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it of course became cheap, and the price of every commodity rose: again, when money was scarce, it became dear, and every commodity was depreciated. The first state of the market introduced into the colony fictitious wealth, and habits of luxury and speculation: the second produced a nominal distress, but fostered notions of economy and industry. Little could have been expected from the former; from the latter much good will arise. The colonies have reached an age or period in their developement, in which they are able to regulate their own wants, supplies, and productions; the energies of the colonists are awakened, and their abilities and attention are directed into a right course.
But it must be admitted, that, in an agricultural point of view, the two colonies labour under difficulties which it is not in their own power to remove. The first is, the present uniform price of land, viz. 1/. per acre. Now, in the early part of this section, it has been clearly shown that the Australian land admits of being classed into at least two kinds, viz. the pastoral and the agricultural: it has been further 6hown, that at least seven acres of the former class of land are necessary to maintain a sheep of the value of two shillings, and which, on an average, produces but two pounds and a half of wool. Such a fact, coupled with that of the prime cost of the land being 1/., needs no comment. Even for agricultural purposes 1/. is too high a price, when it is considered that the English farmer cannot render available his land without irrigation, and introduction of other agricultural improvements ; and when it is recollected, that if he can but make up his mind to alienate himself from the mother country, he may buy, in the United States, excellent land at three shillings per acre! Secondly, The making of communications, those arteries of commerce and industry, should not be entailed on the buyer of land. Those who sell a property should find means of rendering it accessible to those who buy it; they should, in good policy, render it accessible even to those who wish to examine it, whereby much valuable land would be disposed of, which, for want only of the means of access, remains on the hands of the Government. The discovery of good lands by settlers, and the seeking for communications and outlets, have been fruitful of most serious evils, and, in many instances, have proved fatal to explorers: a good many settlers and their men being missing, who have most probably perished in the scrubbs. In New South Wales, the writer with his party was obliged to cut his way through a scrubb during four weeks, advancing at the rate of three miles per day, and having to abandon a property in pack-horses, and various valuable articles which they carried, to the amount of 700/., and this too after leaving Gipps' Land, the most beautiful portion of the colony. In Van Diemen's Land, while exploring the eastern part of the island,- between Launceston, Cape Portland, and St. Helen's river, he came on a most beautiful tract of country, but, in order so get out of it, was obliged to cut four days through the densest scrubb imaginable. The third point is connected with the disposal of the Australian grain in the English market,—Canada has obtained this privilege, and why should not the Australian colonies?
There is no doubt in the writer's mind, that, if represented properly and in proper quarters, these grievances, weighing heavily upon the colonial agricultural interests, and hence impeding the introduction of the required improvements, will obtain attention and will be removed. No doubt, too, the example which England now sets will not be lost upon the colonies. The era is grand, and unparallelled in British history! The highest nobility lead the way to a new national glory — the glory of the perfection of agriculture! The Dukes of Richmond, Rutland, Portland, Buccleugh, and Sutherland, Lords Spencer, Ducie, and Aberdeen, Sir Robert Peel, &c. &c, are at the head of the movement, and identifying themselves with that noble profession, "upon which the welfare and development of the whole human species, the richness of states, and all commerce, depends." Associations of all denominations, men of all vocations, labour to diffuse truth and to combat error and prejudice. The patriotism, or rather nationalism of the people, shows itself in the noblest light, and scientific contributions are welcomed to England, from whatsoever quarter they arrive. The Government, too, which had hitherto left the promotion of science to the efforts of individuals, conscious of the importance it assumes, as connected with the welfare of society, and conscious that the subdivision of interests and occupations renders individual exertion unable to keep pace with its progressive development, now identifies itself most liberally with scientific objects; and the "Economic Geology," under Sir Henry de la Beche, is established to furnish both to scientific men and to agriculturists, miners, mechanics, artists and artisans, not only an accessible reference and authority for the solution of questions, but also a cheap assistance in the analysis of soils, and other substances relating to arts and manufactures. Will such a movement in England have no reaction upon the colonies? Will the agricultural associations of England and Scotland remain indifferent to the advance of colonial agriculture? And the Government, which has so liberally come forward at home in aiding the practical application of geological science to all the branches of industry — will it forget that the agriculturists of Australia are at a distance of 15,000 miles from the focus of inventions and of references, and left without the assistance even of a geologist or analysing chemist?
In the position in which the writer finds himself with regard to England and her colonies, he cannot say more, without incurring the reproach of intruding upon a subject which does not belong to him; but he may be allowed to add, that no one deserves a greater sympathy from England than the Anglo-Australian settler; and that, in his opinion, no colonies will react more beneficially upon the welfare of the mothercountry than New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land.