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THE

PULPIT

COMMENTARY

EDITED BY THE

VERY REV. H. D. M. SPENCE, D.D.,

DEAN OF GLOUCESTER;

AND BY THE

REV. JOSEPH S. EXELL, M.A.

WITII

INTRODUCTIONS

BY THE

VEN. ARCHDEACON F. W. FARRAR, D.D., F.R.S.

RIGHT REV. H. COTTERILL, D.D., F.R.S.E.
VERY REV. PRINCIPAL J. TULLOCH, D.D.
REV. CANON G. RAWLINSON, M.A.

REV. A. PLUMMER, M.A., D.D.

London:
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER & CO., LT":

1891.

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,

LONDON AND BECCLES.

41 507

(The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved.) THE

PULPIT COMMENTARY,

EDITED BY TIIE

VERY REV. H. D. M. SPENCE, D.D.,

DEAN OF GLOUCESTER :

AND BY THE

REV. JOSEPH S. EXELL, M.A.

PROVERBS.

Exposition
BY REV. W. J. DEANE, M.A.,

RECTOR OF ASHEN;

AND BY

REV. S. T. TAYLOR-TASWELL, M.A.,

RECTOR OF WITHERLEY.

Homiletics
BY REV. PROFESSOR W. F. ADENEY, M.A.

Homílies by Various Authors.

REV. PROF. E. JOHNSON, M.A.

REV. W. CLARKSON, B.A.

SECOND EDITION.

London:
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER & CO., LT!:

1891.

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THE PROVERBS. .

INTRODUCTION.

§ 1. NAME OF THE Book. The book which we are about to consider takes its general title from the words with which it opens in the Hebrew original, The Proverbs of Solomon'-Mishle Shelomoh. This name, or, in an abbreviated form, Mishle, has always been carrent in the Jewish Church. Later, in rabbinical writings, it was cited under the appellation of Sepher Chocmah, ‘Book of Wisdom,' which title also included Ecclesiastes. In the Septuagint it is headed Tlapopía. Eadwuôvros in some manuscripts, though in others, and those the earliest, the name of Solomon is omitted. St. Jerome, in the Latin Vulgate, gives a longer title : ‘Liber Proverbiorum quem Hebræi Misle appellant.'

Among the early Christian writers, in addition to the name given in the Septuagint, it was called Zopía, “Wisdom,' or 'Hlavápetos Logía, 'Allvirtuous Wisdom,' though this last title was also applied to Ecclesiasticus and the Book of Wisdom. Clemens Romanus, in his 'Epistle to the Corinthians' (i. 57), heads a quotation from ch. i. 23–33 thus: Oūtws yàp déyel ý Ilaváperos Eopía, “ Thus saith All-virtuous Wisdom.” That this was commonly received as the designation of our book is clear also from Eusebius, who writes ('Hist. Eccl.,' iv. 22), “Other passages also, as if from unwritten Jewish tradition, Hegesippus cites; and not only he, but Irenæus, and the whole band of ancient writers, called the ‘Proverbs of Solomon 'Panaretos Sophia.'” It is true that in the writings which are attributed to Irenæus still extant, quotations from the Proverbs are cited simply as Scripture without further definition, but we have no reason to discredit Eusebius's testimony concerning a matter with which he must have been well acquainted. Two other titles are found, viz. 'H 2oo9 Biblos, 'The Wise Book,' so called by Dionysius of Alexandria ; and Maidaywyıkỳ Lopía, “ Educational Wisdom,' by Gregory of Nazianzum. Melito of Sardis (according to Eusebius, 'Hist. Eccl.,' iv. 26) states, in giving a catalogue

b

PROVERBS.

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