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civil and religious (?) liberty they reared, was none horizontal connecting rods, instead of the chain 'ject of some controversy. The invention has been other than that designated by the hallowed name gearing, was rendered impossible, on account of claimed for Trevithick; but we have already seen we have quoted. Upon this point there is much the low state of the mechanical skill of the country, that the latter employed a fanning or blowing ap. to be said.
: which was incapable of forging cranked axles of paratus for his steam carriages, evidently without To its full elucidation, there is in
sufficient soundness and strength to stand the jar understanding the power and purpose to which vestigation and review of much New England
of ordinary locomotive work; though Stephenson Stephenson put his valuable adjunct to combus. history pre-requisite - which we must needs had actually devised the crank movement instead tion. It is also claimed for William Hedley that postpone.
of the cog-wheels or chain-gearing, the latter of he used the blast pipe for the Wylam engine in Mr. Motley, the historian, put a fitting crown which devices he was compelled, finally, to adopt. 1814; but the testimony of Robert Stephenson in upon the self-glorification of the evening by the The chain-gearing, however, became streached in 1857 goes to show that the Wylam engine has do sentiment which he proposed-New England Na- time, and the engines were liable to irregularity in blast-pipe, and this statement is farther confirmed tionality. It is the opposite. We suppose. to their working. Nevertheless, this machine and by Nicholas Wood in his Practical Treatise on Southern Provincialism., Other speeches there
others similar to it, were in profitable use at the Railroads, first published in 1825. On the cor
Killingworth Colliery Railway for some years. trary, as we have already noted, it appears that were made, and letters read from invited guests
Eventually the chain was laid aside, the fore and the Wylam engine had a contrivance for preventwho were unable to be present; but the spirit of hind wheels were united by rods on the outside. ing a blast. The claims of Goldsmith Gurney to the whole occasion is best embodied in the old instead of by rods and crank-axles inside, as speci- this invention in 1820, and that of Timothy Hackfamiliar string of resolutions supposed to have fied in the original patent. These difficult.es, I worth in 1829, are distinctly disproved in favor of originated with the Worthies whose merits were among others, which Stephenson had to encounter Stephenson in Wood's Treatise, in which a deso modestly set forth by their happy descend- and overcome, are hinted at to shew the progress scription is given of the Killingworth engines, . ants
the locomotive had attained when he took hold of built in 1816, and the application of the steam “Resolved, That the earth is the Lord's and the
lits introduction and improvement; they, in them- blast in them is especially noted. To Hackworth, fullness thereof.
selves, part of the history of the gradual success however, some credit is due for the early use of
that awaited his arduous efforts, and made, at the multitubular boiler for passenger engines re“Resolved, That the Lord hath given the earth
length, this engine the most remarkable physical quired to run at a high rate of speed, an invention to be the heritage of his saints.
agent of the modern world. Stephenson's chief that was made practically possible only through “Resolved, That we are his saints.”
merit as an inventor and improver of the locomo- the use of the steam-blast, which, it must be The report from which we gather the extracts tive, however, Jies primarily in his adaptation of owned, Hackworth, in turn, succeeded in increas
|ing in sharpness and power. we have given omits to state whether the festivi- the steam-blast to support rapidity of combustion.
| But Stephenson was far from satisfied with his ties closed as did the similar celebration which Having observed the great velocity with which
first efforts at the construction of a locomotire. place in Washington the same day "with the the waste steam escaped into the open atmosphere, compared with the velocity with which the steam
One of the principal impediments to the perfection Doxology and dancing !". issued from the pipe or chimney, he conceived the
of this machine was due, as we shall have occasioa idea of carrying steam into the chimney and there
to note in a succeeding paper, to the imperfect STEAM--THE LOCOMOTIVE-GEORGE
construction of railways at the time Stephenson STEPHENSON. allowing it to escape vertically, and imparting its
| began his earlier improvements. As the subject velocity to the ascending current of air passing V.-Continued. through the pipe. "The experiment was no sooner
of railways is, however, more distinctly to be To appreciate the merit of the inventor, as well made than the power of the engine became doubled,
| treated hereafter, we shall confine ourselves for as properly to understand the progress of any
the present entirely to the progress of the locomoas it were, by a blast; consequently, the power of specific invention, it is well to bear in mind the
tive. In 1816, in connection with a patent for imthe boiler for generating steam was increased, and, difficulties which are invariably met with at the in the same proportion, the useful duty of the en
proved rails, Stephenson embodied certain specifibeginning of all great enterprises-to note the slow gine was augmented."' *
cations for the improvement of the locomotive stages of the struggle through which all the great
"Thus in 1815," says Robert Stephenson, "my
itself. In addition to those already described. improvements of the world-material as well as father succeeded in manufacturing an engine which
these included the use of malleable iron wheels, moral-are obliged to pass to their ultimate deincluded the following important improvements
besides the steam-blast and the use of steam genovelopment. It was the quality of perseverance on all previous attempts in that direction: Simple
rated in the boiler as a substitute for springs. In which sustained Watt--the patient application of and direct communication between the cylinder
1818 he entered into an investigation of the practihis powers to a given purpose. The same charac
cability of steam carriages for common roads, teristic stood by Stephenson in his endeavors to and the wheels rolling upon the rails; joint adhe
which we have already seen, in a preceding paper sion of all the wheels attained by the use of horiperfect that mighty agent of modern civilization,
was a pet project of Trevithick and the inventor the locomotive. In 1815 he took out a patent for
zontal connecting-rods; and, finally, a beautiful
engaged in steam locomotion who preceded him a second engine, in which there was an almost enploying the waste steam which had formerly been
The idea of using steam carriages upon publis tire change of construction and mechanical arallowed uselessly to escape.” It is not too much
highways was of far more promise to the popular rangement; it combined, indeed, in a remarkable to say, he proceeds, that this engine as a mechan
mind, at this time, than the introduction of locodegree, the essential requisites of an economical ical contrivance contained the germ of all that has
motive engines upon railways especially conlocomotive,"few parts, simplicity in their action, since been effected. It may be regarded, in fact,
structed for their use. Stephenson, however, was and great simplicity in the mode by which the
as a type of the present locomotive engine." It is power was communicated to the wheels, support
not carried away by popular opinion; on the confarther stated by Robert Stephenson that engines
trary, he addressed himself to a series of experiing the engine.” The mechanical skill of the
constructed in the manner above described in 1818,
8ments, by which he demonstrated that the idea of country at the time of the construction of this enwere in use at Killingworth Colliery as late as 1856,
working steam carriages economically on common gine, did not furnish appliances of sufficient drawing heavy coal trains at a speed of five or six
roads was out of the question. He establisbed, strength and of the requisite character for the conmiles an hour, "as economically, perhaps, as any
empirically, the principle, already known to struction of a locomotive in its more modern and
of the more perfect engines now (1856) in use."
