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as well as on account of the lofty measure and elevated language, an epic poem requires of the reader a more dignified and exalted strain, and a manner al. most constantly sustained above the ordinary level. Descriptions, in such poetry, abound more, and are more highly ornamented than in the most interesting history : similies and other poetical figures are introduced in all their grandeur and beauty ; battles are described with the most terrible and striking precision, and speeches are delivered with all the ornaments, and all the powers of eloquence. Thus, every thing sublime and beautiful, awful and pathetic, being assembled in an epic poem, as in a tragedy, the reader must be all awake, if he would deliver either with just effect; he must be filled with his subject, governed by taste and judgement, alive to feeling, and inspired like the poet himself, with a degree of enthusiasm.

Of Recitation and Declamation.

If the public speaker desire to give to the composition, which he delivers, more interest than it can derive from mere reading ; or rather desire to give it the highest interest of which it is capable ; he must commit it perfectly to memory, and adorn and enforce it with all the aids of the various modulations of the voice, expression of the countenance and suitable gesture. So that, even though he should deliv. er the sentiments of another person, he must appear altogether to adopt and feel, and recommend them as his own. When the composition thus delivered is poetical, this mode of public speaking is called recitation. When it is argumentative, and pronounced or composed on an imaginary occasion, for the purpose of exercising the speaker's rhetorical talents, it is called declamation. And when the speaker deliv. ers in this manner, a composition of his own on a real occasion, it is oratory : for the acquiring of the

external art of which recitation and declamation are chiefly practised. į s

Recitation, as not implying the composition of the speaker, may be considered according to the order of the requisite acquirements in the place, immediately after rhetorical reading : to , all the requisites for which, recitation must add perfect memory and suitable gesture. In recitation, and all the other modes of public speaking, the whole person is, or may be exhibited, and every part takes its share in the gesture. Recitation being properly the rhetorical delivery of poetical compositions and pieces of imagination, the performer should stand apart from the company. In its first degrees, recitation is practised in private, as a rhetorical exercise by young persons ; in its most perfect degrees, it is exhibited in public, as a very high species of dramatic entertainment. The great varie. ty in poetical composition and works of imagination, must afford equal variety for the modes of recitation.

Declamation, which is properly a prose exercise, composed by the speaker on some imaginary subject or occasion, on account of the requisite ability in composition, as well as in the exercise of all the arts of delivery, may be considered as next in order above recitation. The ancient Roman orators bestowed extraordinary attention upon the composition and practice of declamation. ,

Cicero continued this practice many years after he had arrived at the highest eminence as an orator ; and, after his example, the most celebrated of the Roman orators followed the same plan,

Of Oratorya Oratory, which is public speaking trpon real and interesting occasions, is the most splendid object of all literary exertion, and the highest scope of all the study and practice of the art. To oratory belongs whatev. er the perfection of composition can produce, as well as well as on account of the lofty measure and ele ted language, an epic poem requires of the reade more dignified and exalted strain, and a manner most constantly sustained above the ordinary lev Descriptions, in such poetry, abound more, and . more highly ornamented than in the most interesti history : similies and other poetical figures are i troduced in all their grandeur and beauty ; batt) are described with the most terrible and striking po cision, and speeches are delivered with all the orn ments, and all the powers of eloquence. Thus, eve thing sublime and beautiful, awful and pathetic, b ing assembled in an epic poem, as in a tragedy, t! reader must be all awake, if he would deliver eith with just effect; he must be filled with his subjec governed by taste and judgement, alive to feeling and inspired like the poet himself, with a degree enthusiasm.

Of Recitation and Declamation. If the public speaker desire to give to the compo sition, which he delivers, more interest than it can derive from mere reading; or rather desire to give it the highest interest of which it is capable ; he muso commit it perfectly to memory, and adorn and enforce it with all the aids of the various modulations of the voice, expression of the countenance and suitable gesture. So that, even though he should deliv. er the sentiments of another person, he must appear altogether to adopt and feel, and recommend them as his own. When the composition thus delivered is poetical, this mode of public speaking is called recitation. When it is argumentative, and pronounced or composed on an imaginary occasion, for the purpose of exercising the speaker's rhetorical talents, it is called declamation. And when the speaker delivers in this manner, a composition of his own on a real occasion, it is oratory : for the acquiring of the

external art of which recitation and declamation are chiefly practised..

Recitation, as not implying the composition of the speaker, may be considered according to the order of the requisite acquirements in the place, immediately after rhetorical reading : to, all the requisites for which, recitation must add perfect memory and suitable gesture. In recitation, and all the other modes of public speaking, the whole person is, or may be exhibited, and every part takes its share in the gesture. Recitation being properly the rhetorical delivery of poetical compositions and pieces of imagination, the performer should stand apart from the company. In its first degrees, recitation is practised in private, as a rhetorical exercise by young persons; in its most perfect degrees, it is exhibited in public, as a very high species of dramatic entertainment. The great variety in poetical composition and works of imagination, must afford equal variety for the modes of recitation.

Declamation, which is properly a prose exercise, composed by the speaker on some imaginary subject or occasion, on account of the requisite ability in composition, as well as in the exercise of all the arts of delivery, may be considered as next in order above recitation. The ancient Roman orators bestowed extraordinary attention upon the composition and practice of declamation. ,

Cicero continued this practice many years after he had arrived at the highest eminence as an orator ; and, after his example, the most celebrated of the Roman orators followed the same plana

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Oratory, which is public speaking trpon real and interesting occasions, is the most splendid object of all literary exertion, and the highest scope of all the study and practice of the art. To oratory belongs whatev. er the perfection of composition can produce, as well as all which the perfections of delivery can externally recommend and enforce. Oratory is the power of reasoning, united to the various arts of persuasion, presented by external grace, and by the whole energy of the human powers. Reasoning divested of rhetorical composition and rhetorical delivery, becomes strict demonstration. Such reasoning is found in logic, mathematics, evidences of facts, and law arguments. Reasoning, in this sense, is distinct from oratory : both, indeed, aim at bringing over men to their opinions, but by different means. Reasoning, appeals to the understanding alone ; oratory deals with the passions also. Reasoning, proceeds directly to the truth, and exhibits it in the simplest language. Oratory chooses the most favorable view of the subject, engages the attention of the hearer by the detail of circumstances, interests him by the coloring which he gives them, delights him by ornament, and, hay. ing won his favorable attention, appeals at once to his understanding and to his heart. When the subject admits of demonstration, reasoning is the most powerful ; it is irresistable : but when strict demonstration cannot be had, oratory has then the advan. tage. And since, in a very few of the most interest, ing inquiries, which occupy the attention of men, strict demonstration can be obtained, so the demand for the talents of the orator is frequent and indispensable in the business of life. Reasoning is, therefore, applied principally to philosophical research, and to objects of science : oratory to the interests of men,' and to objects admitting choice. It is an advantage which oratory possesses above reasoning, that oratory constantly avails itself of reasoning; but strict reasoning does not call in the aid of oratory. -- The public speakers of this country have been celebrated as excellent reasoners; while their orators have been few. For this, various reasons have been assigned : the truest, perhaps, may be indolence with respect to the requisite labour, and inattention to the

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