« AnteriorContinuar »
have compelled and received a certain tribute of tunity of "prophesying smooth things' to his virtually succeeded in achieving its independence, admiration, was but natural. English opinion, English hearers—the secret of the ovation which
I could not be suprised or offended if the ex
| pression of such an opinion at such a time had however, and English prejudices upon the subject has been extended to him has been a desire to pay been treated in your work much less kindly than of African slavery, were too deeply rooted to ad- I court to this country. In his person, John Bulil the notices I find at pages 529-533. I must confess mit of any real sympathy with a cause the success has been flattering and feasting the whole Ameri- myself in expressing such an opinion. Yet the
that I was wrong; that I took too much upon of which was supposed to involve the perpetua-can people. Latterly, however, there has been a motive was not bad. My "sympathies’’ were then tion of that system. If during the war English- little cold water thrown on this sort of thing by are
where they had long before been, where they uring the war English- little cold water thrown on this sort of thing by are now-with the whole American people. I, men appeared to desire the independence of the the unfavorable comments which Mr. John- probably like many Europeans, did not understand South, it was because they wished the disruption son's career has elicited from a portion of the
on of the the nature and working of the American Union.
I had imbibed, conscientiously if erroneously, an of the Union, and the humiliation of the North American press. The very papers which are opinion that twenty or twenty-four millions of the They wished to see the Union divided into two rival, most likely to be read and copied from in Eng- North would be happier and would be stronger and, possibly, hostile Republics, or perhaps a half- |land, have found a good deal of fault, very un- without the South than with it, and also that the
(of course assuming that they would hold together) dozen, as Lord Lytton anticipated and predicted, I necessarily and superfluously, we think, with what negroes would be much nearer to emancipation who even went so far as to map out the probable Mr. Johnson has been saying and doing. They system of the Union, which had not at that date
under a Southern government than under the old boundaries of the several future States. In all have more than intimated that he does not repre-|(August, 1862,) been abandoned, and which always this England saw, or fancied she saw, the abase-sent this country fairly, and that so soon as Gen-North at the command of the slavehoiding interest
appeared to me to place the whole power of the ment of a successful rival, and her own profit. This eral Grant goes into office, he will be recalled. of the South. we believe was the amiable and disinterested view Of all this the London Workingmen have obvi
bis the London Workinomen have obvil As far as regards the special or separate interests
of England in the matter, I, differing from many taken in that country of our domestic troubles, ously had an inkling, for straight upon the heel others, had always contended that it was best for and no amount of present protestation to the l of this invitation, which Mr. Johnson had ac- our interests that the Union should be kept entire. contrary can alter our conviction.
cepted, they request permission to withdraw it. Now of all this, we hope it will not seem unSince the war, as we have said, the tone of the To this request Mr. Johnson, of course, acceded, charitable to say that we do not believe one word English people toward this country has greatly taking occasion at the same time to inform the —and that we do not suppose there is anybody changed. The great desire at present seems to London Workingmen that they had done a very in America who does. We are much more inbe to efface all unpleasant recollections, to make "ungentlemanly thing.” To this extreme of clined to believe plain-spoken Mr. Roebuck, who all possible amends for former expressions of ill-flunkeyism has the desire not to offend the great tells us that he did desire to see the Union diswill or occasions of offence, and to inducc Ameri- American people—who are supposed to be dis- solved and why—and that he is of the same cans generally to believe that in England we pleased with the course of their Minister abroad opinion still, and moreover that the opinion was have the very best of friends. There is very -led a portion of the magnanimous British shared by English statesmen of all classes-even little confidence to be placed in this sort of inter- public.
by those of opposite politics to Mr. Roebuck--for national affection. If individual men are selfish, The other illustration in point is furnished by a example, Lord Palmerston, whose conversations communities and nations are infinitely more so. letter from Mr. Gladstone, the new British and expressions on this head Mr. Roebuck gave Interest rather than feeling shapes their policy. Premier, to Mr. C. Edwards Lester, the American to the world not three months ago. But no Interest for the most part gives tone and color author of a book called The Glory and the Shame sooner did Mr. Roebuck open his mouth to tell to their feelings. It is doubtless England's in- of England, more popular with school-boys taking the truth-than there was a general outcry to terest, and she understands it, to cultivate friendly their first lessons in patriotism, than with any drown his voice. Mr. Roebuck is the enfant terrelations with the United States. It is the inter- more adult class of readers or thinkers. In this rible apparently of English politics. As at Shefest of this country that such relations should be letter Mr. Gladstone behaves very much like the field, upon the occasion of the Cutler's Feast, maintained. Here is a solid foundation for peace London Workingmen; having heretofore com- there is a general disposition to disavow him and
