Imagens das páginas

of a New York tenement house. But, wherever a anatomy about most establishments. Well regu- they can deny to others. Broad human sympathy, new home is established, its inmates become fixed (lated families are more or less free from that un- | kindliness of heart, may weigh upon it and close elements in society: and whatever progression and pleasantness in the clothes-press; but there are it down; but it is never closed forever. improvement the future may bring to them, must

I always family refrigerators.

When we cease to think of others, and fall to enter into that grand aggregate which marks the h

THE LANCASHIRE LASS. thinking of ourselves, the temperature grows lower progress and development of the whole commuevelopment of the whole commu. and lower. It is possible that the faculty of con

The theatrical taste of the present day is subnity. We have no purpose, in this brief refer-scious introspection is not common. But, in most stantially the same on both sides of the Atlantic ence, to do more than allude to these two sources Lenlightened men and women, it is a confessed and in Paris and London as in New York. This fact of that prosperity which Baltimore certainly ex-active quality. The fuller the refinement, the more may be seen upon a comparison of the entertain

ments offered under the "Amusements" heading in hibits. The system of ground rents is permanent palpable becomes the sense of self-examination.

the English and American papers. We have and will always be productive of good results here. It is the mental process of conscience. In the ig

lately seen a collection of London play-bills, which as it has been from time immemorialin London: norant, all this may be a vague feeling of disconwhile the principle of coöperative effort, confined,

tent: it may be the heavy shadow of a erime. In would almost have answered for as many New most men and women who cultivate a certain

York theatres on any given night. The same if need be, within certain well-defined limits, must keenness of perception, the organ of mental vision

ust keenness of perception, the organ of mental vision music--the same style of entertainment pleases be a most important element in build-turns itself consciously inward. We sit down alike in both hemispheres. It is all sensationaling up a large and prosperous city. They both I calmly by a little lake that is frozen over with the aiming chiefly at stage-effect and show. In the give assurance that the improvement, of which experiences of our own lives, like the lake in modern drama the scene-painter and the stage

carpenter are hardly less important personages we speak, is not temporary or the result of spo- | Dante's vision. radic enterprise; and both, added to all the other

Almost all men have an ice-house in their hearts than the actor. One consequence of this similarity

--and all women. What would a woman do with-in the public taste is, that no sooner is any startling sources of development, justify our assumption out that cool retreat? Hath she not eves, organs, novelty produced abroad, and found to take well, that Baltimore offers more indicements to enter-dimensions? What are the tentacles of her social or, in theatrical parlance, ''to draw”-than it is prise and labor than any other city-certainly life; what are her weapons of attack and defence reproduced here. One of the latest importations upon the Atlantic coast.

but a supreme sense of self, and a consciousness of of this kind is The Lancashire Lass, now play

her self-dependency in the world? Throw aside ing at the Holliday Street. Written originally EVERY MAN HIS OWN ICE-HOUSE. the sympathetic instinct for a moment, and look by Mr. H. J. Byron for the New Queen's

In a charming sketch lately published in Put-into the helpless lot of almost all womankind; will Theatre, London, where it has proved a great sucnam, the writer describes what are called “Private you cut her off from that quiet self-retiracy, where cess, it was brought out, for the first time in this Bohemias”-a kind of neutral ground in social she puts on her armor and polishes her steel? country, by Mr. Wallack, in New York, just four life, where all shams are for a time laid aside, all Shall she be denied her ice-house? There has been weeks ago. It is a five-act drama, of the style conventionality forgotten, and whim, and senti- any amount of this kind of thing written by smart now in vogue, not unlike, in some particulars, Mr. ment, and fancy, and fun, and nonsense, play about modern writers. They would establish a literary Tom Taylor's play of The Ticket-of-Leave Man, in perfect freedom and confusion. There is some-ice-house for opinions upon women; but it is a as performed by Mr. Jefferson. Like that play, thing undeniably delicious in the suggestion, as poor place, without sweetness or light. The cath-it has a hero who falls into the clutches of the law, there is an exceeding unpleasantness the world over, olic wisdom of the Masters does not grovel. It wrongfully accused of a crime of which he is in everything in manners artificial and unnatural. gives a woman the natural right to her ice-house; wholly innocent. It presents, too, the same spec. To enjoy the pleasures of that temporal state of hap- and knows it is sometimes hard enough for her to tacle of woman's faithful love clinging to its object piness described by the writer, demands as much of keep cool even there!

through good report and evil report. It has, too, the wisdom of the sago as the simplicity of the Even the doctor of divinity keeps his ice-house; la detective, who, like Hawkshaw in the Ticket-ofchild-an union in the graces of human character, sometimes it has a vastly different temperature Leave Man, divides to some extent with the real in which there is a profound community of feel from the warm rapture of the pulpit-it is a toler-hero the interest of the plot and the sympathies of ing. It is the wisdom of the serpent and the harm-ably cool place when the divine comes to confess the audience-following the guilty object of his lessness of the dovo. It means that pleasure is to himself that the heart of his religion is dead, search with the patient pursuit of a sleuth-hound, real when it is fresh and simple. The glimpses and his spiritual mind is clogged and stagnant. But and finally discovering and unmasking him in given by the author of "Private Bohemias' of everybody's ice-house is his serious self. When you the detected villain of the piece. this idea are happily portrayed; they illustrate, in have reached it through the outer clothen vest- In the scene in the lock-up, in the fourth act of a wise and harmless fashion, real uses for the social ments of everyday life, you have gained the cita-The Lancashire Lass, there is no doubt that Serelement within us. To this delightful picture, as del of the man, and he may "sing fuit Illium, for geant Donovan, the Irish policeman, is the hero of to all other scenes of pleasant pastime, there is an the glory of his empire will have departed.” An the galleries, and has the largest share of their apunpleasing converse. When fun is over, and the ice-house sometimes, however, shews through; in plause. We are not sure, by the way, that this doors of our habitation closed, the gate goes down, one man it may be simple selfishness and vanity; scene is not the culminating point in the action of the waters cease to flow, and the sigh of exhausted in another lust; in a third, perhaps, villainy or the play, after which there is a decided falling off pleasure throws off the last, faint feeling of enjoy- crime. It glazes the gambler's eye; it gives in interest to the end. Except for the pleasure of ment. Self wakes from its little sleep, rises, and opaqueness to the organ of moral jugglery, and welcoming to the land of the living our friend reasserts its sway. A weariness of spirit succeeds invariably looks square out of the hardened crimi-Johnson, whom we supposed that we had seen the generous sense of pleasing and being pleased nal. It is Harlequin's sorrowful heart in the midst drowned at the close of the third act, and the opporin turn. The wind again veers around to the East of all of his fun the tear that is ready to follow tunity afforded him of doing a good action by desA dull sense of reality steals over us. The feeling laughter. In the Godless man it may be a sense patching the villain Redburn in the very nick of does not end with a regret for departed pleasure; of the infinite, and an ill-suppressed anguish of time-what follows after the scene in the lock-up for we have exhausted our capacity both to spirit. In the man of gains it is greed-a man might well be omitted without any injury to the give and to receive. The rigid melancholy of a married to his money-a very cold companion for play. The full details of the plot, or even the outface in the glass opposite is not a sign merely of life, that shrinks him by contagion.