,, science, but of which no notice had as yet been perfect form. Stephenson, therefore, with such Among the ingenious contrivances of the elder
taken by practical engineers, that friction is uniform resources as were at his command, was obliged to Stephenson, indicative of the state of locomotive
at all velocities. He also investigated experiadapt his second engine to the defects in the con
mentally other resistances to which carriages are struction of railroads as well as machinery which
machinery at this time, was the adaptation of the
exposed; these he classified as mainly three-frst. prevailed at the time. He communicated the springs upon the axles, relieve the weight of the
upon the axles ; second, the rolling resistance be steam power to the wheels from two upright or
tween the circumference of the wheel and the survertical cylinders partially submerged in the
jar upon the track, and distribute the weight of
face of the rail; and, third, the resistance of boiler at its extremities; the rods worked up and wheels. "The mode he adopted of supporting the
gravity. In the course of these experiments he down in a ball and socket joint, alternately. In engine remained in use until the progress of spring
not only became satisfied that the working of order to combine each pair of wheels, he used, inmaking had considerably advanced, when steel
steam carriages upon the rough surface of common stead of the spur-gear aforementioned, a chain springs of sufficient strength superseded this highly
roads was not practicable as a matter of economy, passing from the centre of one axle to the other, ingenious mode of distributing the weight of the
but he also began to consider the question of over indented wheels made to catch in the joints engine uniformly among the wheels."
gradients upon future locomotive lines--the vits] or links of the chain, so that the two pairs of|
The steam-blast of Stephenson has been the sub
on the importance, in an economical point of view, of rewheels were effectually coupled and made to keep
ducing the country through which a railway wai pace with each other. The use of cranks and Robert Stephenson, 1856.
intended to pass to as near a level as possible.
While, therefore, other inventors were attempt-provement will turn out like the steam carriages sovereign remedy for all wounds, visible and ining to apply steam power to turnpike roads, Ste- of which we have been told so much, that were to visible-an assuager of grief, an exalter of power, phenson became devoted to the railway locomo- supersede the use of horses entirely, and travel at a panacea for all the ills that flesh is heir to. The tive. And, although locomotive engines were in a rate almost equal to the fleetest horse!” A sup- burden on your shoulders weighs a thousand daily use at Killingworth Colliery, it was eight position utterly scouted by the sagacious editor of pounds-will nepenthe make it lighter? Not by a years before another locomotive railway was con- the Gazette. The Tyne Mercury asked, in its feather's weight; but it will make you a thousand structed and opened for purposes of coal and other edition of November 16th, 1824, “What person times stronger, and then the burden will seem no traffic. The first engine constructed to order by would ever think of paying anything to be con-heavier than the soap-bubble you were wont to Stephenson was one after the Killingworth model, veyed from Hexham to Newcastle in something blow, in your boyhood days, from the bowl of your made for the Duke of Portland, in 1817, for the like a coal wagon upon a dreary wagon way, for pipe. use of his tram-road, ten miles in length, from the greater part of the distance by a ROARING Camacho seeks the wizard, and buys a full meal Kilmarnock to Troon in Ayrshire. The poverty STEAM ENGINE ?! Stephenson nevertheless in- of happiness for a penny on the first day, for two of the railway, however, induced at length aban- duced the Directors of the Darlington line to try pence on the second, and he is delighted to find the donment of this locomotive. Its original cost was one of his locomotives, and upon the opening of aew material so cheap and so abundant. He gets £750; and it was sold for £13 and broken up in the road he had “No, 1" engine, "The Locomo- enough to send him far away, as Dr. Anstie says, 1818. In 1819, however, the owners of Hetton tion,” ready for the trial. On the day of the open
for the trial On thadav of the open. I from the surroundings of life and into a fool's Colliery, in Durham, determined to lay down aing a great procession was formed, headed by Ste- Paradise, filled with illusions of sensual delight.” locomotive railway from their works, eight miles, phenson's engine, with coal wagons fitted for pas
It needs not a wizard to know that the fool will eat to the ship places of the Wear, near Sunderland. sengers and filled with the same, and coal wagons again, and again, and again, and will pay in adThis road, operated partially by a series of inclined filled with coal, in all twenty-seven, and there was vancing geometrical progression, until fortune, and planes, and partly by locomotive engines, was a great concourse of people assembled, gentleman wife, and mind, and soul, and body, are all sacriopened by Stephenson on the 18th of November, riders and runners to keep pace with the train, ticed to or for the delusion and snare which prom1822. On the day of the opening five of Stephen- and spectators crowded all along the line-80 great ised perennial happiness. son's locomotives were at work. The speed at was the notoriety of this enterprise growing out of Many men find in opium the first taste of nepenwhich they traveled was about four miles an hour, lits novelty and the protracted struggle it had un-the. Now, opium is a good gift in itself, and a each engine dragging a train of seventeen wagons, dergone in Parliament for a charter. Ahead of potent one; but like many other good gifts, when weighing about sixty-four tons. In his various the whole procession was a herald on horseback, used to abuse, it takes a man a willing victim for enterprises at Killingworth and elsewhere, the between the rails and in front of the engine, bear- the most part, from safety to danger; and it is said, elder Stephenson was greatly assisted by his son, ing the pacificatory motto of the Company on a and it is true, that he who loves the danger shall whom after leaving school in 1819, he apprenticed flag-“Periculum