-so long as our interests remain identical. It is mitted himself to opinions which are unpopular his blunt, homely utterances."Pray, Mr. Johnimpossible in fact to conceive of any change in in this country, he begs leave to take it all back. son, don't mind what he says-he is a rude felthe state of affairs which would make a war be- The letter was written some eighteen months ago, low-shall we kick him for you?'' said the British tween the two countries, allied by so many ties, but has only recently, we believe, found its way press and people in chorus the day after the other than the direst of calamities the most into print, borrowing new interest from the official Sheffield dinner. And accordingly, at the late painful of necessities. Why not rely upon this position which Mr. Gladstone now holds. We election, Mr. Roebuck has been left out in the best of guarantees for a continuance of friendly have not seen the last edition of Mr. Lester's cold-a sacrifice, we suppose, offered by the British relations ? Why resort to fulsome flattery and book. Mr. Gladstone, it appears, has both seen Lion to the American Eagle. Nevertheless, we professions of regard the very extravagance of and read it-having been presented with a copy had much sooner believe and trust Mr. Roebuck which begets suspicion, or to a species of national by the author. Moreover, being in an humble than Mr. Gladstone. toady ism which is really offensive? It is almost and teachable frame of mind, Mr. Gladstone has ludicrous—the excessive respect with which Eng- profited by the reading. He takes both Mr. Les
A PROMISED REFORM. land now treats this country. Even Punch no ter's strictures upon his country, and his compli
We recently took occasion to refer to our Civil longer ventures to poke fun at his Transatlantic ments to himself, most kindly. He says: Service, as being less faithfully performed, and. cousins, and the Saturday Reviler, as it is some- All such criticisms should help every English-| times called, has no lash for the peculiarities of
man, individually, who is called upon to discharge Benerally speaking, by more unit and incompetent
unarities of public duties, informing a strong and earnest agents, than under any other Government in the Brother Jonathan. Like the present Emperor resolution to discharge them with the aid of the civilized world. The few salient views we then Napoleon equally at one time favorite huit for Almighty to the best of his feeble powers. For
\this help I, on my own part, sincerely thank you. expressed could very readily be enlarged into an English satirists and caricaturists, we have grown I must also thank you for the favorable and argument, so thoroughly sustained by facts and too powerful to be laughed at. One must speak friendly tone of all such notices as I have met in
the work. They are much beyond my desert.
uch beyond my desert. | illustrations, that it would rise to the dignity of a respectfully of a nation of forty millions, and
| It is not, however, on this part of the letter demonstration. We do not propose to enter upon which has given evidence of so much vitality and
that we wish to comment, nor even on the fact a farther discussion of the subject. We simply power.
that Mr. Gladstone should have written such a desire to express the gratification with which all Two curious illustrations of this species of flun- lletter to Mr. Lester at all-which some people reflecting people accept the promise-apparently keyism on the part of our kinsmen have been may consider as being as much infra dig, as Mr. authentic—that Gener
verdy Johnson was lately Johnson's letter to the Workingmen-and Mr. the theory that the Civil Service of the Governa deputation of London Lester himself as little entitled to such notice as, ment should be organised, as nearly as may be,
een very apparent all for example--George Francis Train. The passage upon the plan of the naval and military services.
ubt there is a very good which merits particular attention is the following: His idea is understood to be that its officials feeling personally entertained towards Mr. John-| With respect
nnel With respect to the opinion I publicly expressed should enter upon the duties of its lower grades son, who on his part has certainly lost no oppor-lat a period during the war, that the South had when young, be promoted-exceptionally, for extraordinary efficiency and merit-but regularly tions of international law, that they will be com- its use be limited by the measure of their enterand habitually according to seniority, if found petent to serve in any position to which they may prise? Shall its employment be confined to cer. worthy by a board of competent examiners. It is be assigned, with usefulness and distinction. tain classes only, and be denied to the masses of probable that General Grant has it in his power
the community ? In other words, is it not an to initiate this needed reform more effectually than THE POSTAL TELEGRAPH. agency so indispensable to all the necessities and any Chief Magistrate who may succeed him. He A wonderful invention, the idea of which was
requirements of trade, commerce, and social inis no politician in the sense that a long career of first conceived in 1832, during the long and mo
| tercommunication, that the Government, as the public civil service has entailed upon him associa-notonous passage of a sailing ship from Havre to :
to agent of society, should guide and control it, as tions which are binding and obligations that can- New York, was partially shown to be practicable
|it does all other interests that are general and not be broken. In fact, his acceptance of the by means of some rude and incomplete experi
belong to the whole people? These questions Chicago nomination upon his own terms-whatwhat,ments in 1835. It was only after the succeeding a
are now presented with that directness which deever they may prove to be-his closed tips, sealed tips, sealed eight years of constant and unsuccessful applica
mands their determination. They have ceased to bolesome silence during the canvass, and his tion, that its inventor and his associates obtained
be subjects of mere abstract discussion. They want of identity with party wire-workers and man- for it that consideration from Congress which led
och led are already practical, and must be met and decided agers, all combine to leave him entirely unpledged to the experiment which demonstrated to the
ho like all other real and practical questions which to the long train of partisan followers and time- world that a new element of human power and Couce
concern the interests of every-day life. servers—unless, perhaps, we may except that
|progress had been discovered. On the 21st of It cannot be doubted that the Post Office and member of the Washburne family, whose good
February, 1843, on motion of Mr. Kennedy, of the Telegraph bear the same relation to the com
rom Maryland, the House of Representatives pro-munity as agents of intercommunication. Their the exigencies of a mission to Paraguay.