| line of the story, we do not propose to give. Those pleasure that has palled. From the sun we pass In a word, every man or woman's ice-house is of our readers who have seen it will not thank us into the shadow. From the little glow that warmed his or her solitary sense of self. No one shares it for the information, and we will not spoil the the pulses of our hearts, the double gratification of with them; it is not a social dwelling place. In pleasure of others by depriving them of the many pleasure given and received, we sink to zero. If it are stowed away all kinds of scraps of secret surprises which the plot has in store for them. It the events of the last hour still lingerin our minds, wants, experiences, opinions, traits, deeds-stu- is sufficient to say that the piece abounds in striking ten to one, we drop into the cool cynicism of ex- diously concealed from the world, carefully pre- situations. The unities of time and place are, as amining our neighbor's faults-how charming is served, and never wasting. Out of it Godly men usual, totally disregarded. Between Acts 1 and 2 so and so, but what a practiced hypocrite; what a look pleadingly to the infinite, and cry out "Lord, there is a supposed interval of two years; and befaculty for shewing off has another; what a shew I believe, help thou mine unbelief." Into it hard tween Acts 4 and 5, of five years, while the scene of simplicity has a third--whereas we know the men put their schemes and projects, and sense of which at first is laid in a village in Lancashire former to be a humbug, and the latter the most double-dealing. No little child can enter there; shifts in the last act to a sheep-farm in Australia. designing of men or women. From our own ice-no loving woman. The sun never gets to that The principal stage effect is a night scene reprehouse we move by sympathy into the ice-houses of cool place; the light of heaven never enters in. senting an old pier and the arrival of a ferry-boat our kind. Ice-houses are far more common than It is the soul of the ceaseless misery of the human This idea of a steamboat passing across the stage domestic skeletons. There is no such thing as that race. Good women have it; they lay within it all we suppose is an offset to the railway train which forms the principal scenic effect in Under the Gas- James Watt *: "I have always thought steam of James Watt, 1759. This model was never malight. The scenery is generally good, and the would become universal lord, and that we should tured, and the subject was not resumed for many whole piece well mounted. The best acting is that in time scorn post-horses. An iron railroad would years. Nicholas Joseph Cugnot, native of Void, of Mr. Bishop as The Party by the name of John-be a cheaper thing than a road on the common in Lorraine, born in 1729, constructed a steam carson, particularly in the two scenes with Robert|construction.” Four years after this Edgeworth riage in 1769, the cost being borne by the famous Redburn and Mr. Danville, in the second act. died, aged 74.

Comte de Saxe. While this was in process of conThose who have only seen Mr. Bishop in low About the middle of the last century Benjaminstruction, a Swiss officer, named Planta, brought comedy and burlesque, should see him in this Franklin, "Agent of the United Provinces of forward a similar plan, but abandoned the idea on part which shows his higher qualities as an actor America,” entered into a correspondence with perceiving the superiority of Cugnot's machine. to much fairer advantage. The other characters Matthew Boulton, Watt's partner, of Birming- Cugnot's carriage was tried, but obtained a speed are sustained by Miss Blanche De Bar-a grand- ham, and Doctor Darwin, of Litchfield, England, of only two and a quarter miles an hour, and daughter of the great Booth-as Ruth Kirby, the relative to steam as a motive power. Franklin would work only twelve or fifteen minutes at a Lancashire Lass; Mr. Healy as Redburn; Mr. being occupied by his diplomatic labors, seems not time. The French Minister of War becoming inParker as Jellick; Mr. Gallagher as the Irish De- to have pursued the subject to any purpose. Dar- terested in this experiment, authorized the contective; Miss Stanley as Kate Garston; Mrs. win was a remarkable character. He is known in struction of another machine by Cugnot, having Bishop as Fanny Danville; Mr. Meeker as Dan- literature as the author of The Botanic Garden, an idea that it might, if more successful than the ville; Mr. Kennedy as young Clayton, and Mr. and The Loves of the plants. Besides being a first, be useful in dragging artillery. With the Beall as Spotty, the humorous character of the writer of verses, which Horace Walpole pro- new machine several successful experiments were piece. It is one of the advantages of running a nounced "the most delicious on earth,” he was a made. A speed of about three miles an hour was piece, as in the present case, for a fortnight con- physician of large practice, and his mind "teemed obtained. It presented in simple and ingenious secutively, that on each succeeding night the ac- with speculation on all subjects from zoonomy, form a high-pressure engine. Turning the cortors know their parts more thoroughly, the whole botany, and physiology, to physics, æsthetics, ner of a street near the Madelaine one day, it'bemachinery works more smoothly, mistakes de- and mental philosophy." The Doctoris curiously came overbalanced and fell with a crash." It was tected in the earlier representations are corrected described as riding about among his patients in then locked up in the Arsenal “to prevent its doing and improved upon, and the entertainment really his "sulky'' writing his poems on scraps of paper. farther mischief.” Cugnot died in 1804, and his grows every way better.