privatum utilitas publica'' - perish in it. There are men who should never to the "head-viewer" at Killingworth. In the floating in the front! Five or six miles an hour know, theoretically or practically, that any drug year of the opening of the Hetton railway, Robert was all that was expected of the engine; and peri- will abate pain, or even remorse, and raise them Stephenson was sent for a short course of instruc-culum privatum was thus neatly offset by an as- up to a certain condition of pleasurable exhiliration to Edinburgh University. Here he continued surance of public utility! At a favorable part of tion, though it be indeed but in a fool's Paradise. for six months, at a cost of £80-a large sum in the road Stephenson called upon “Periculum pri- Such men have a constitutional craving for morbid those days for the paternal exchequer—the best in- I vatum” to get out of the way, and put on steam. exaltation, and they will seek it at any risk. The vestment, however, probably ever made of a simi- | The speed of the engine was raised to twelve or Confessions of Opium-eaters will not deter the lar sum for such a purpose. At the end of his fifteen miles an hour, and the runners and gentle- majority of readers from attempting rash experiterm of tuition Robert returned, having acquired man outriders and the herald were left far in the ments. In reading De Quincy's Confessions, we considerable scientific culture, as an evidence of rear! Even after this, the directors put a horse thought them quite as likely to encourage as to his ability and industry, bringing with him a prize car on the road for passengers; until, eventually, discourage the vice of opium-eating. The proper for mathematics, won at the University. This was it was forced off the track, after the fashion of the moral is not always derived from the morale of the the end of Robert Stephenson's "schooling'' -a solitary horseman in the procession.
text. The preacher who undertook to preach down fact which is here recorded to shew the kind of
[CONTINUED NEXT WEEK.]
the Black Crook, only gave it an effective advertheoretical preparation the greatest railway engi
tisement. Correggio's Magdalen may be considneer of his day enjoyed, apart from the practical
ered a sort of a text-but when did it ever inspire teaching and constant coöperation subsequently
a love of new-fledged virtue, or a salutary aversion in his father's schemes. As his connection with
to the sin or the sinner? As a matter of fact, De the English and Provincial railway system is more
THE OPIUM HABIT.*
Quincy's Confessions have prompted the taste for marked than his association with the early history
This is a curious and instructive book, especially opium-eating, as Coleridge and William Blair bear of the locomotive, we shall have occasion to make interesting to the physician, the psychologist, the witness, to their sorrow. more particular mention of him hereafter. moralist, and to that numerous portion of the hu- De Quincy derived, as he says, exquisite pleasure
The first rail of the Stockton and Darlington man family which is burdened with grief, or care, from opium, and pleasure of a higher grade than Railway was laid on the 23d of May, 1822. This or pain. Some such burden most men bear, and is ever afforded by the more familiar demon. was the first railway proper opened in England. unwillingly enough, as the reader will bear wit- "I do not believe," he says, "that any man havIt was twelve miles in length, from Stockton on ness. The old man in the fable called upon Deathing once tasted the divine luxuries of opium, will the Tees to Darlington in Durham. In 1824 George to relieve him, though he objected to the proffered afterwards descend to the gross and mortal enjoyStephenson, Edward Pease and Thomas Richard- assistance when it came; your good Christian bears ments of alcohol. I take it for granted son opened their locomotive works at Newcastle. his cross but too often about as meekly as the phil- "That those eat now who never ate before, This was the nucleus of the gigantic establishment osopher bears the toothache: and in short, old and And those who always ate, now eat the more.'" which was afterward built up in the same location. young, grave and gay, the wise and the foolish, But on the other hand, let us listen to the SusThe Darlington railway was finished on the 27th have ever something weighty upon the shoulders piris de Profundis. In reading of the days of of September, 1825. Although the tram-ways of the body or the spirit that they wish to be rid wretchedness following opium debauches, one is previously mentioned, built by Stephenson and op- of. But the burden, like the little old man of the instinctively led to think of the sufferings of hell. erated by his locomotives, as well as that operated sea astride of Sinbad, will not be cast down, nor And sure enough, one victim after another uses by the Blenkinsop machine, would seem to have can the bearer make it drunk with the juice of the the term hell to express his torment. “You have settled the practicability of such a motive power; grape, so that, when drunk and powerless, he may no conception," says Coleridge in a letter to a yet there still existed a vast popular prejudice not dash it to atoms. What is left, then, for a restive friend, "of the dreadful hell of my mind, and cononly against railways, but especially against the man, who is not willing to plod through life, laden science, and body." When Blair was dallying use of the locomotive engine. It was some time like a pack-mule? What can he do but call upon with the drug, he believed that something horrible in doubt, whether to run the Darlington line by the wizard who deals in NEPENTIE? "Nepenthe! would result from its use, “though my imaginahorse power, or to adopt Stephenson's locomotives. what's that?” says Camacho, eagerly, the very last tion,'' to use his own words, "most vivid, could As a curious instance of the feeling which pre- man in the world who ought to be interested, con- not conjure up visions of horror half so terrific as vailed at this time upon this subject, the following sidering his superabundance of riches, and his the fearful reality. I know that for every hour of paragraphs from newspapers of the day may be beautiful wife. Well, Camacho, nepenthe is a comparative ease and comfort its treacherous allicited: "There has been some taik," wrote the
* The Opium Ilabit, with Suggestions as to the Remedy.