It is ceeded to the consideration of
they are productive equally probable that the President elect has little priated thirty thousand dollars to test the merits of like results. If, at the time the Federal Con
1 01 paper- of Morse's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, which stitution was adopted, the means of telegraphic collared carpet-baggers who will throng to Wash
to wash sum was expended in the construction of the communication had been discovered, no one will
in the original line between Washington and Baltimore. contend that the power conferred upon Congress, wild hunt after office. To get rid of this horde, This small subsidy was granted grudgingly, a barel''to establish post omces and post he has intimated that the better mode will be to maiority in Congress comprehending but dimly not have been enlarged so a fill the Executive Departments with a corps of the wonderful results which were promised, while control over the telegraph. All the reasoning tried and experienced officials, and make them, the minority, ignorant and incredulous, nearly which der
the minority, ignorant and incredulous, nearly which determined the grant of power, in the one hereafter, as exclusive and difficult of access as succeed
access as succeeded by ridicule and arguments of ill-timed instance, would have applied with equal force to West Point and Annapolis. economy, in securing its defeat.
the other. The "power," says the Federalist, In this way we may prevent the quadrennial de- At this day, when in the United States a single of establishing post roads must, in every view, scent of hungry office-seekers upon Washing- corporation owns as many miles of telegraphic be a harmless power; and may, perhaps, by ju. ton; and while the country will escape the peri- wire as there were dollars appropriated to test the dicious management, become productive of great odical repetition of a national nuisance, many an infant invention of Professor Morse—when intel- public convenience. Nothing which tends to faaspiring provincial may learn that the true duty ligence from the Pacific is flashed in an instant to cilitate the intercourse between the States can be of patriotism is found in the cultivation of the the Atlantic coast-when submarine cables con- deemed unworthy of the public care." The free soil he loves so well. We must repeat, how-nect continents separated by many thousand miles guarded caution and hesitation with which the ever, our hope that the reform will not stop at of stormy seas-when the news of the morning importance of postal communication was thus this point. Let a sharp pen be run through the in Europe and Asia shapes the transactions of the avowed, sound strangely at the present day, when "Diplomatic List.” Let not only gentlemen, but day in the marts of American trade-When, in a cheap postage and the most unlimited mail facili educated gentlemen--speaking the language of word, throughout the whole circle of nations, ties are deemed actual necessities. And yet, the countries to which they are accredited-fami- there is a constant and instantaneous interchange when a new power has been discovered—a mode liar with all the proprieties and requirements of of information by which each learns the contem- | by which communication can be made instanta society-and trained in diplomacy-be selected to poraneous history of the other, as each occurring neous—there are those who would repeat to fill and to grace our embassies abroad. We want event is placed upon the record it is almost im- doubtful estimates of its utility, forgetting th
or Jefferson Bricks to possible to realise that these wonders have been but a few years hence the world will wonder stand before foreign nations as true types of Amer- accomplished in our own generation.
their hesitation, as we now smile at the caution of ican breeding. The Envoy who thrust himself | But our purpose is not to trace the origin and our fathers. into a royal presence, with unlatched and unpol-growth of the Telegraph, to estimate the changes It can, therefore, need no argument to sa ished shoes, and rudely sat upon the seat devoted by it has wrought, the impulses it has given to civili- that the propositions now pending before ceremony to majesty alone-may by snch guacherie zation and progress, or to conjecture the extent of gress, to place the telegraph under the control have kindled the admiration of Western editors, I that loss which the world would have sustained the Post Office Department, are not to be attectea but certainly added nothing to his capacity for had doubt and incredulity been permitted to con- by any suggestion of a want of Constitt negotiation or skill in successful diplomacy. sign its discovery to oblivion. It is enough to power. They are to be decided by those come
We will be among the first to praise General say that, within the past quarter of a century, it erations of propriety and expediency which Grant's administration, if it will save the country has become a recognised and established instru- trol all questions of practical legislation; an from the renewal of the disgrace which our rep-ment of human power. It is interwoven with all the indications of public opinion in regaru u resentatives abroad have so often inflicted upon the affairs of government, all the interests of com- these measures clearly point to their early det the character of its society and the refinement of merce-indeed, with every relation of civilised mination, a brief statement of some of the its civilization. The true avenue to reform, in life. It is the power which gives impetus to leading features will not be unacceptable to our this particular, lies, we think, in the special edu- events and secures the immediate accomplishment readers. cation of our diplomats. Let the missions of the of results—and, therefore, is the main source of As we understand it, there are competing pa higher class—Paris, London, Vienna and St. Pe- the rapid progress and development which, as we sitions. One assumes that the Telegraph 15 tersburg—be made schools for the education of habitually boast, distinguish the present era. another and auxiliary means of performin young men who, in addition to the necessary sec- The material and important relation borne by offices of the mail system; that the rear retaries and subordinates, will occupy the position the telegraph to society, in all its varied interests, reliable intercourse which the latter offers to of unpaid attachés. Diplomacy will become the has suggested a subject which is now attracting who are content with its necessary delays, : profession of most of them; they will become fa- no little public consideration. By whom shall a secured to all who need the more immed miliar with all its science and details; and will power like this be controlled ? Shall it be left in munication afforded by the former; tha acquire such practical knowledge upon all ques- the hands of individuals and corporations? Shalll interests and conveniences of society requ
ormer; that as the the Post Office shall be under the exclusive con- by which the people may be protected against If these statements be true-and the fact that trol of Government, so those interests demand the monopolies which control so powerful anthough often published they never have been dethat it shall also control the Telegraph; that the agency and limit its benefits to those only who nied is sufficient warrant of their accuracy—they facilities for the employment of both agencies are engaged in the more important transactions of need no word of comment. They sufficiently shall be alike within the reach of the whole people; business.
