since 1553. Valencia, in 1510, contained 5i,555 families. In 1797, it contained 165,012 families. Allowing five persons to a family, its population, at the former period, was 272,775; at the latter period, 825,059, making a difference, in favour of the second, of 552,284* Arragon, in the time of the Catholic kings, contained only 440,000 inhabitants; it contains 657,876 at present; so that its increase has been 217,376. The whole population, therefore, of the three provinces of the crown of Arragon, in the 16th.century, amounted to 1,052,775. The same provinces contain, at present, 2,447,424; and have, consequently, more than doubled their population. It is unfortunate for the argument, which attributes the ruin and supposed depopulation of Spain to the emigratio.n of its inhabitants to America, that the Arragonian provinces have made their most rapid progress in wealth and population since the colonial trade was opened to them. The same is true of Biscay and Gallicia. Ustariz long ago remarked, in opposition to" vulgar prejudice, that these two provinces, though they sent the greatest number of emigrants to America, were the best peopled provinces of Castille.

With regard to Castille, oi;r accounts of its antient population are too imperfect to enable us to draw a similar comparison ber tween its present and its former state. The ruinous appearance of many towns in Leon and the two Castilles, is an incontestable proof of their decline; and we are disposed to believe, that, in piese provinces, there has been a positive diminution of population, though to a much less extent than is commonly imagined. If we were to admit a similar decline in any other part of Spain, it would be in the kingdom of Granada, where, if we compare the present state of the Alpujarras, and the appearance of the valley of Granada, with the descriptions of Naviger and the history of the wars of Granada by Mendoza and others, we cannot but suppose, that, notwithstanding the increase of Malaga and other towns upon the coast, there has been a diminution, on the whole, in the population of the country. As to Estremadura and Andalucia, we know that the same towns exist there at present, which existed in the time of Ferdinand the Catholic; and if in many of them we perceive little appearance of business or activity, as little do we see in them, in general, any marks of decay. Seville has, indeed, declined in its commercial greatness, and possibly in its population; but Cadiz, Xeres, Isla de Leon, Puerto de Santa Maria and Puerto Real, have risen upon its fall. In the northern provinces, there can be no doubt, that there has been a considerable increase of population.

If the statistical returns made to Philip II. in answer to the queries which had been circulated by his order in the provinces of Castiilc, were carefully examined, a satisfactory account might be extracted from them, of the ancient population of these provinces. But though a copy of these voluminous returns has been made from the original, which is deposited in the Escurial, and has been for more than thirty years in the possession of the Royal Academy of History at Madrid, no extract from it, nor summary of its contents, has yet been published. We observe, however, In MacPherson's Annals of Commerce, * an anonymous English treatise referred to, which was published in 1689, under the title of the * Happy future State of England.' The anonymous author of this treatise asserts, that Mr Pepys (Secretary of the Admiralty) showed him a paper, stating, that the whole number of men in the realm of Spain, taken by a secret survey, some time, as is supposed, before the year 1588, was but 1,125,390, exclusive of the regular and the secular clergy. But it was in 1575 that Philip II. circulated his interrogators or queries about the population and state of Castille; and the returns to his queries, some of which we have seen, are dated in 1577 and 1578. If this coincidence of time be considered as any evidence that the numbers in Mr Pepys's paper were taken from a private abstract of these returns, the accuracy of the statement may be relied upon, for the returns were made with the greatest care and dili

fence. We must, however, on that supposition, substitute, in Ir Pepys's statement, ' provinces of Castille,' instead of ' realm

of

* MacPherfon's Annals of Commerce, vol. 2. p. i87.

of Spain ;' for the interrogaUrio was circulated in Castille only. But if the number of men capable of bearing arms, exclusive of ecclesiastics, amounted to 1,125,390, the whole population of Castille, excluding the same description of persons, may be calculated at 4,501,560 souls. Adding 100,000 for ecclesiastics,* the whole population will have been 4,601,560. But the population of Castille, at present, exclusive of Navarre, Biscay, Arragon, and the Canary Islands, amounts to 7,328,700 souls; and, consequently, there has been an increase of more than one half in the population of the provinces of Castille since the time of Philip II. If we add to this an increase of more than \\ in the three provinces of Arragon, and suppose that in Navarre, Biscay, the Balearic and Canary Islands, the population has only doubled, we shall have, for the total population of Spain, exclusive of America, under Philip II., 6,071,831; under Charles IV. 10,504,985.

England, when threatened with invasion by the Spaish Armada, is supposed to have contained 4,688,000 souls ; f and it is remarkable enough, that the proportion of her population to that of Spain at the present day, is not very different from what it was then. J It is true, that the Spanish monarchy comprehended at that time, along with Spain and her colonies, not only her ancient possessions in Flanders and Italy, but her recent acquisitions of Portugal and the Portuguese conquests in Africa and India. It is also true, that England, since the days of Elizabeth, has increased her means of defence by the addition of at least 400,000 men able to bear arms in this part of the kingdom. She has also added about five millions to her population by her union with Ireland; and would to heaven we could say, that she had by that measure added in the same proportion to her strength and security; an4 that a blind and bigotted attachment to ancient prejudices, and a callous and disgusting indifference to the feelings and interests of so large a portion of her subjects, had not converted that which ought to have been her pride and strength, into her chief source of weakness and apprehension.