ance might confer upon me now, I must endure Whitehaven Gazette from a puff criticism in the “It is alı
"It is almost like Dives sending for a messenger to his Monthly Review, "of an improvement on the brethren; but tell them-tell all young men what it is conceive the mental hell into whose fierce corrod
-'that they come not into this torment.'"--Request of principle of railways; but we suspect that this im- a dying opium patient. New York: Harper & Bros. 1868. I ing fires I was about to plunge.” The bodily tor
ments are not more endurable. In one case, the under the express directions of the attending phy- too indulgent, and encourages in that way the disrewhole intestinal canal seemed as if scoured with sician.
spectful behavior of an artist who, on any Euroaqua fortis. In another, "it seemed as if my arte- We may say, finally, that the ingenuous reader
pean stage, would have been hissed by the audienes ries and veins ran with boiling water, instead of who wishes to obtain ideal glimpses of heaven and with blood, and as the current circulated through hell, may find them delineated, in the midst of
and fined by the Director. the brain, I felt as if it actually boiled up against many practical facts, in the graphic pages of the
e The Opera of Martha was performed in a gratiand tossed the skull at the top of my head, as you Opium Habit.
fying manner. Mrs. Rotter's, and particularly have seen the water in a tea-kettle rattling the
Formes', voices are fatigued ; nevertheless, they lid." Add to this a thirst like that of Tantalus, MAX MARETZEK'S ITALIAN AND sung very tolerably and acted well. The scene of that water cannot appease, and weeks of sleepless GERMAN TROUPE-IL BARBIERE the Spinning quartette was somewhat overdonedays and nights, when the eyes of the body are no
L DI SIVIGLIA-MARTHA. Martha is a Comic Opera, but not a Bouffe. sooner closed than to the eyes of the mind appearl Weh
We have to note the same difference between Habelmann is, like Hermann, a very good and horrible visions, terrible phantoms, or loathsome beasts and reptiles, co-tenants, mayhap, of a grave
the execution of Il Barbiere di Siviglia and Mar-conscientious artist, entirely absorbed by his ról. in which the living man believes himself to be tha on Wednesday week, that was observable be-He sung very well, and, what is characteristic of a prematurely buried!
tween the Sicilian Vespers and Fidelio, with the perfect actor, he never forgets that he is on the All the pleasure derived from opium-eating is distinction, however, that in Il Barbiere there is stage. We feel happy to acknowledge such a very transient, and the victim soon finds that he but a single Chorus, and the orchestration being difference between him and Brignoli, in the maneats no longer for pleasure, but to raise him from less complicated than in the Sicilian Vespers, its ner they respectively understand their duties tothe depths into which its use has cast him. After performance was not quite so bad.
wards themselves and the public; and that the press a brief period, "all the effects produced by the
| Miss McCulloch, to begin with the best, is a of this city did not share our sentiments on the opium," says a victim, "are to keep the body at that level of sensation in which one feels positively ld South Carolinian, from Columbia, and has been subject, only illustrates how lightly true meri:
NEMO. alive, and capable to act, without being impeded studying only two years for the stage. She cer- is sometimes appreciated. or weighed down by physical languor and impo- tainly deserves praise for what she has accom
HAMMER AND ANVIL, tence. Such languor and impotence one feels from plished in so short a time, and encouragement for abstaining merely a few hours beyond the wonted the future. Her voice is not remarkable, but
A NOVEL, time of taking the dose. It is not a pleasure then good, particularly in the medium, and she vocal
BY FRIEDRICH SPIELHAGEN. that drives on the confirmed opium-eater, but a lized well the cabaletta of the Cavatina Una voce necessity scarce less resistible than that Fate to
[Translated from the German for The Statesman., poco fà. Her acting and mimic powers require which the pagan mythology subjected gods not less cultivation and study, but still her meaning was
CHAPTER VI. than men."