answer the question whether the establishment of and, that, as cheap postage has proved the source The tendency of public sentiment is undoubt- a Government system of postal telegraphy would of universal benefit to the country, cheap tele- edly such that, at no distant day, it will demand entail an additional burden upon the Treasury. graphing will immeasurably add to and increase that the Telegraph be made as positive a In fact, they suggest another inquiry-whether the advantages which result from unrestricted in- public institution as the Post Office is now. It such a system might not add largely to the public tercommunication between its different sections. will scarcely be content with the continued pay- revenue after defraying the expenses of its own In fact, it is proposed to make the telegraph as ment of rates which are deemed everywhere ex- administration. accessible to every one, who requires immediate clusive and oppressive; and we hazard nothing in transmission of information, as the mail is now asserting that some change and reform will be | THEATRICAL-THE FLORENCES. to the whole community; and to this end, a sys- effected. Indeed, the truth of this assertion is It is the saving of a very wood as well as a very tem is to be organised which shall perform, by the shown by the character of the other propositions wise man--that one of the first requisites of agency of electro-magnetism, precisely that public which have been presented in competition with
amusements is that they should be amusing." service which has been so long accomplished by that to which we have referred.
ed. They all seem. The need of amusement itself is a question no
They all seem Th -means of railroads and post-routes. It is unne- to be based upon a recognition of the necessity of more to be
the necessity of more to be debated than the need of food, of cessary to state the details of this scheme. They, yielding something to the popular demand. Some
id. Some sleep, of fresh air, or exercise. It is a natural of course, would have to be matured with great of them look to the incorporation of new compa
compa want, greatly increased in our age by our habits care. But a sufficient idea of their nature will be nies under the patronage of Government, which of life, and the constant strain of body and mind derived from a reference to the system of postal shall compete with those now in existence. Others
in existence. Others which is the normal state of existence with most
hi telegraphy which was established in Belgium as propose contracts to be made by the Post Office of us
stomce of us—who live and toil in this working-day far back as 1850, when the private telegraph lines Department with the present corporations for the
of the world. Of amusements that are really of the were first purchased by the government and con-performance of stipulated services--but all com
- amusing sort, we have not often a better illustrasolidated with its postal system. The rates then | bine in opposition to the system which shall con- tion afforded than is furnished by the performprescribed, after several intermediate reductions, solidate under one administration both the postal
ances of Mr. and Mrs. Florence, now playing at were reduced in 1865 to one-third of the amount and telegraphic agencies—a system which has
has the Holliday St. Theatre. Their plays are light originally charged. The effect, as shown in 1867, been, we are inclined to think, sufficiently tested
---simple--but exceedingly laughable. We do was an increase of nearly ten-fold in the number by experience in Europe to justify its adoption in
in not mean laughable as are the antics or jests of of messages sent and a consequent increase in the this country.
a clown, than which we know few things more revenue received, which resulted in a large net! Whether such a system can be made self-sus
utterly dreary and melancholy. True, Mr. and profit to the government. The advantages of a taining and its facilities be placed within the reach
Mrs. Florence do not stand particularly upon the compact kingdom, like Belgium, for a favorable of the whole community by the cheapness of its
dignity of their art, nor are they apparently very test of the experiment, are certainly very great; rates, is a question that we have not the space to
much concerned about the prospects of the Legithow far they may surpass those offered in this discuss at present. The example of Belgium, to
imate Drama. They act—they impersonate Yancountry is scarcely a question of practical impor- which we have alluded, shows that there the re
kee and Irish characters—they mimic the brogue tance, since the habits and pursuits of our people duction of charges for transmitting messages has
and peculiarities of both--they sing--they dance render them indifferent to material obstacles or been attended by the most successful results.