“On one side of him was a pile of books, reaching machine is still to be seen in the Museum of the

from the floor nearly to the front window of the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, at Paris. It will STEAM-THE LOCOMOTIVE.

carriage, while on the other was a hamper con- be observed that Cugnot's experiment was nearly

taining fruit and sweetmeats, with a store of cotemporaneous with that of Oliver Evans, preIV.

cream and sugar, with which the occupant regaled viously mentioned. On the 14th of March, 1769, We have already alluded to the idea entertained

entertained himself during his journey." He was a towns- Francis Moore, a linen draper of London, gave by Sir Isaac Newton, as early as 1600, of applying Iman of Doctor Johnson, and resembled him in notice of a patent for "a machine made of wood the Eolipyle of Hero to move a carriage "on a hori-10

" appearance. The sanguine imagination of this or metal, and worked by fire, water or air, for the zontal plane." The idea of moving of vehicles on

gentleman threw him theoretically upon many purpose of moving bodies on land or water." On land without the animal power was of still earlier

speculations concerning steam and its uses. In the the 13th of July following he gave notice of date. It had its origin in the reduction of the

year 1765, having conceived the scheme of apply- another invention of a similar kind. This is all propelling power of wind to that purpose. To

ing steam to land locomotion, he wrote to Boulton we hear of Moore, except the mention made of ward the end of the 16th century a Fleming, namedla description of a "fiery chariot," and declared him in a correspondence between Dr. Small, of Simon Stevinius, invented the first sailing coach. himself quite "mad of the scheme." In this letter Birmingham, and Watt, wherein Small expresses An account is quoted in the Lives of the Stephen-land in subsequent correspondence upon the same a wish, upon hearing of Moore's patent, to "ride sons, of the operation of this machine, in which it subject, the Doctor contemplates the application in a fiery chariot” of Watt's invention; and Watt is alleged that "Count Maurice, after his victory of the Newcomen machine, which we have pre- declares that he will put a stop to Moore's operaof Nieuport in 1600, had put himself thereinto, to- I viously described, and though filled with the con- / tions if he attempts to drive a machine with one gether with Francis Mendoza, his prisoner, onception of the ultimate success of steam locomo- of his ( V

steam locomo. of his (Watt's) engines. purpose to make a trial thereof, and that within tion and having specifically indicated in his corres. ithin|tion, and having specifically indicated in his corres-! On the 24th of August, 1784, Watt himself took

On the 24th of Augus two hours they arrived at Putten, which is distant

pondence some crude notions upon the subject-out a patent for a locomotive. In this, certain from Scheveling fourteen leagues, or two-and-forty (which might with many modifications have been specifications were filed; but he appears never miles." The experiment of driving coal wagons reduced to practice)-his connection with

| reduced to practice)-his connection with the his-to have seriously addressed himself to the subject. by wind was revived in Wales a century afterward. This was done by Sir Humphrey Mackworth at the following prophecy, written in 1791, before 10

j written in 1791. before iioned, in a letter to his partner Boulton, after deNeath. An author mentioned in Mr. Smiles' book any locomotive or steam vessel had been built, is

scribing in outline his ideas of a locomotive, he (Waller, “Essay on Mines," 1698,) thus alludes sufficiently indicative of the Doctor's poetic con- cor

es," 1698,) thus alludes sufficiently indicative of the Doctor's poetic con- concludes-- it will cost much time to bring it to to this attempt of the Welsh inventor: "theseception of this subiect

any tolerable degree of perfection, and for me to new sailing wagons for the cheap carriage of coal “Soon shall thy arm, unconquered steam, afar

interrupt the career of our business would be imto the water side, whereby one horse does the work Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car;

prudent; I even grudge the time I have taken to

Or on wide-waving wings expanded bear of ten at all times; but when any wind is stirring, The flying chariot through the fields of air.

make these comments on it."-In the establishwhich is seldom wanting near the sea, one man

Fair crews triumphant leaning from above,
Shall wave their flutt'ring kerchiefs as they move;

ment of Boulton & Watt there was employed at and a small sail do the work of twenty." About Or warrior bands alarm the gaping crowd,

this time a workman named William Murdock. a century later the project of moving land car And armies shrink beneath the shadowy cloud."

Murdock had employed himself in leisure hours riages by wind was revived by Richard Lovell Darwin, however, succeeded, by his zeal, in exci- in constructing the model of a locomotive. This Edgeworth, afterward distinguished by his ex- ting the mind of Edgeworth. Besides the inventions machine was not ready for trial until 1784, and the periments in steam locomotion. It is stated that previously noted due to Edgeworth's indefatigable first experiment was made in drawing a model he devoted himself to these different experi- labors, he was among the first to conceive the idea wagon around a room in his house. It succeeded ments for forty years, and made over a hundred of a railroad. In 1768 he read before the English both in and out of doors. On one occasion, on working models. In his memoirs it is said, Society of Arts a paper upon this subject. In returning from his work at night, Murdock set his though he did not succeed in pushing his experi- 1802, having farther matured his plans, he pro- machine in motion, when it started off, the inments to practical results, that “he gained more posed the moving of vehicles upon a railway by ventor after it. Shortly afterward he heard distant in amusement than he lost by his unsuccessful fixed machinery, and the application of Watt's shouts of terror. It was too dark to perceive oblabors." "The only mortification that affected engine, then in use, to this purpose. Edgeworth (jects; but he found on following up the machine me," he says, “was my discovery, many years was, therefore, the originator of the horse-railway, that the cries proceeded from the worthy pastor of after I had taken out my patent, (for the sailing and the adaptation of steam machinery to inclined the parish, who, going toward the town, was met carriage,] that the rudiments of my whole scheme planes. Between the Place de la Concorde at on his lonely road by the hissing, fiery little monwere mentioned in an obscure memoir of the Paris and St. Cloud, as well as throughout the ster, which he subsequently declared to be the French Academy."