On awaking the next morning, it was long ere I The vice of opium-eating is increasing rapidly good, and sometimes she was very successful in its could arrive at a clear co in this country among all classes, whether in easy expression. As she evidently shows ambition to tion. My sleep had been disturbed by frightfi.. or luxurious wealth, or in stinted and laborious become a very good artist, we shall respectfully dreams, which had left an oppression upon my poverty. People eat it who know all about it from advise her to observe, on every occasion, the rules spirits. It still seemed to me that I heard my books, before their own experience confirms their and conventional proprieties of the stage and the father's voice, when a part of my dream recurre knowledge, and others eat it who do not know it
play. To sing, as she did, an English song in Ilto my memory. I had been fleeing from my father, as a common vice, or as one that has a written his
Barbiere, is simply absurd. Any air interpolated
lated and came to a smooth pond, into which I thre tory. “What shall they do to be saved ?" This
myself, to escape by swimming. But the smooth question is discussed in the Opium Habit, and for in an opera should have words in the same lan
pond suddenly changed into a stormy sea, upin the reply, we may refer the reader to its pages. guage as the libretto, and if she was absolutely
whose waves I was now tossed toward heaven, and Meantime, we may observe that unless the patient determined to make a change, a Spanish song now plunged into the abyss. I was paralysed with is very far enslaved, by a very resolute exercise of would have been the only suitable sclection. terror; and strove in vain to call to my father for the will, and under the counsel and advice of an Orlandini as Figaro and Barili as Bartolo were help, while my father did not see me, although experienced physician, he may be restored to nor- very poor. The first was out of breath in the air he ran up and down the shore, within reach of ma, mal life and condition. After a certain term, or Loreal factotum and his voice failed twice in but wrung his hands an
1 Largo al factotum, and his voice failed twice in but wrung his hands and broke into loud lamesstage, the case becomes hopeless; the end is death,
the Quintette Buona Sera, and in the Trio Zitto, tations ove
intette Buona Sera, and in the Trio Zitto tations over his drowned son. with or without the continued use of the fatal |
| I passed my hand repeatedly over my brow to The second, with a view certainly to imi
"drive away the frightful images, and opening ny The beginning of its use is often attributed to tate Brignoli, skipped a whole scene with Rosina, leves
e is often attributed to state Brignoll, skipped a whole scene with Rosina, leyes and looking around, found myself in the medical prescription; should physicians then con- and the air Mi manca un foglio.
room into which my host had conducted me (I tinue to prescribe so dangerous a remedy? Un- Signor Brignoli (we think we must say Signor, the previous night. The light in the great bare doubtedly. They cannot forego the use of a druglas Sipp and Kopta always use llerr before their apartment was so dim, that I thoughtat first it must of which it has been said, Tam homini quam
names, although both Italian and German words be very early; but my watch had stopped at nire, morbo, somnum conciliat. It eases the dis-ease, as well as the patient. If abuse is to preclude use,
Imean nothing more than Mr. in English.) did not and on examination I discovered that this greenis
take the least trouble to sing or play his part. physicians can use no remedy, and yourself, reader,
twilight was produced by the thick foliage of
trees whose branches touched the solitary window. might have to give up terrapins ånd oysters, and He did not utter a sound in the finale of the first
At this moment a ray of sunlight found its way even many less luxurious articles of food. act, and during the scene of the Singing Lesson
through some aperture, and fell upon the wall in Meantime, if it be useless, in these columns, to he sat at the piano as if he were reading the front of me. upon which I at first thought the advise those addicted to opium-eating to give up morning papers, and did not even seem very most singular and fantastic figures were painted, so pernicious a habit, it will not be amiss to cau- much pleased with their contents. It was, per- until closer observation showed me that the dark tion the uninitiated against contracting this, as haps, the musical criticism of the Gazette or hangings had here and there detached themselves other bad habits, which are so casy to acquire and
the Sun, that he did not think sufficiently com- from the lighter ground, and hung in irregular so difficult to break. But if men and women-if torplimentary.
strips, which seemed the strange garments » mature humanity will not hear us in its own inter-P ests we will vet address a word of warning to! Signor Brignoli is more what the Italians call a Bosque fosse mothers. “Every year,” says Dr. Headland. "a | Tenore di forza than a Tenore di grazia : so he was.. Altogether the appearance of the room was
Jinhospitable as it well could be: the plaster is. larger proportion of opium is abstracted from its not at home among the scales and the runs of legitimate uses, in order to enter into the composi- Rossini's music, and his voice on those occasions in white fragments upon the floor, which was tion of those various detestible compounds with sounded entirely nasal. Is the way that he walks in parquetry, but now cracked in all directi : which, under the name of Godfrey's Cordial, Dal-lon the stage the result of the accident he met with The whole furniture consisted of a great canzone by's Carminative, Soothing Syrup, etc., mothers, li
5. last year, or a natural gait? In the first case, we bed, the curtains of which were of faded gree whose pitiable ignorance must serve for their plea, are suffered to stupefy and poison their helpless
*should beg his pardon for alluding to it; in the damask; two high-backed chairs, corered with haheer A word to the rise is sufficient need second, we should advise him to modify it, as similar materials, one of which possessed its ropa more be said to mothers ? Children, especially, Jit looks perfectly ridiculous. We shall repeat'. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year
1868, in the Clerk's Office of the United States District should not take opium in any of its forms, except I once more that the Baltimore public is really Court of Maryland.
mal complement of legs, while the other, which passed into a great two-windowed room looking years, a trysting-place for owls and sparrows, rats in years had not yet learned to stand upon three, upon the court, and from this one happily back to and mice. Just so might have looked a castle enwas propped against the wall; and finally, a pine the one adjoining my chamber, from which I had chanted by the wickedest of all witches; and I do wash-stand painted white, in singular contrast to set out. I had to laugh when I made this dis- not think that I should have been beyond measure the great oval mirror in a rich antique rococo covery, but my laughter sounded so strangely astonished if the hag had herself arisen, with frame, which hung above it, although it is true hollow as to check my mirth at once. And indeed bristling hair, from the great kettle in the washthat the gilding on this piece of magnificence was it was no wonder if laughter had a strange house, into which I cast a glance, and flown up in many places tarnished by age.
sound in these empty rooms, which seemed as if through the wide chimney upon one of the broomI made these observations while putting on my they had heard few sounds of merriment in recent sticks that were lying about.. clothes, which in the short time I had slept had times, however joyous they might have been in This wash-house had a door opening upon a litby no means dried as thoroughly as I could have years by-gone. For this room was just as bare tle yard surrounded by a hedge, and divided by a desired. But this was but a trifling discomfort: the and cheerless as that in which I had slept; with deep trench, bridged by a half-rotten plank; thought that troubled me was, how should I dress just such ragged hangings, crumbling ceilings, which yard, as was evident from the egg-shells myself the next day, and after? upon which fol- and worm-eaten, half ruinous furniture, which and bones scattered about, had formerly been a lowed the associate reflection :-what was going to once might have adorned a princely apartment. receptacle for the refuse of the kitchen. But grass become of me altogether?