—they are clever and absurd to a degree. Were difficulties in the accomplishment of works of en-And if the enormous dividends derived in this
it a different, and as some might say—a higher terprise. Upon this point the following remarks country from investments in telegraphic stocks be
style of performance-it would not be half so of Mr. Hubbard, of Boston---so generally known taken as a criterion, there seems to be no reason
S"" pupusan. as an earnest advocate of postal telegraphy-will/to doubt that the incorporation of the telegraph "
with the postal system would result in revenues strike the reader as certainly true:
The fact is, the decay of the Legitimate Drama
has, in our judgment, been the subject of much This country is unsurpassed in the advantages it large enough to make both agencies self-supportpossesses for the successful development of the ing. The following extract contains statements
useless lamentation. As well lament the decay of telegraph. The climate, character and habits of
stage-coaches, superseded by steam and the telethe people, the various centres of business, and which are almost starting. Speaking of the the vast extent of territory, combine to give it Western Union Telegraph Company, the Do
graph. The age in this respect, as in others, has this superiority. The climate is generally dry, laminio
not receded, but gone forward. We are aware and the telegraph is operated with greater facility than in most countries in Europe. The character! Commencing with a nominal capital of 8360.000. I that to those who may mentally contrast Bourciand habits of the people demand dispatch, while at $100 per share, upon which the subscribers paid cault with Shakspeare-the Black Crooke with economy, both in business and domestic life, is only $25, its official report, January 1, 1868, de- Midsummer Nights' Dream-Offenbach with less practiced here than abroad. It possesses one clares its capital to be over $41,000,000. great monetary capital - New York-and ono civill. By stock bonuses and purchases of other lines, Mozart-or any of the popular actors and accapital-Washington-with smaller State capitals. its modest capital of $360,000 had reached, on the tresses of our day-for example, Mr. and Mrs. There are great centres for different kinds of busi- 1st of January, 1863, $3,000,000. At this interest
Florence-with the Garricks, the Keans and Maness--New York for foreign commerce and money; ing period of the company's history each original Boston for New England manufactures ; Chicago, share had gone to seed and produced a crop of creadys, even of a generation gone-our propo. St. Louis, and Toledo for grain; Cincinnati and shares, each one of which was saleable at the Newsition will
e at the New sition will savor somewhat of the boldness of a Chicago for pork and beef; New Orleans and other York Stock Board at $240. Now mark its wonSouthern cities for cotton. Each of these centres derful course:
paradox. We adhere to it all the same. Moreregulates the price of its own staple; each is a March 2, 1863.-It was watered by exactly
over, we are persuaded that it is true. The de
doubling the number of shares by an issue commercial monetary centre for its own section; to its stockholders of another...................... $3,000,000 cline in the art of acting, and in the art of draand each has communication with the other cen- May 28, 1864.-It was further increased by tres relating to its staple product. In addition, l. purchase and extension of lines................ 5,000,000/ matic composition, has of late proved a fruitful the great distances which separate the various sec- May 28, 1864.--Same time and year, the whole
theme of discussion, not only in America but tions of the country afford facilities for sending
again doubled by issue to stock holders of messages by night as well as by day, and yet an
Europe. By some, the present taste for burticipate the mail by many hours.
This last issue had the effect of reducing the lesque, for scenic effects, for sensational dramas, If there be, then, the two facts admitted that value of the stock to $117 per share.
In January, 1866, the stock had advanced to $161 for the music of Offenbach in preference to that this country is particularly adapted to the estab- per share. At some period, or at different periods of Rossini or of Weber, has been attributed lishment of a postal telegraph; and that Rowland between this date and January 1, 1868, the stock merely to some stra
was further expanded $19,000,000 more, making its
1868, the stock merely to some strange aberration of the timesHill's theory of the effects of cheap postage will
present enormous capital. And the company, in to a passing whim or fancy which, in turn, will apply with equal force to a reduction in the cost addition to this, contracted a debt of some $5,000,- give place to a healthier, sounder and purer taste.
11000 in its efforts to construct the Russian American of telegraphing, there seems to be no practical lin practical line, which proved a total loss, in consequence of
Others-among them a certain learned Herr Marr, argument against the adoption of some system the success of the Atlantic cable.
of Berlin, who has written learnedly, as German
of its stock, amounting to $11.000.000, was
an extra gift of $11,000.000......
critics usually do write, upon the subject-see in truth or fact in history or in morals, underlying of the ignorance and bigotry of fogyism for all the present style of theatrical performances the almost everything they wrote. In this respect time. Very few engineers of that day, in spite of evidence that the stage, having subserved its pur- we agree with the Berlin critic that the stage has
all that had been done by Stephenson and his co
adjutors, believed in the possibility of the loco. pose in the education and amusement of man- outlived its usefulness. We agree, too, that the
motive-scarcely any one among them was to be kind, is destined soon to disappear altogether. day will come, if it has not been reached already, to This last theory we think singularly unsupported when Shakspeare will be more frequently read
and power. Even Mr. Nicholas Wood, as late as by facts. For the facts are that never before, in and studied in the closet than performed upon the 1825, declared himself as follows though in con modern times, have theatres been so generally stage. Yet, the result that Herr Marr deduces eral, he was a believer in the utility of the ms. frequented by all classes-such sums of money does not follow. Because the stage ceases to chine: “It is far from my wish," said he, "to prospent upon theatrical performances—the services teach, it does not follow that it cannot amuse.
not follow that it cannot amuse. mulgate to the world the ridiculous expectations of the actor, the singer, the dramatist, and the Here, we take it, is the real point of divergence
or professions of the enthusiastic speculist will be composer held in such request, or so munificently between the ancient and the modern stage. The
realized, and that we shall see engines travelling
at the rate of twelve, sixteen, eighteen or twenty rewarded, or their respective professions held in actor now has a different province to fill-another miles, equal social esteem. Neither do we subscribe to use to subserve. We go to the theatre no longer to ward the general adoption and improveme the opinion that the supposed signs of decadence learn, but to laugh-at least to be entertained. the promulgation of such nonsense." Sir John in theatrical entertainments are merely passing or Hence, the demand in our day for grand perform- Barrow, (Jan. 10, 1825,) one of the subscribers to temporary. We do not regard them as signs of ances which shall rather please the eye and fill the new road, wanted the locomotive kept in the decadence at all, but rather as the indications of the imagination than touch the feelings or kindle background before Parliament when application a radical revolution which the stage is undergoing, I thought. It is the want of a serious, busy, over- / was made for a charter. He was afraid of the opand which is necessary to adapt it to the wants of worked age. The people who go to the theatre position of the proprietors of coaches, post-chaises, the present age.
