« AnteriorContinuar »
tice have had their way, it would also, doubtless, accordingly–Arnold, Mudd and Spangler were the voluntary preferences of her people, a majorhave been indicted, tried and convicted before the sent, and there they still languish in that remote ity of whom were opposed to the secession of the Commission. It was only restored to the owner, island-prison, beneath a tropical sun-exiled by Southern States, an identity of feeling and interest when the high-handed act of its seizure had the President's own order beyond the pale of legal and the powerful influences of association united called forth the indignant comment even of the redress-placed by his hand outside of the pro- her in bonds of sympathy with the South. The New York Tribune. Mr. Stanton's notions of tection of their country's laws.
performance of Executive duty thus became diffijustice are not unlike those of the Turkish Ad- This great wrong the President still has it in cult and delicate. The pressure of startling events, miral, who, when one of his frigates had been his power to redress. He cannot recall Mrs. the direct interference of Federal authority, the wrecked upon a little island in the Greek Archi- Surratt from her grave, but these men he can insolent exercise of irresponsible and exacting milpelago, sentenced the wretched inhabitants to pay restore to liberty, to society, their country and itary power, the violation of private rights and the the value of the vessel, upon the theory that if their homes. Should he be content to go out of restraints of personal liberty which belong to the their accursed island hadn't been in the way, the office, leaving them still in prison, words cannot history of that period, need not be recalled except accident would not have happened. Upon the measure the opprobrium with which history for to remind us of the embarrassments which they same principle that Mr. Ford's Theatre was voted that one sin of omission will load his name. The entailed upon the civil government of the State. a deodand, poor Spangler was proven a criminal. opportunity will then survive to his successor, They were but a part of the wrongs and burdens He had no business being employed at the the- and we cannot imagine anything which would of war. But the close of the conflict brought atre-much less being present on the fatal night. redound more to the honor of the new President, with it difficulties and complications of a new and He expiates his offence by a term of six years at which would furnish a more gracious and aus- no less serious character. Peace had indeed been the Dry Tortugas.
picious beginning to his administration, a more proclaimed-armies were no longer marshalled, Samuel Arnold, according to the testimony, had favorable passport to the affections of the American and the record of battles had closed. Yet the nothing to do with the killing of the President. people, and at the same time convey a more sting-| political and social disorganization which ineviHe was not in Washington at the time had not ing reflection upon the policy and character of his tably results from civil strife was not confined to been there for weeks. He had once, however, predecessor—than for General Grant, on the very the Southern States. Its consequences were exbeen a party to a plot, in which Booth was also day of his inauguration, to throw open these hibited in Maryland only in a less degree than in engaged, for the forcible abduction of President prison-doors, bid these captives go free, and by Missouri or Tennessee, in the proscription of Lincoln, and the surrender of his person into the this crowning act of grace complete the work thousands of citizens, the imposition of infamous hands of the Confederate authorities, with the which President Johnson so far has only done by test-oaths, and in all those forms of outrage by view, as stated, of compelling thereby a general halves.
which usurped power seeks to perpetuate its rule exchange of prisoners. From this plot, however,
and degrade its victims. pted to be carried into INSTALLATION OF THE GOVERNOR. To remedy the evils which flowed from this abexecution, Arnold had withdrawn. With the On Wednesday last, Annapolis was the scene normal condition of society was the true province object, apparently and avowedly, of shaking off of an event which, although unattended by any of statesmanship. The war had left open and all further connection with Booth and his plans, circumstances of pomp or ceremony, marks an bleeding wounds to be healed--bitter enmities to he had sought employment, had found it, was en- important era in the history of the State, and be assuaged; it had imposed restrictions and disgaged in it, at Fortress Monroe, when the Presi- merits more than a passing word of notice. In abilities which were to be removed; it had viodent was killed. There is not a particle of evi- accordance with the provisions of the State Con- lated rights which were to be restored. These dence to show that he had the remotest suspicion stitution, the official term of Governor Swann ex- were the practical duties of peace. That they even of Booth's fatal purpose. But he had once pired upon that day, and the responsibility and were comprehended by Governor Swann, and that meditated doing something-which was never authority which belong to the Chief Magistrate he recognised the responsibility which they dedone or attempted even by anybody, and which of Maryland, devolved upon his successor, Gover- volved upon the Chief Executive of the State, is he himself had finally refused to have any hand nor Bowie. Ordinarily, the fact itself would not shown by the record of his official action, and the in doing. For this, the Military Wise-acres who seem to demand more than a formal record of its condition of society and politics in Maryland at tried him, sent him, too, to the Dry Tortugas for occurrence. For whatever measure of popular the close of his administration. There were two life!