United States, Edgeworth's idea has been put to Evil One himself in propria persona !!! Watt The sailing wagon never came into practical use general use, resulting in great convenience to the appears to have discouraged the experiments of to any important extent. The uncertainty of the public and profit to the proprietary interest. his ingenious workman. In 1786 he wrote to Boulwind and want of control over the vehicles induced Among the earlier locomotive models was that ton concerning him: "I wish William could be an ultimate abandonment of the idea. When an

*Life of George Stephenson and of his son, Robert Ste

Jo brought to do as we do, to mind the business in old man, Edgeworth wrote, August 7, 1813, to phenson.

Thand, and let such as Symington and Sadler throw



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away their time and money in hunting shadows." own and Vivian's name a patent for an improved dock, since successfully employed. In 1807 he So Murdock's model was never developed into steam engine and “the application thereof for entered upon the remarkable enterprise of conpractice, though "he took pleasure in exhibiting it driving carriages and for other purposes.” Watt's structing a tunnel under the Thames, carried out to his personal friends, and long continued to spec-objection to the use of high-pressure steam, on by Sir Isambard Brunel twenty years afterward ulate about road locomotion, and was persuaded of account of the danger of its bursting the boiler, The attempt under Trevithick was only partial's its practicability.”.

was overcome by Trevithick, by the use of a boiler successful. In 1809 he invented an engine, worked Sadler, mentioned by Watt, was engaged in ex-l of cylindrical form of wrought iron, similar to that by water power, on a plan since used in the mining periments with locomotives in 1786. On the of Evans. Both the engine and steam-carriage districts of England. In 1815 he described, in one 4th of July of that year a notice was served upon invented by him were found to be superior to any of his specifications, the screw propeller, and a him by the firm of Boulton & Watt, to the effect of their predecessors; the power of steam was em-tubular boiler. In 1814 he became associated with *that the sole privilege of making steam engines ployed with great rapidity, economy and force, a project for draining the drowned gold mines by the elastic force of steam acting expansively on and the shape of the vehicle was handsome and Peru. In 1816 he embarked for America, arrivire a piston with or without condensation, had been compact. This carriage was capable of accommo- early in the following year with engines and magranted to Mr. Watt by Act of Parliament; also, dating some half a dozen passengers, and the spoc-chinery for the purpose in hand. The operation among other improvements and applications of his ifications of the patent contemplate its use upon proved practically a success; but in the midst of principle, he hath particularly specified the appli- railways as well as highways. These specifications it, with the promise of a splendid reward, the rer. cation of steam engines for driving wheel car- also refer to the use of the engine where fixed olution broke out, and Trevithick was forced to riages." This notice appears to have discouraged power is required. It dispensed with the condenser, fly the country. After a series of most romantic Sadler, since after this we hear no more of him. cistern, air-pump and cold-water pump, which has adventures and hardships he reached the Isthmus

William Symington, mentioned in a previous already been described in noticing the engine of of Panama, having traveled the entire distance un paper in connection with steam navigation, suc- Watt. In 1803 a stationary engine of this descrip-foot and in constant danger of his life. The goldceeded in constructing a steam carriage in the same tion was erected by Trevithick, and worked by mining company was of course ruined, and the engiyear that Sadler received the notice quoted above. steam of at least 30 pounds on the inch above at-neer found himself entirely destitute. He returned Symington's engine was partly atmospheric and mospheric pressure. In the same year an experi- Ito England in December, 1827, being once wrecked partly condensing; and his carriage appears to have mental carriage was constructed at Camborne, and on the way in his passage from Carthagena, on the operated with some satisfaction. He was diverted I tried on a public road. So long as the steam pres-Gulf of Darien, to New York. In 1831 he invented

farther development of his ideas by the sure could be kept up, it worked with great satis- a new method for heating apartments; and in 18? cxperiments in steam navigation, in connection faction. After this several improvements were took out a patent for farther improvements in the with Mr. Miller, of Dalswinton, to which we have made and the carriage run successfullylfrom Cam-steam made, and the carriage run successfully from Cam-steam

engine for me

engine for navigation and locomotion. ererred. He died in March, 1831, without borne to Plymouth, a distance of ninety miles. While planning new inventions he died, in April, having profited by any of these attempts.

From Plymouth it was shipped to London, and 1833, in the 620 year of his age. The career of this The idea of applying steam to land locomotion

there exhibited, to the satisfaction of several co- remarkable man has tempted some diversion from occurred to John Fitch, whose name is more promi

temporary savans-among them Sir Humphrey the immediate topic in hand. The works that he nent among the early American projectors of the Davy, who mentioned the experiment in writing began are thus summed up by his biographer: "He steamboat. Fitch's conception bears the date of Ito a friend: "I shall soon hope to hear that the made the first railway engine and cast the inves1785, but he never experimented or made any use

made any use roads of England are the haunts of Captain Tre- tion aside; he introduced, if he did not intert, of it. The successful experiment of Oliver Evans, vithick's dragons."

the cylindrical boiler and high-pressure engine, in 1801, has been already mentioned.