now-a-days go there from their business, their
:innkeepers, &c. He wanted the speed of the en
gine to be represented as low as five miles an hour We live in the age of Printing, of Books and of work and their cares--not from loitering about he
rinting, of Books and of work and their cares not from loitering about before the Parliamentary Committee. When Newspapers, and of cheap Lectures. The time the Agora or the Forum, in the pride of free Stephen
l'orum, in the pride of free Stephenson stated confidently his ability to run has passed when the stage was needed as a vehicle and lazy citizenship, or from rufiling in the coffee- his engines at twenty miles an hour to the lawyer of popular instruction, when the office of the houses in the splendor of velvet cloak and doublet. of the Company, whose assistance was relied upon dramatist was to perpetuate the history of a na- Consequently, they demand everything which to push the scheme through Parliament, Mr. tion, the traditions of its religion, the legendary shall amuse and entertain—they want comfortable, Brougham told him that if he didn't confine bis
views to a reasonable speed he would "inevitably stories of its founders and heroes. In the Middle luxurious theatres, easy seats, good attendance,
| damn the whole thing, and be regarded himself as Ages, Mysteries, which were nothing more than showy dressing, and effects which appeal rather
| only fit for Bedlam." The Quarterly Review, in sacred plays, performed under the direction of to the senses than to the mind, and deal more in
the course of an article supporting the railway, the clergy, and often within the consecrated walls the comic element than in the pathetic. Indeed, I scouted the idea of travelling at a speed "greater of churches, were meant to represent vividly to burlesque pleases better now than mere comedy-than eight or nine miles an hour." "What can the eye, and so impress upon the mind, the lessons the Opera bouffe than the Opera comique. People be more palpably absurd and ridieulous," said the of religious truth which otherwise a people that do not even care much to go straining after a pun, reviewer, “than the prospect held out of locomocould not read might have been slow to learn, or a play upon words, or a clever but somewhat tives traveling twice as fast as stage coaches! We and a clergy that was often hardly less ignorant. J obscure conceit. They want everything intelligi- would as soon expect the people of Woolwich w might have found it difficult to teach. Like the ble, literal, matter-of-fact-something that they suffer themselves to be fired off upon one of our
greve's ricochet rockets, as trust themselves to the
mercy of a machine going at that rate. We will these Miracle or Mystery plays of our forefathers ble degree of mental exertion—through the lenses back old Father Tha were designed for the edification and instruction of a lorgnette. It is to this point that theatrical Railway for any sum. We trust Parliament wille of the unlearned folk. So in the yet elder age of performances, all the world over, are rapidly tend- in all railways it may sanction, limit the spetu. Grecian civilization. Æschylus and Sophocles and ing. The present state of the Drama may there- eight or nine miles an hour, which, we entity Euripides served to keep alive by their works, fore be regarded in a measure as a transition agree with Mr. Sylvester, is as great as can be which were performed commonly at the public state. Whether in its new phase, the theatre is ventured on with safety."
The contest before Parliament, on account of expense, under the direction of the magistracy, slikely soon to go out of fashion-or whether, re
this terrible machine, was hot and heavy, ale sanctioned by the auspices of religion, and in the lieved of certain objectionable features, the stage
now-a-days appears extremely amusing. presence of whole communities—the example of will subserve a less useful purpose hereafter than
| Adam, advocate for the line, opened his case o the Heroes, the history of the Gods, the tragic heretofore, are questions which we leave our read-1 referring to the success of the Killingworth ra annals of the great ancestral families, the woes of ers to decide for themselves. Meantime, those | way and locomotives: “None of the tremendo the Atridæ, of Ædipus, of Orestes, the sorrows who had rather be amused than horrified or consequences," he observed, "have ensued from of the house of Priam, and of the daughter of startled—who can dispense with any profound the use of steam in land carriages that have be Agamemnon. So among the highly intelligent lessons provided they can enjoy a hearty laugh-stated. The horses have not started, north but unlettered democracy of Athens, comedy will not reject such entertainment as the pleasant ceased to give their milk;
carried at the sight of these things going forwa filled the place which, in a later age, Fletcher of couple now playing at the Holliday Street can
at the rate of four and a half miles an hour. Saltoun ascribed to the ballads of a nation, and afford them.