And so was it with the other rooms, which I now had grown over the old rubbish-heaps, and a pair The answer to this question was by no means examined again more attentively than at first. of wild rabbits darted at sight of me into their clear; and after some consideration I hit upon the Everywhere the same signs of desolation and de- burrows in the trench. They might possibly preidea that it would be as well, before I came to a cay; everywhere mournful evidences of vanished serve some legend of a time when the trench had decision-which in any event was not a matter of splendor: here and there upon the walls hung life- been full of water, and these burrows the habisuch instant urgency-to consult my friendly host size portraits, which seemed to be spectrally fading tations of water-rats; but at such a remote period upon the subject. Singular enough! up to this into the dark back-ground from which they had of antiquity that the whole tradition ran into the day I had always rejected the advice of those once shone brilliantly; in one room lay immense mythical. whose position and knowledge best qualified thcm piles of books in stately old bindings of swine-l Hearing a sound at hand which seemed to indito give it, and had always maintained that I knew leather, among which a pair of rats dived out of|cate the presence of a human being, I pushed best what I had to do; and now I found myself sight as I entered; in another, otherwise entirely through the hedge into the garden, and following looking with a sort of superstitious reliance to a empty, was a harp with broken chords, and the the direction of the sound, found an old man who man whom I had but just learned to know, and scabbard of a dress-sword, with its broad silken was loading a small cart with pales, which he was that under circumstances by no means of a nature scarf. Everywhere rubbish, dust and cobwebs; I breaking with a hatchet out of a high stockade. to inspire confidence, and whose name was in evil windows dim with neglect, except where their This stockade had evidently once served as the repute, far and near. It was in this fact, possibly, I broken panes offered a free passage to the birds (fence of a deer-park; in the high grass lay the that lay the greatest attraction for me. The wild that had scattered straw and dirt around to a ruins of two deer-sheds blown down by the wind : Zehren' had held a place in my boyish imagina-I plaster cornice still clung a pair of abandoned the stags who used to feed from the racks, and try tion, by the side of Rinaldo Rinaldini and Karlswallows' nests ;-everywhere a stifling, musty their antlers against the paling, had probably long Moor, and I had keenly envied my friend Arthur, I atmosphere of ruin and decay.
since found their way to the kitchen, and why who used to tell the wildest stories about him, the After I had wandered through at least a half should the paling itself not follow? possession of such an uncle.
dozen more rooms, a lucky turn brought me into So at least thought the withered old man whom Of late years he had been less talked about: I a spacious hall, from which descended a broad I found engaged in this singular occupation. once heard the Steuerrath, in a public garden, in oaken staircase adorned with antique carved work. When he first came upon the estate, which was in the presence of my father and others, thanking |This staircase also, that once with its stained win- the life-time of the present owner's father, there God that the mad fellow' had at last shown some dows, its dark panels reaching almost to the ceil-| were forty head of deer in the park, he said; but signs of reformation, and the family might con- ing, its antlers, old armor, and standards, must in the year 12, when the French landed upon the sider itself relieved from the perpetual fear that have presented an unusually stately and imposing island and took up quarters in the castle, more sooner or later he would come to some bad end. I appearance, offered the same dreary picture of than half were shot, and the rest broke out and At the same time some allusions were made to a desolation as the rest; and I slowly descended it, were never recovered, though a part were afterdaughter, at which several of the gentlemen whis amazed, and to a certain extent confounded, by all | ward killed in the neighboring forest which bepered together. and Justizrath Heckepfennig that I had seen. More than one step cracked and longed to Prince Prora. shrugged his shoulders. Later, Arthur told me yielded as I placed my foot upon it, and as I in- After giving me this information, the old man that his cousin had eloped with a young teacher stinctively laid my hand upon the broad balus- fell to his work again, and I tried in vain to draw from her boarding-school in the capital-or at trade, the wood felt singularly soft, but it was him into further conversation. His communicaleast had planned an elopement-and his uncle from the accumulated dust of years, into which, tiveness was exhausted, and only with difficulty had been compelled to take her back to his house. indeed, the whole stair seemed slowly dissolving could I get from him that the master had gone out She was very beautiful, he said further, and on I knew that I had not come this way the pre- shooting, and would scarcely be back before eventhat account he the more regretted that his father vious night, when my host conducted me to myling, perhaps not so soon. and his uncle were on such unfriendly terms, for, chamber. A steep stair, as I afterward learned, “And the young lady?' owing to this disagreement, he had never seen
led from a side hall directly to that dark corridor •Most likely up yonder,' said the old man, Constance (I remembered the name) but once, and which adjoined the room I had occupied. I had, pointing with his axe-handle in the direction of that was when she was a child.