On the 21st of February, 1804, Trevithick's first which increased so enormously the steam power of Richard Trevithick was born on the 13th of railway engine was tried, on the Merthr and Ty- the world; he invented the oscillating engine anu April, 1771, in Cornwall. The prominent connec-Idirl tram-road in Wales. The wheels were worked screw propeller; he took out a patent for usira tion of this remarkable man with the history of the

in the same manner as on the road carriage, a fly-super-heated steam, as well as for wrought irt locomotive, demands for him more than a passing wheel being added on one side to secure a continu- ships and wrought iron floating docks; but he it. notice. His father was in good circumstances; but lous rotary motion. It ran on four wheels coupled others to introduce these several inventions. very little pains seems to have been taken with | by cog-wheels, and seems to have succeeded admi- Singularly enough, however, Trevithick seemed young Trevithick's early education. His youthful|rably, but for the imperfect construction of the never to have paid any attention to railways, 0. days were spent mainly among the mines of the tram-way, which was broken in several places by to have confined himself to the introduction 01 L. neighborhood of his birthplace, where he managed the weight of the machine. This was the first loco-llocomotive invention upon common roads. It. to pick up considerable information concerning motive ever used upon a railway. The ultimate be the purpose of another paper to give more da pumping engines and mining machinery. Observ- failure of this experiment was due wholly to the plicitly some points in the rise and progress of ra. ing the interest which he manifested in such mat-road, not to the machine, for it proved to be suffi- ways, with an especial reference to the lives of 1 ters, his father placed him under the tuition of ciently compact, capable of carrying fuel and two Stephensons, to whom, for these improve William Murdock, who was at that time superin-water sufficient for a journey of considerable length ments, the world is so deeply indebted. tending the working and repairs of some of Watt's and drawing loaded wagons at five and a half miles mine engines. From Murdock's model, referred an hour. Trevithick had thus shown by his smoothto above, Trevithick probably got his first idea of a wheeled engine that its weight was sufficient to

| PEABODY INSTITUTE-ACADEMY OF high-pressure road locomotive. Profiting by these give it enough adhesion for haulage, and, among

MUSIC-FIRST PUBLIC CONCERT. instructions, he obtained employment as super- other improvements, had discharged his steam. We can

meni intendent of one of the pumping engines of the through the chimney, though accessory to this he ing a mourn

Watt's used a blowing apparatus to produce a draft and/ory of Rossini, the most eminent composer of our patents suppressed any farther improvements upon keep up the fires, subsequently proved unneces- time, who died lately in the 77th year of his a the stationary engine, or any modifications of thesary appendages. After this. Trevithick obtained leaving after him works of genius which use of his discoveries in applied steam, until these several other patents in the various applic

til these several other patents in the various applications of never perish. Demetrio e Polibio was his first suca

specifca- steam. In 1806, the year his locomotive was cessful opera; William Tell and the Stabat Matth. tions, expired in the year 1800. Travithick con- taken off the Welsh tram-way he obtained a con. | two master pieces, are his latest compositions. **. tinued to be engaged in engineering in the Cornish tract for ballasting all the shipping in the Thames. I having attained the age of Auber, the FT district up to that date, and finally associated him-l by a hoisting apparatus worked by steam. The composer, no doubt R self with Andrew Vivian, at Camborne, near Red-business in his improved stationary engines began some other conspicuous work. The silence of ** ruth. He had for some time entertained the idea to flourish, and his ingenuity exhibited itself in Swan of Pesaro of making the expansive force of steam act on schemes for working Boulton & Watt's engines by tive laziness. We feel assured this was not both sides of the piston on the high-pressure prin-high-pressure steam, by means of his cylindrical case. Rossi ciple of super-heated steam-discovered, it will be boiler.

it will be boiler.

This latter project. however, he

This latter project, however, he did notTell, because he was grieved that this sub... remembered, by Watt, in conjunction with Dr. accomplish.

opera did not meet at first with all the success de Black. Cugnot had applied high-pressure, as also In 1808 he took out two patents for certain ma-deserved ; and besides, because Rossini being a ma Murdock in his model, and the use of it was dis-chinery for “towing, driving or forcing and dis- of sense, knew that it is imposzible to write man dinctly specified in Watt's patents of 1769, 1782 and charging ships," and another for a new method of master pieces. In reality, are not the last price 1784; but the idea was not embodied in any prac- stowing cargoes of ships." In 1809 he took out tions of Auber, Halevy, Verdi, Gounod andere ticable working engine, until it was taken in hand inother patent, of which, in common with the rest, erbeer himself inferior to their earlier works? by Trevithick. The result of his careful study and he does not appear to have made any profitable fact that Halevy, for instance, never composed investigation was that, in 1802, he took out in his l use, but which amounted substantially to a floating second opera to be compared to La Juire, gave



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way to the idea that the greatest part of the melo

petitioner argue, determine that no lawful Court dies of La Juive had been found in Herold's pa

was held in the county of Rockbridge, and that pers, which Halevy had inherited. Besides, if we

the conviction of their client was illegal and void. cannot deny a decline in the fine arts, still less can AN ATTEMPT TO OVERTUROW TIE

Upon these grounds they claim his discharge. If we deny a decline in the art of singing. The school


Judge Underwood shall decide that this felon of Verdi was the first cause of this rarity of culti

RICHMOND, November 20th. must be released, it will simply be one more vated singers. IIence, when the late, but immense MESSRS. EDITORS:--You have possibly observed | scoundrel set at large: but the consequence success of William Tell should have perhaps in-how violently the Richmond Radicals have as-such a decision can, with difficulty, be estimated. duced Rossini to retake his pen, could he, after sailed General Stoneman's very just report of the It will declare all the acts of most of the judges in having heard his operas rendered by singers like condition of his command or governmen

ered by singers like condition of his command or government--which-the State, since July, void and illegal; it will unMalibran, Colbran, Pasta, Grisi, Ronzi, Rubini, ever be its proper title. The truth is, that with all settle thousands of decisions affecting the rights Mario, Tamburini, Lablache, when they were in our disabilities and degradatio

they were in our disabilities and degradation, we in Virginia of property, and will open the doors of our prisons the full bloom of their talent, trust some new in-have been fortunate enough to enjoy a peace which and let loose upon the community a horde of spirations to these same singers in their later days, has only been disturbed by exceptional cases of thieves, forgers, murderers, and villains of the or to their weak successors? This is so true that disorder. Indeed, judging from the Northern pa- deepest dye. You can, however, readily conjecCalzolari is the only living tenor who is able to pers, I am inclined to fancy that we offer better ture the limitless evil results which will flow from sing Rossini's operas with the art and cultivation of protection to life and property here than is afforded the nrobabla notion the voice that such music requires. We could say by the law and authority of communities which lie if not with the still more, but must leave this topic to turn to the rejoice in unsuspected loyalty.