Up to the time that Stephenson was brought be served as a school alike of popular manners and STEAM--THE LOCOMOTIVE-GEORGE
fore the House of Commons' Committee relat of public opinion. Thus Aristophanes in The
to the Manchester railway, and his locomoti Knights levelled the shafts of satire against the
he had constructed (March, 1825,) fifty-five stes
V.-Concluded. demagogues, which inc clouds he armed with
engines, of which fifteen were locomotives. Ver
The struggle for the Liverpool and Manchestertheless, the Committee were not, it appea such fatal effect against the sophists. With the Railway, and for the introduction of the locomo-satisfied, from his testimony upon the c Revival of Letters men began by copying classi- tive thereon, was the crowning triumph of George of this much dreaded machine, that se cal models in dramatic as in all other sorts of Stephenson's life. It extended virtually from was in full possession of his senses. He literary composition. The effects of this imita- 1821 to 1829-from its inception until its comple-perintended the laying down of nine railwa tion survived as late as the age of Corneille and tion, and the result not only laid broad and deep tram-ways; yet he was subjected to the su Racine. The bolder, freer genius of Shakspeare the foundation of its projector's private fortune, interruptions, and ridicule of the opponents and the Elizabethan dramatists struck out into a
but as an event it forms the substantial historical Manchester railway, and even of the Co
| beginning of the entire railway system. The per- some of whom shook their heads and wr broader field of license, which would have shocked |
sistent prejudice with which the employment of doubts as to his sanity when he energe the ancient critics; yet still we find the idea of in- the locomotive upon this line was met-indeed the avowed that he could make a locomotiv struction of some sort-the embodiment and rep- public and parliamentary opposition to the con- rate of twelve miles an hour ! resentation by means of dramatic art of some struction of the road itself—are amusing examples There were objections as trivial urged **
not, it appears, quite upon the capacities
nine railways and
en of the Committer, eads and whispered
make a locomotive go at the
48 trivial urged against
the passage of the charter as that replied to by Mr. could behold them without dismay. Iron would James contrived a boiler composed of a series of Adam-that the locomotive would frighten all the be raised 100 per cent., or more probably exhausted annular wrought-iron tubes, placed side by side horses to death on the highways, the cattle in the altogether! It would be the greatest nuisance, and bolted together, so as to form by their union a fields, and the horses at the plow. Twelve miles the most complete disturbance of quiet and com- long cylindrical boiler. The fire played round an hour was so unfortunate an assertion for the fort in all parts of the kingdom that the ingenuity the tubes which contained the water. In 1826 friends of the measure that they proceeded to cor- of man could invent!” The bill, however, passed; James Neville took out a patent for a boiler with rect Stephenson's testimony as quickly as possi- but the cost of obtaining it was £27,000!
vertical tubes, surrounded by water, through ble after it was given by a cross-examination. Mr. At this time (1824) Stephenson's engine-works which the heated air of the furnace passed. Mr. Nicholas Wood, already quoted, has since stated was in full blast at Newcastle; but it did not pay. Galdsworthy Gurney and Messrs. Summers and that "I believe it would have cost the company The real battle of the loc
cost the company The real battle of the locomotive had yet to be Algee adopted similar contrivances, though with their bill if he had gone beyond eight or nine fought. Prejudice against its use had even in a difference in each case of its manner of applicamiles an hour. If he had stated his intention of creased since the first contest before Parliament tion. In 1829 George Stephenson sent two engines going twelve or fifteen miles an hour, not a single had taken place. Fixed engines had many advo-to France, made at the Newcastle works, in the person (including Mr. Wood himself, doubtless,) cates; and there was a strong preference for horse boilers of which small tubes were introduced with would have believed it to be practicable." One haulage. The Newcastle and Carlisle Railway the object of increasing their evaporating power. of the members of the Committeo put the follow-|Act was conceded in 1829, on the express con- The heating surface was considerably increased, ing case: "Suppose now one of these engines to be dition that it should not be worked by locomotives, but the ornedient was
comotives, but the expedient was not successful, for the tubes going on a railroad at the rate of nine or ten miles
but horses only. The most celebrated engineers becoming furred with deposit, shortly burned out an hour, and that a cow were to stray upon the objected to its use. The directors were not yet and had to be
ere to stray upon the objected to its use. The directors were not yet and had to be removed. M. Seguin, engineer of line and set in the way of the engine would not prepared to yield to the advice of Stephenson; but the railway, however, is said to have adopted the that, think you, bea very awkward circumstance?" being urged to try the experiment before deciding plan of horizontal tubes, for which he took out a “ Yes," replied Stephenson, with a smile, “very finally against it, in their report
ile "very finally against it, in their report of the 27th of French patent. But it was reserved for Stephenawkward for the coo." Another asked if ani- March, 1828, they state after due consideration son to adapt this idea in more perfect and submals would not be very much frightened by the they had authorized the engineer "to prepare a stantial form. Mr. Henry Booth, Secretary of engine passing at night, especially by the glare of locomotive engine, which, from the nature of its the Liverpool and Manchester line, suggested to a red-hot chimney ? " But how would they know construction, and from experiments already made, Stephenson the introduction of horizontal tubes it was not painted ?" replied the witness. Mr. he is of the opinion will be effective for the pur-linto the engine which he and his son had set about Sergeant Spankie, in summing up the case for the poses of the Company without proving an annoy- to construct. Booth says in reference to the merit opponents of the bill, said: “My learned friend ance to the public." The locomotive thus author- of priority in this invention: “When the consays that they would go at the rate of twelve miles ized was put upon the line for construction pur- ditions for trial." (to which we have referred.). an hour, with the devil in the form of a locomotive poses in 1829. But the day was not yet won. On were published, I communicated my multitubular
horse and an hon. I the Stockton and Darlington line and the Hetton | boiler to Mr. Stephenson, and proposed to him