therefore, never before been in the great hall in the park; then slipping the straps of his cart over All this and much more in this connection came which I was now standing; and as I did not wish his decrepit shoulders, he slowly dragged it along into my mind, while I finished my simple toilet to go knocking in vain at half-a-dozen doors, and the grass-grown path toward the castle. I watched before the dim mirror with the tarnished rococo | the great house-door that fronted the stairs proved him till he disappeared behind the bushes; for a frame; and as I thought of the pretty cousin, I to be locked, I succeeded, with some difficulty, in while I could still hea
consin 1 to be locked, I succeeded, with some difficulty, in while I could still hear the creaking of his cart, felt chagrin at the tardy development of the beard opening a back-door, which luckily was only and then all was silent. that had begun to sprout on my upper lip. I bolted, and entered a small
upper lip bolted, and entered a small court. The low build- | Silence without a sound, just as in the ruinous caught up the sailor's hat which I had brought ings surrounding this, had probably been used as castle. But here the silence had nothing oppreswith me when I landed and left the room to look | kitchens, or served other domestic purposes in sive; the sky here was blue, without even the for Herr von Zehren.
former times; but at present they all were vacant, smallest speck of cloud; here shone the bright Pretty soon it became evident that this very and looked up piteously with their empty window-morning-sun, throwing the shadows of the aged natural intention was not so easy of accomplish- frames and crumbling tile-roofs, to the bare and oaks upon the broad meadows, and sparkling in ment. The room which I left had, luckily, only ruinous main-building, as a pack of half-starved the rain-drops which the night's storm had left two doors in it; but that which I entered had dogs to a master who himself has nothing to eat. upon the bushes. Now and then a light breeze three, so that I had to make a choice between two, I was no longer a child: my organization was stirred, and the long sprays, heavy with rain, not including that which led into my chamber. far from being a susceptible one, nor did I ever waved languidly, and the tall spires of grass bent Apparently I did not hit upon the right one, for I lightly fall into the fantastic mood; but I confess before it. came upon a narrow corridor, very dimly lighted that a strange and weird sensation came over me! It was all very beautiful. I inhaled deep through a closed and curtained glass door, Another among these corpses of houses, from which the life draughts of the cool sweet air, and once more felt which I tried, opened into a hall of stateliest di- had evidently long since departed. So far I had the sense of delight that had come over me the mensions, the three windows of which looked out not come upon the slightest trace of active human evening before, as the wild swans swept above me, upon a large park-like garden. From this hall I l life. As it was now, so it must have been for high in air. How often, in after days, have I
thought of that evening and this morning; and a spot upon which the bright sunshine streamed wandered about as before. And one morning she confessed to myself that I then, in spite of all, in through a canopy of leaves, she paused and looked threw herself into this pool, and when they drew spite of my folly and frivolity and misconduct, thoughtfully upward, presenting a picture which her out she was dead. I was then only three years was happy, unspeakably happy-a short lived, is ineffaceably imprinted upon my memory, and old, and I have no recollection of her looks, but treacherous bliss, it is true, but still bliss--a para- even now, after so many years, it comes back to they say she was handsomer than I am. . dise in which we could not stay, from which the me vividly as ever.
I said that could hardly be possible; and I said stern realities of life, and nature itself, expelled us A charming, deep brunette, whose exquisitely it with so much seriousness, for I was thinking of -and yet a paradise!
proportioned form made her stature appear less the poor woman who had drowned herself here, Slowly loitering on, I penetrated deeper into than it really was; and whose somewhat fantastic that Constance again smiled, and said I was certhe green wilderness, for wilderness it was. The dress of a dark green material, trimmed with gold tainly the best creature in the world, and that one path was scarcely distinguishable for the luxuriant braid, admirably accorded with her striking, al- could say anything to me that came into one's weeds and wild overgrowth of bushes-the path most gypsy-like appearance. She carried a small head; and that was what she liked. So I was alwhich in by-gone days had been swept by the guitar suspended around her neck with a red rib- ways to stay with her, she said, and be her faithful trains of ladies fair, and by which the little feet of bon, and her fingers played over its chords like George, and slay all the dragons in the world for children had merrily tripped along. The surface the rays of sunlight over the lightly waving sprays. her sake. Was I agreed to that? Indeed was I, grew hilly; at the end lay the park, and over me Poor Constance! Child of the sun! Why, if it I answered. And again a smile played over her venerable beeches arched their giant boughs. loved thee so well, did it not slay thee now with rosy lips. Again the path descended towards an opening in one of these rays, that I might have made thee a 'You look as if you would. But how did you the forest, and I stood upon the margin of a mod- grave in this lonely forest-glade, far from the really come here, and what does my father want erately large, circular tarn, in whose black water world for which thy heart so passionately yearned with you? He gave me a special charge on your were reflected the great trees that surrounded it -thy poor foolish heart!
account this morning, before he set out: you must nearly to the edge.
I was standing motionless, fascinated by the stand high in his favor, for he does not usually A few steps further, upon a slightly elevated vision, when with a deep sigh she seemed to awake give himself much care for the welfare of other spot, at the foot of a tree whose gigantic size from a reverie, and as she descended the path, her people. And how come you to have a sailor's hat seemed the growth of centuries, was a low bank of eyes and mine met. I noticed that she started on, and a very ugly one at that? I think you said moss; upon the bank lay a book and a glove. I lightly, as one who meets a human being where he you came from school: are there scholars there as looked and listened on all sides : all was still as only expected to see the stem of a tree; but the large as you? I never knew that. How old are death: only the sunlight played through the green surprise was but momentary, and I observed that you really ? sprays, and now and then a leaf fluttered down she regarded me from under her dropped lids, and And so the maiden prattled on--and yet it was upon the dark water of the tarn.