Our review of the first of these essays has extended to so unusual a length, that we must confine ourselves to a mere list

of

"The number of eceleiiallical perfons in Spain, according to the returns made to government in 1768, 1787, and 1797, were 208,899, 191,101, and 182,447.

f Andrews's Continuation of Henry's Hiftory of England, vol. 2. p. 154.

\ The population of England and Wales, according to the government returns (1801) amounts to 9,343,578.

of the names and titles of the others. The subject of the second is the discovery of the mariner's compass, and its earliest use in navigation. The third treats of the origin and antiquity of the venereal disease, and of its first appearance in Europe. The fourth is an inquiry into the earliest use of gunpowder in the art of war, and into the first invention of artillery. The fifth treats of the construction of the vessels used by the ancients; and the sixth, of the size and burden of the vessels used in the middle ages.

D. Antonio Capmany, the author of these essays, is a native of Catalonia. His principal work has been already mentioned, under its title of Memorias historicas sobre la Marina, cpmerclo y ertes de la antigua ciudad de Barcelona. The two first volumes appeared in 1779; the two last in 1792. The 3d and 4th volumes are collections of state papers, and other original and important documents from the archives of Barcelona. This truly excellent work is marked throughout with a spirit of liberality and good sense, and distinguished by an attention to general and philosophical views but seldom displayed by those who ransack archives, and compile papers for the use of future historians. We consider it as a most valuable addition to the history of the commerce and manufactures of the middle ages.

Capmany has also published an edition of the maritime customs of Barcelona; the foundation of the present maritime law of Europe. He has also edited a collection of antient treaties between the kings of Arragon, and the Mahometan princes of Asia and Africa; and published a translation of the antient naval ordonnances of the Crown of Arragon, as they were confirmed in 1354. He is, besides, the author of several works in literature, which are deservedly held in high estimation by his countrymen.

Art. XI. View of the present State of Poland. By George Burnett, late of Baliol. College, Oxford. 8vo. pp. 456. London. Longman & Co. 1807.

There is more pretension in this title, than the contents of the volume, or, indeed, the author's own account of it in the preface, will justify. He informs us, with great candour and modesty, that his work has peculiar claims to indulgence. He Was only settled in Poland, it seems, about ten months, during which time he lived in a nobleman's family at a great distance from any place of consequence, and made but two visits to towns, Warsaw and Lembejg, for a few days each. Even of these op

. Jortunitics portunities he did not make the most, having scarcely taken any notes while he remained in the country. But about two years. after his arrival here, if we rightly understand him, he found. that every thing relating to Poland was an object of interest; and, he got up this work to suit the public curiosity. He is so candid as to admit fairly, that this temporary interest regulated almost entirely the preparation of the book, and that the manuscript was sent to the press as fast as it was written; so many are the deductions from the claims of the title-page, which we are obliged to make by the acknowledgements in the preface I In fact, the book contains nothing which can be called a view of the state of Poland. Mr Burnett has given us, however, a considerable mass of anecdote and information, from his own recollection of a very limited part of the subject; and in this. point of view his work, crude and hasty though it be, possesses some claims to our attention. We shall therefore extract from it the parts most worthy of notice, after premising a few remarks on the exceedingly bad manner in which it is written throughout. ,

The hurry of composition has by no means prevented Mr Burnett from adopting an inflated and often fantastical style. "We have * pines lifting their lofty heads in the cold clear air,' huge and still as giants enchanted into pillars of salt.' (p. 32.) Never having had an opportunity of seeing this kind of giant, we canriot speak positively; but, so far as our fancy- can crry us, we confess a pine, with flakes of snow on its branches, does not seem to be the object bearing closest resemblance to such a person. Describing the appearance of the winter, when the ' air is so clear, that one can almost see the cold,' our author adds, that * the sun, the while, pours his glistening glory on the subject , snow, impenetrable as a rock to his beams.' (p. 45.) He has also found time to invent a number of clumsy and useless words, which he uses in a very intemperate manner. It is quite painful to look at such terms as iwotnaniscdt amiability, soeietyship, ex-, curset selfishment, &c. To notice the want of elegance, correctness, and, indeed, grammar, which prevails in this book, would be endless. Such defects are perhaps excused by the rapidity with which it was got up; but such imperfections as we have just exemplified cannot be passed over upon the same ground.

Mr Burnett shews a curious degree of ignorance upon many very common-place topics; and a great number of his remarks, indeed many of his details, are derived from this source. The long account of the Polish houses, for example, occupying near fifty pages, and the minute description of the manner of living of the Polish nobles, might be reduced to a Yery narrow compass, if

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