un tha and Killing worth tram-ways locomotives in opera- | that we should jointly construct an engine and fires and keep it at full speed. * * #
eed. *** Locomo- tion were visited and inspected by the manage-compete for the prize. Mr. Stephenson approved
Locomo-tion were visited and inspected by the manage-compete f tives are operated on by the weather. You are ment; but their testimony as to the relative merits the plann
he weather. You are ment; but their testimony as to the relative merits the plan and agreed to my proposal. He settled told they are affected by rain: but the wind wil of fixed machinery and locomotives was so con-Itha moda in which the
omotives was so con- the mode in which the fire-box and tubes were to affect them; any gale of wind which would affect flicting that it was at length decided to submit thelba
th decided to submit the be mutually arranged and cemented, and the enthe traffic on the Mersey would render it impossi. question to two experienced engineers. These re-Igine was constructed at the works of Messrs. R. ble to set off a locomotive engine either by pokingported finally in favor of fixed machinery! Ste-Stepenson & Co., Newcastle-upon-Tyne." the fire or keeping up the pressure of steam till the phenson stood alone. At length, however, urged "I am ignorant of M. Seguin's proceedings in boiler was ready to burst." Mr. Palmer, C. E., / by the persistent arguments of the engineer, the France; but I claim to be the inventor in England, gave evidence to prove that resistance to a moving directors determined to offer a prize of £500 for a and feel warranted in stating, without reservation, body going under four and a quarter miles an locomotive, so as to bring the question fairly to a that until I named m
locomotive, so as to bring the question fairly to a that until I named my plan to Mr. Stephenson, hour was less upon a canal than upon a railroad. Itest and open it to competition. This was the be- with a view to compete for the prize at Rainhill, Other witnesses were produced to prove that loco-ginning of the end of the contest. George and it had not been tried and was not known in this motives would raise the price of coal all over the his son Robert immediately began to discuss plans country." Under circumstances related in the kingdom; that the value of real estate would be for a new machine. One of the most important foregoing, therefore, Stephenson began the conlowered: that the smoke and fire of the locomo-considerations in the new engine were the arrange-struction of the famous Rocket, an engine tives would be an “intolerable nuisance." Ste-ment of the boiler and the extension of its heating which must be regarded as the first historical perphenson himself was terribly abused by the surface to enable steam enough to be raised rapidly | fection of the locomotive. Mr. Booth's multitucounsel for the opposition-stigmatized by them and continuously for the purpose of maintaining bular boiler would have been entirely useless withas an ignoramus, a fool and a maniac. So the high rates of speed--the effect of high-pressure out Stephenson's steam-blast, which has already first bill for the Liverpool and Manchester railway engines being ascertained to depend mainly upon been explained. Its adaptation finally was the was lost.
the quantity of steam which the boiler can gen- subject of considerable trial and experiment, conIn their second application the directors intima-erate and upon its degree of elasticity when pro- ducted jointly by the labors of the elder Stephented in their prospectus that, "as a guarantee of duced. The quantity of steam so generated, it son and his son. It is not necessary to detail these; their good faith toward the public''-referring to will be obvious, must chiefly depend upon the the essential parts, improvements and principles of the locomotive-"they will not require any clause quantity of fuel consumed in the furnace, and by the locomotive engine required to run at high empowering them to use it; or they will submit to necessary consequence upon the high rate of tem- speed, were all at hand in theory and partially in such restrictions in the employment of it as Par- perature maintained there. These principles were practice, at the time of the construction of the liament may impose for the satisfaction and ample for the most part established by Watt; though Rocket; and they were all admirably adjusted protection both of proprietors on the line of the their practical application was left to Stephenson and adapted in that machine. When it was finroad and of the public at large." On the third and his cotemporaries. . In a letter to Boulton, ished it took its trial trips upon the Killingworth reading of the bill an animated discussion took dated Aug. 27, 1784, Watt had said, “Perhaps some Railway. The new boiler arrangement was found place in the House of Commons, in which the means may be hit upon to make the boiler cylin- perfectly successful. The steam was raised, and present Earl of Derby, then Lord Stanley, moved drical with a number of tubes passing through, in quantity, which then appegred marvelous. that the bill be read that day six months. He en- I like the organ-pipe condenser, whereby it might On the day appointed for the competition, four deavored to prove that the journey from Man- be thinner and lighter, but I fear this would be engines were entered. A great assemblage was chester to Liverpool would take ten hours, asserted too subject to accidents," an exhibition of the per-present. The names of the engines entered were: that the line could be worked as well by horses as sonal dread Watt had of high pressure. In 1803 Braithwaite & Ericsson's Novelty, Timothy Hackby the locomotive, and called upon the House to Woolf, a Cornish engineer, patented a boiler with worth's Sansparicl, and Mr. Burstall's Perseverstop the bill "and prevent this mad, extravagant tubes, with the same object of increasing the heat-ance, besides the Rocket. These were the only speculation from being carried into effect." Sir ing surface. The water was inside the tubes and four brought to the test appointed out of many Isaac Coffin, who seconded the motion of Lord the fire of the boiler outside. In 1815 Trevithick constructed in various parts of the kingdom, which Stanley, asked: "Was the House aware of the invented his light high-pressure boiler for portable could not be satisfactorily completed by the day smoke and noise, the hiss and the whirl which lo- purposes, in which to "expose a large surface to of trial. The Novelty, it may here be noted; was comotive engines make passing at the rate of ten the fire;'' he constructed the boiler of a number constructed by the same Ericsson who built the or twelve miles an hour? Neither the cattle of small perpendicular tubes, "opening into a Federal "monitors' during the war, and the Erplowing in the fields or grazing in the meadows/common reservoir at the top." In 1823 W. H.icsson caloric engines and steamship. The Nov.