those who make his case a mere contrivance by first public concert of the Academy of Music, One source of our immunity from the troubles which they may drive which took place on last Saturday, the 21st of which afflict some of our sister rebellious States, lornaments an

us States, ornaments, and raise to their places the mongrel November.

| is, doubtless, the admirable character, generally crowd of carpet-baggers and scalawags who so We must begin by congratulating Mr. Southard/speaking, of our judiciary, Virginia has had the readily do

ary. Virginia has had the greedily, demand them. as leader of the orchestra. It did not attain, of rare good fortune to have the

train of rare good fortune to have the administration of | We have seen no report of the decision of the course, the highest degree of execution, but it played the civil law-so far as its offices have not been

afcase referred to by our correspondent, and preas well as could have been expected, if we consider assumed by the military power--mainly committed |

sume none has yet been announced. We will be the little time it had been rehearsing. We saw to the hands of men whose probity and purity | with pleasure Mr. Allen and Mr. Junonickel ner. I were recognized by the whole community. And glad to hear from him the conclusion of a judicial form as first violin and first violoncello. We hope they have been enabled, in the presence of all the proceeding which involves so deeply the interests that they have been regularly appointed in such embarrassments and anomalies necessarily atten- of Virginia, and illustrates so painfully the evil capacity, and that equally happy provision will be dant upon their positions, to preserve the dignity of its present political condition.-Eds. STATESmade for a first flute, oboe, clarionet, etc. of the courts.


It has, however, been a subject of complaint What constitutes the superiority of the Orches

with the numerous class of Northern missionaries tra at the conservatory of Paris is, that it is com

Reviews. who are willing to honor us by occupying all our posed always of the same musicians, of equal

remunerative official positions, that the retention merit and musical knowledge. They have been playing together for years—they are well paid, and of our former Judges and the appointment of

THE AMAZON. * Native Virginians to vacancies upon the bench, bound by agreements, and are not obliged to earn

In the publication of their "Library of European have excluded them from their proper participa-Literature the Messrs Putnam have done wisely their living by playing between times at some small

tion in the spoils of conquest. For some time this to turn from the familiar and beaten road of Eugtheatre, German cotillion club or lager beer

complaint has been confined to murmurings saloon. Besides, all of them have first-rate instru

88 lish, to cull from the fresher fields of Continental litments. The Peabody Academy of Music is rich,

against the Military authorities, because of both le

"erature. Especially is this the case with reference

Gen. Schofield's and Gen. Stoneman's refusal to and can afford well enough to pay the artists of the

to works of fiction. The stereotyped characters of remove the Judges and replace them with these the orchestra to place themselves entirely at the dis

the English novel—the poor curate--the half-pay ready aspirants. But they have recently turned position of the Academy, and take sufficient time

officer- the swell’ Guardsman -- the inevitable to practice and rehearse. This is the only way to their eyes toward a more facile instrument by

country squire and member of Parliament-the which to accomplish their patriotic desires, and form a perfect orchestra, and to attain the highest

Dukes of Omnium and the Lady Glencoras-all now they invoke the interference of that immacudegree of execution.

the sorts of people that we meet in the select comlate representative of the Federal Judiciary, The first piece performed was Gade's Symphony | known to fame as John C. Underwood. Your

pany of the best English novelists we have grown in C. This composer, almost unknown in this readers may take some interest in the case which

familiar with ad nauseam. The varieties may differ city, is a Dane by birth, and has composed a great has been “organized” for the purpose of obtain- Thackeray. Dickens, Trollope or Yates; but the

according to the varying genius of a Bulwer, many symphonies and overtures, the most cele-ling a decision which shall declare that two-thirds leading types of higher-class, middle-class, and brated of which is called Nachklänge aus Ossian. of the Virginia Judges are disqualified from the lower-class Englishmen are substantially the same, The dreamy character of his music has made him discharge of their duties, and that their seats upon a favorite in Germany, where for two years he the bench are vacant, and therefore open to the continental writers of fiction, more particularly

ats upon and we have them all by heart. In the works of succeeded Mendelsohn in the direction of the con- I carpet-baggers. certs at the Geuvandhaus in Leipsic. This symph-1

of the German, we are introduced into a compara

A notorious felon was convicted of crime in the tively new world of ideas and of manners. The ony contains beautiful parts. The Andantino Rockbridge Circuit Court in last September, and Grazioso was not so well performed as the rest. sentenced by Judge Sheffey to two years impris- same, as we believe it is and always has been,

human nature portrayed may be everywhere the The fine overtures of Don Giovanni and Semi-lonment in the penitentiary. Under the Act of in all ages and in every country under the sun, ramide were well played, but in this last the horns Congress of February, 1867, this man has filed his since the fall of Adam ; but the external conditions, will have to do better.

petition of habeas corpus before Judge Under-I moni Mr. Courlænder, who belongs to the very best lwood, alleging that his liberty is restrained by the

er manifestations and forms of society are essentially school of piano-playing, performed with great Sheriff of Rockbridge. by virtue of a pretended

by the different and new. maestria the Serenade and Allegro Giojoso of Men-l judgment of the Court of that county; that Judge who we understand is Director of the Vienna

For example-in the novel before us, the author, delsohn. The orchestra accompanied him with Sheffey was not, at the time that this judgment | Court-Theatre. takes us into a world that to hesitation, and was sometimes too loud.