a transient smile played round her lips;-in truth not prattling, for she remained quite serious all the I could not resist an impulse of curiosity: I ap- a beautiful maiden, conscious of her beauty, could time, and it seemed to me that while she talked proached the bank and took up the book. It was scarcely have seen without a smile the amazed her mind was far away; and her dark eyes but Eichendorf's Life of a Good-for-Nothing. I had admiration, bordering on stupefaction, depicted in seldom were turned to me, and then with but a never seen the book, nor even heard of the author; my face.
momentary glance, as though I were no living but could not refrain from smiline as I read the Whether she or I was the first to speak, I do not man, but an inanimate figure: and frequently she
had called me by now remember; and indeed I clearly retain, of put a second question without waiting for an an.
ne o name. But at that time I cared little for books, so this our first conversation, only the memory of the swer to the first. I replaced it, open, as I had found it, and picked tones of her soft and somewhat deep voice, which This suited me well, for thus at least I found up the glove, not, however, without another cau- to my ear was like exquisite music. We must courage to look at her again and again, and at last tious glance aronnd, to see if the owner might not have ascended together from the forest-dell to the scarcely turned my eyes from her. You will fall be a witness of my temerity.
upland, and the sea-breeze must have awakened over there, if you do not take care,' she suddenly divined belonged to Ard me to a clearer consciousness, for I can still see the said, lightly touching my arm with her finger, as thur's beautiful cousin-whose else could it be? calm blue water stretching in boundless expanse we stood on the verge of a cliff. 'It seems you are The inference was simple enough; and, indeed, around us, the white streaks of foam lying among Inot easily made giddu'. the circumstance of a young lady's leaving her the rocks of the beach perhaps a hundred feet be
| 'No indeed,' I answered. glove on the spot where she had been resting, had low, and a pair of large gulls wheeling hither and
a pair of large gulls wheeling hither and 'Let us go up there,' she said.
Let uso nothing in it remarkable. But the fancy of a thither, and then dipping to the water, where they Upon what youth of my temperament is not fettered ; and I gleamed like stars. I see the heather of the upland promont
is not fettered ; and I gleamed like stars. I see the heather of the upland | promontory on which we were, were the ruins of a confess that as I held the little delicate glove in waving in the light breeze, hear the lapping of the castle, overgrown with thick bushes. But a single my hand, and inhaled its faint perfume, my heart surf among the sharp crags of the shore, and amid massive tower, almost entirely covered with ivy, began to beat very unreasonably. I had walked, it all I hear the voice of Constance:
had defied the power of the sea and of time. These times without number, past Emilie Heckepfennig's 'My mother was a Spaniard, as beautiful as the were the ruins of the Zehrenburg, to which Arthur window, in hope of a glance from that charmer; day, and my father, who had gone thither to visit had pointed yesterday, as we passed on the steamand had even worn on my heart, for weeks to a friend he had known in Paris, saw her, and car-er; the same tower on which I was to fix my gaze gether, a ribbon which she once gave me as I was ried her off. The friend was my mother's brother, as I renounced in his favor all pretensions to Emidancing with her; but that ribbon never gave me and he loved my father dearly, but was never will-llie Heckan fannic This I had neesionatal such feelings as did this little glove: there musting that they should marry, because he was a strict to do--yesterday : what was Emilie Heckepfennir have been some enchantment about it.
Catholic, and my father would never consent to to me to-day? I threw myself upon the bank of moss, and in- become a Catholic, but laughed and mocked at all! The beautiful girl had taken her seat upons dulged my fancy in the wild dreams of a youth of religions. So they secretly eloped; but my uncle mossy stone, and looked fixedly into the distance: nineteen; at times laying the glove on the seat pursued and overtook them in the night, upon a I stood beside her, leaning against the old tower, beside me, and then taking it up again to scruti- | lonely heath, and there were wild words between and looked fixedly into her face. nise it with ever closer attention, as though it were them, and then swords were drawn, and my father 'All that once was ours,' she said, slowly sweepthe key to the mystery of my life.
killed the brother of his bride. She did not know ing her hand round the horizon; "and this is all I had been sitting thus perhaps a quarter of an this until long afterwards; for she fainted during that remains.' hour, when I suddenly started up and listened. the fight, and my father contrived to make her. She arose hastily, and began to descend a narAs if from the sky there came a sound of music believe that he had parted from his brother-in-law row path which led, through broom and heather, and singing, faint at first, then louder, and finally in friendship. Then they came to this place; but from the heights down to the forest. I followed. I distinguished a soft female voice, and the tink- my mother always pined for her home, and used We came to the beech-wood again, and back to the ling notes of a guitar. The voice was singing to say that she felt a weight upon her heart, as if a tarn, where her book and guitar still lay upon the what seemed the refrain of a song:
murder were resting on her soul. At last she bank. I was very proud when she gave me both 'All day long the bright sun loves me;
learned, through an accident, the manner of death to carry, saying at the same time that the guita: All day long.'
of her brother, whom she had devotedly loved : had been her mother's, and that she had never 'All day long,' it was repeated, now quite close and so she grew melancholy, and wandered about trusted it to any one before; but now I should siat hand, and I now perceived the singer, who had day and night, asking every one whom she met ways carry this, her greatest treasure, for her, and been concealed from me hitherto by the great which was the road to Spain. My father at last she would teach me to play and to sing, if Istused trunks of the beeches.
had to shut her up; but this she could not endure, , with them. Or perhaps I did not mean to stay She was coming down a path which descended and became quite raving, and tried to take her own with them? rather steeply among the trees, and as she came to life, until they let her go free again, when she I said that I could not tell, but I hoped so; ard