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Son. No. 7.

Belongs to the same farm; is situated under the foot of the Grauwacke range, and has been formed by its disintegration. Its site is a slightly inclined plane; it is not subject to denudation, but rather to accumulation of fresh drift from the hills. Its specific gravity is low, and its colour a light grey. It is finely granulated; yet, from its clayey quality, aggregates in small lumps, which are friable and easily crushed between the fingers. It is not unctuous, but feels dry and dusty. The presence of vegetable fibre gives it a permeability sufficient to drain the surface-water. It is easy of cultivation; is not manured; produces wheat; requires two bushels of seed per acre, and gives ten bushels in return: every alternate year it lies fallow: specific gravity 1*40.

Its subsoil is mixed with clay of a coarser kind than the surface soil.

It is called by the farmer a soil of the lowest productive power.

[table]

Soil No. 8.

Lies adjacent to the former soil, and is identical with it, as regards situation, texture, and other external appearances; the only difference consists in its being manured. It requires the same quantity of seed wheat, and produces 18 bushels in return. Like the preceding soil, every alternate year it lies fallow.

Physical Character.

Power of absorption of solar rays - - + 14'0

Power of terrestrial radiation - - — 2-5

Capacity for moisture - - - + (JO

Chemical Character.

Solubility of 100 parts: —

Soluble in acids .... 35-30
Insoluble in acids .... 74-70

[table]

100-00

Soil No. 9.

This soil lies on the farm of Mr. Collet, in the Vale of Clywd, to the northward of Mount York. It is formed by the disintegrated granitic rocks, conglomerates, and slates, which compose the ridges in the vicinity. Its specific gravity is 2"5; its colour grey. The soil contains large fragments in process of disintegration; the smaller, which, properly speaking, constitute the soil, are coarse; it drains off the water well, and lacks cohesive principles. Its appearance is that of a soil fit for cultivation, under which it produced, according to Mr. Collet, a very good crop of wheat and oats, and this without manure; but, "from some cause or other" it became sterile. Mr. Collet's opinion is, that the nature of the soil changed after the drought began to affect the colony (!)

Physical Character.

Power of absorption of solar rays - -+15

Power of terrestrial radiation - - — 6

Capacity for moisture - - - + 4

Chemical Character.

Solubility of 100 parts: —

Soluble in acids 5

Insoluble in acids - - - - 95

[table]

10000

Soil No. 10.

Represents the average soil which covers Mount Tomah. It is produced by the disintegration of basalt; its specific gravity is 1*6; colour brown; is fine-grained, and unctuous to the touch when moist; when dry it feels gritty; it is permeable, yet retentive of rain-water. The sample is a specimen of the preponderating soil of the locality, which is as yet untouched by the hand of industry. The indigenous vegetation which it alone produces is of the most luxuriant description. The Cryptogamia and the Gramineae exhibit throughout signs of unparalleled health and vigour. That part of the ridge which is known under the name of Captain Town's farm produces very good crops of wheat, oats, and barley. A well-directed drainage, which that farm is in need of, would bring its fields into a most flourishing condition. Specific gravity 1*6.

[graphic]

Physical Character.

Power of absorption of solar rays - + 13

Power of terrestrial radiation - - — 3

Capacity for moisture - - - + 10

Chemical Character.

Solubility of 100 parts: —

Soluble ----- 37-60

Insoluble ----- 62-50

[table]

10000

Soil No. 11.

The farm from which this soil was taken belongs to Captain Ryan of Boree. It is situated west of Mount Canoblas. Greenstone, basalt, limestone, and arenaceous conglomerates contributed to the formation of the soil. Its specific gravity is 2'0; its colour a darkish brown. It is rather coarse; the particles are angular and seem to resist a complete disintegration. The soil is permeable, agglutinates tolerably, and is slightly retentive. It was under cultivation for some years, but this was discontinued on account of the repeated failure of the crops. The intelligent farmer, Mr. Keynon, who is overseer of the farm, attributes the failure of the spring crops, by frosts, to some defect in the soil.

[table]

100-00

Soil No. 12.

This soil is from the small farm of Kirigdon Ponds, situated to the westward of Mount Wingen. It is formed by the disintegration of greenstone and arenaceous rocks. Its specific gravity is 2*9; its colour brownish; it contains very few pebbles, and is of an uniformly coarse and gritty composition. It is permeable, yet retentive of rain-water: its cohesion is moderate, and its appearance speaks rather favour

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