was rendered, and has not been since last July,

| English or American readers is a strange one, yet We cannot judge of Mrs. Holland's talent. The a Judge of the State of Virginia, because he was

one which actually exists, and with which the piece she selected, or was selected for her, requires expressly disqualified by the Fourteenth Amend.

author, by virtue of his position, is perfectly faa power of voice and a dramatic energy that Mrs. ment to the Constitution from performing that

miliar. The hero is a painter-the heroine a prima Holland evidently does not possess. Besides, the office-for the reason, that he had taken the oathi

"donna. The world of Society and the world of Art air is of rather too high a character for a public of office, prior to the war, as a member of the Vir

are brought into the closest juxtaposition, for besides whose taste in the matter of classical music is not yet ginia Legislature; that he had, afterwards, en lih.

those we have named, there are two other principal formed. On the whole we think this first concert gaged in rebellion against the United States, and

characters, constituting a partie carré, linked toof the Academy was calculated to gratify those rendered aid and comfort to its enemies; and that

gether in bonds of the closest intimacy, and whose concerned in its management and the friends of he had sworn allegiance to the Confederate States the Institute generally.

is re-election to the Legislature in 1861. L * The Amazon. By Franz Dingelstedt. _ Translated

from the German by J. M. Hart, New York: G. P. NEMO. These acts of disqualification, the counsel for the Putnam & Son. 1868.

fates in the story are strictly interwoven. These Should the gracious reader, with an upward turn in a Library of Foreign light literature such as are a young nobleman in the diplomatic service, of the nose, remind us of the red hair, we respect- the Messrs. Putnam are publishing. Other books, and a banker's daughter. The names of these

fully say to him that he does not know what is
beautiful; let him go to school to Titian and the a

advertised to form part of the same series, are the personages are Herr Roland, the painter, chris- Venitian's here ang there

re Herr Roland, the painter, chris-Venitians, here and there to Rubens. For-red Countess Ghisela, a novel by the authoress of old tened Paphnutius Meyer; the Fräulein Lomond, hair or brownish red, with the inevitably accom-Ma'mselle's Secret and Anna Severin, from the christened Seraphina, the Amazon of the Opera panying freckles and pimples--not even we are French

ve are French of Mme. Augustus Craven; also Madame

willing to sell to him for beautiful. But bair of and of the story; Herr Augustus Graf von Walth

- the right color, pure, molten, running gold, rather de Stael, an Historical Novel from the German of lenberg, Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister thick and vigorous than long, by nature wavy, Amely Bölte. Plenipotentiary-by his friends familiarly known spun out at the temples and on the neck in short as Gustel; and the Fräulein Armgard Krafft, the singlets that defy every touch of the comb-such

MOHUN.* bair shines upon a woman's head like a pure crown millionärin, daughter of Papa Krafft, the rich of beauty-beauty not regular, but all the more

| The materials out of which Mr. Cooke has woven banker. Besides these principal dramatis per fascinating. Our heroine possesses everything that the fabric of his latest story are furnished by the sonæ, there are the subordinate characters, of is suited to such hair: a dazzling white complex- closing incidents and scenes of our late Civil War. whom we name only Herr Hans Heinrich Krafft, and

arms and hands, such as every painter' might wish Surry of Eagles' Nest, a similar production, closed the financier; the youngsters who constitute Ro- in his model, and a form whose outlines are far with the death of Stonewall Jackson. Mohun beland's family; his factotum, Raff, abbreviated from running into autumnal fulness, yet betray gins with Gettysburg and terminates with the surRaphael, and the raven Jacob; the members of the the glowing maturity of summer. The eyes of the

render at Appomattox Court House. The plot in Amazon are of a peculiar shade and composition; Amazon's household, her steward Beppo and tire- Whet

| whether black, gray, green or blue, no one can say each case-that is, if either story can be said to woman Marianka; and the two rival editors of with confidence, because they reflect all these col-possess one-is of the slenderest possible descripThe Morning News and The Evening Journal, ors, according as the light falls upon them from tion. An ordinary love-story-the ideal actors in Hirsch Meyer and Meyer Hirsch. without or the spirit within is moved.”

which move on the same stage with the real perThe plot of the story seems designed to present. The author, being a Theatrical Director, and by Iconades of the drama--the phantome of the a a refutation of Goethe's theory of Elective Affini- consequence presumed to be a high authority in thor's imagination jostling the men of real flesh ties. There is a double marriage. Upon the the matters of costume, having favored us with the

and blood—is merely the thread upon which he ory of elective affinities-of like, that is, coupling foregoing personal description of his heroine, in- strings a succession of scenes borrowed from hiswith unlike, according to the doctrine of the at-forms us that the Fräulein Lomond (such is her tory, embellished with more or less coloring of traction of opposites-each nature seeking to find name) with great consistency, dresses in summer his own addition, and wbich furnish the real inin the other the complement of itself-we find the land in winter in light blue.

terest of the work. Considered as an historical diplomatist, the man of society and of rank, at- The Painter is led to tell the story of his life to romance, it has the fault common to all such protracted, in the first instance, by the singer, while the Singer. He describes how, born in the Tyrol, Iductions that of confounding fact with fiction. her brother-artist, the great painter, is on the point the son of a peasant, half-shepherd, half-poacher, Such, for example, is the vice of Miss Muhlbach's of marrying the daughter of the banker. By-and- the love of art was first developed in him, and the

in him, and the novels. The reader who is not fortified by the bye-in the development of the plot which we circumstances which caused him to leave the pa-possession of previous knowledge upon the subhave not space to unfold-the opposite theory of ternal roof. The following passage has all the liect, drawn from more authentic sources, finds the congeniality of natures asserts itself, and is effect of the darkest legends of unnatural crime; shimself entangled in a mingled web of truth and vindicated in the happy marriage of the two artists it is in fact as horrible as the story of the Wehr-fancy-without being able at the time to distinguish on the one hand, and of the courtier and heiress wolf:

the two, or, it may be, ever thoroughly to disconon the other. There is very little incident in the "Among my six brothers and sisters, the young-nect them in his thoughts thereafter. What he novel, and the dialogue, for the most part, is made est, a little girl, was my favorite. Her name was would fain study subsequently, in the sober light the vehicle for carrying on the story and for dis

orv and for dis Rosel. Rosel died of scarlet fever when she was
five years old, I fifteen-therefore, a grown boy, of

of history, he is forced continually to behold more closing the author's ideas upon a variety of sub

premature-my father's assistant in two of his ocor less subject to the glamour of romance. We jects. By German critics the novel is highly spoken cupations. The little corpse was laid out in the question whether any boy, whose first notions of of; but it appears to us that the talent of the author, low garret, waiting to be carried to the burying

to the burying certain passages of Scottish or English history are as would seem natural from his associations, is ground in our parochial village.

"In the middle of the night-we all slept. drawn from the pleasant pages of Sir Walter rather that of a dramatist than of a novelist. The parents and children, in one and the

than of a novelist. The parents and children, in one and the same room, Scott, does not acquire certain impressions in restory reads amazingly like a clever comedy in in the lower part of the house next to the sitting, gard to Roundhead and Cavalier, Jacobite and three acts, and would admit easily of dramatiza

eilo of dramatiza-room-I heard my father softly getting up and Covenanter, that he finds it exceedingly difficult tion. The translation is only indifferently done.

ascending stealthily the stairs that led to the gar 1.

ret closet. I could not sleep, being kept awake by if not almost impossible, ever afterwards to throw In one place the translator commits the barbarous my grief for the departed 'little sister. All the off. This liability to false impressions which promistake, in point of taste, of rendering the piquant others lay in the deepest, heaviest slumber-even fessedly historical novels are apt to produce is Berlin dialect by the brogue of Tipperary. Now, my m

Tipperary. Now my mother, worn out by night-watching and whatever dialect Germans may speak, they do not nursing. What did father want up there with the only in

only increased when, to give the narrative an air corpse? I listened, breathless. My heart was of greater plausibility, and convey the notion of speak Irish, neither the original Gaelic, nor the beating in my throat. I hear the yard-door open; strict accuracy in his portraiture of characters more modern corruption of the English tongue, after quite a while I hear a light struck in the really historical, the author garnishes his text with nor does the latter stand in any nearer relation to

passage, then steps in the sitting-room, and a
click-clack, like the cocking of a rifle .... Help a plentiful suj

! Heln la plentiful supply of notes, thus— * His own words, and the Berliner sprache than it does to Sanskrit. In me, all ye saints in Heaven! I crawl out of my accompanying references to works of authora translation, differences of dialect are as impossi- bed and creep gently-gently to the solitary win-ity and official documents. This trick has Miss ble to be rendered—as are, for the most part, vul- dow ort oui. dow. It is frozen hard and tight. My breath

reath Muhlbach, and after her Mr. John Esten Cooke.

thaws the ice so that one of the panes becomes garisms in speech, plays upon words, and punning clear

18 clear, and I can look out upon our yard and the This much in general, by way of caution to allusions. A passage like the following sounds mountain-forest immediately back of it. The those who cheat themselves with the idea that in simply absurd: Count Wallenberg has gone be- moon is shining bright-the snow lies many feet reading novels they are studying history made easy, hind the scenes at the opera with a present of flowconera with a present of Aow.deep. There, under the first row of fir-trees-do not look at me, Seraph-the father has laid out and that wh

#land that while in quest of amusement they are ers for the prima donna. He is accosted by one of the dead body of this childhood

costed by one of the dead body of his child .... to decoy the really in the acquisition of knowledge. Yet, with the corps de ballet, an Amazon from Berlin, "in wild beasts of the night-the fox, the stone-mar- all this, we do not mean to say that Mohun and her beautiful dialect of purest Spree-water:"_ten, the weasel; he stands, rifle in hand, in thes “Where air you goin', Count, with them beautifool Snaco cantifool shadow of the gallery, keeping watch."

Surry of Eagles' Nest do not furnish pleasant and

desirable reading—for those who have time and lilies?" "You know me, fair Amazon ?" "Shure,' These extracts will suffice to give an idea of the to

se extracts will suffice to give an idea of the taste to indulge in works of romance. Although now, and we all knows the loik o' ye, ye ould author's power, though they are not particularly Itrastin

e loik o’ye, ye ould authors power, thougа they are not particularly treating of persons and things in regard to which Daniel in the lion's din." This, we submit, is characteristic specimens of of the book, there is, and probably always will remain, & wide neither "pure Spree-water,'' nor pure English, nor which, as we have intimated, resembles most the difference of opinia

s Or anything else but pure nonsense.

quick action and lively dialogue of the modern

the modern unjust in the tone and temper of the books-no disThe best things in the novel are some of the de-stage-comedy of society and manners. It is al,

$. a position to exaggerate or misstate-no desire to scriptions. The following is a description of the short story, one of the class commonly known in

in pander to prejudices or excite to passion. The heroine as she is first presented to us. It is a per- Germany as Novellen-as distinguished from the

sympathies of the author are as generous and fect apotheosis of red hair, and suggests a natural longer, more broadly-planned, three-volume Ro

manly as they are undisguised. And here Mr. coiffure that it seems to be the height of present man--the translation only amounting to a single co

sme Cooke is very fortunate. He addresses a sympafeminine ambition to imitate:

duodecimo volume of about 300 pages. It is not — "As she lies there in that position, the Amazon, / a book likely to make or to have any lasting or/.* Mohun: or, the Last Days of Lee and His Paladins.

By John Esten Cooke, author of "Surry of Eagles she is a handsome woman-handsome as a picture. Textensive reputation, but fills a very suitable place Nest," New York: F.'J. Huntington & Co. 1869,

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