feeling may be aroused by the discussion of po- roads open to him a choice between two lines of Let not the reader suppose that we are carica- litical questions, or the antagonism of personal in- policy. On the one hand there was the policy of turing the testimony. We have recently read terests, during a contested election for State offi- proscription which has been continued to this day over carefully the official Report of the Trials, cers, usually subsides with the close of the can- in Missouri, West Virginia and Tennessee—which compiled by the Recorder to the Commission, vass. The formal inauguration of the results at- was the policy of the Radical faction of "Unconand published by authority of the Bureau of Mil- tained is rarely attended by any marked manifes- ditional-Union Men's so-called, who helped to itary Justice. The testimony in the cases of these tations of public interest. Particularly is this place Governor Swann in the Executive Chair, three men is not one whit less bald and inconse- likely to be the case when, as in the present in- and who have never ceased to upbraid and revile quential--and the action of the Commission not stance, an interval of more than a year has elapsed him as a traitor to their cause. On the other one whit less infamously absurd or absurdly infa- between the election itself and the entry of the hand, there was the policy of restoration and conmous than we have stated. The proceedings person elected upon his official duties. There ciliation. To the choice which Governor Swann themselves were a mockery and caricature of all exist, however, at this time, so many anomalies made between these two lines of action, may be justice, civil or military. The sentences pro- in the political condition of the country, so many traced the fact that to-day the people of Marynounced in these cases, Mr. Johnson, in an unfor-complications in the relations which the States land are free from the yoke of an organic law tunate hour for himself and his reputation, ap- bear to the Federal authority, and such decided which excluded them from participation in the proved—as he approved that which was passed indications of radical and permanent changes in government of their State; that they are no longer upon Mrs. Surratt. He did more. The sen- the theory and practical administration of gov- subjected to degrading disabilities; that they live tences as originally approved July 5, 1865, pre- ernment, that no public event of this magnitude under a Constitution established by their own scribed the State Penitentiary at Albany, New can properly be regarded with indifference. The sovereignty; that all the rights which belong to York, as the place of confinement of these un- retirement of Governor Swann, and the accession the citizen are secured against an usurping oligarfortunate men. Subsequently—on the 15th of of Governor Bowie, suggest matter both for re- chy; and that peace and harmony, and the prosJuly following--the Executive order was modified trospective and prospective consideration. perity which follows in their train, prevail by the substitution of the Dry Tortugas for the Governor Swann's term of service commenced throughout the State. The record of an adminAlbany Penitentiary. This was done to prevent in the midst of civil war, to which the State of istration which has left behind it such results, the legality of the proceedings from being tested Maryland bore a peculiar and anomalous relation. cannot be ignored. They are too important before the ordinary tribunals of justice upon a Although an integral part of the Union, main- in themselves, too direct in their relation to writ of Habeas Corpus. To the Dry Tortugas taining her Federal relations unbroken, through the people whose enfranchisement they have se
cured, to be passed by without acknowledgement. For awhile these projudices were individual; their or statesman may succeed in predicting a future They establish a new era in the history of the influence was passive, and perhaps not without state of worldly things as the logical result of acState from the vantage ground of which we look some benefit in preventing American Art from tual facts and conditions, and the natural effect of hopefully to the future before us; and behind
following in the beaten track; they now, however, new political and social institutions. In the do
threaten to become more general and active, and main of the Fine Arts and Belles Lettres prophecy which, it would serve no useful purpose to turn
consequently dangerous to a healthful and natural is impossible, for everything is here contingentback to trace the lines of old antagonisms.
taste in Art. They find a clear expression in two dependent upon uncertainties which cloud the A few words with reference to Governor Swann's recent articles, the one contributed to the seventh view of the future. As an instance, no one has successor. It is an advantage possessed by the number of Lippincott's Magazine, entitled, “On even yet been able to foretell the type of a new smaller States of the Union, that the people are Expression in Painting," the other to be found in style of building, which is certainly one of the familiar with their public men. The neople of number 7, vol. VI of The Southern Review, and most positive Arts. Vitruvius, with all his erudi. Maryland are not forced to rest their confidence entitled “Landscape-Painting."
tion and science, could not do it. More than that,
In both these articles, the authors, starting from at the time of Rome's greatest splendor, under the in Governor Bowie upon the pledges of a canvass
nearly the same point, and pursuing somewhat brilliant reign of Augustus, he was unable to creor the representations of partisans. He is known
different courses of reasoning, arrive at conclu- ate anything original, and all his inventive talent to them almost personally and individually. His sions having scarcely an apparent, and certainly expended itself in lavish ornamentation, which opinions and his purposes are not left to doubtful no real connection with the argument. Their is rather an indication of decline in Art. The and, possibly, wistaken conjecture. Both his main purpose is to prove that Landscape-painting reason is, as will be demonstrated in the proper personal and political integrity are alike unques- will be the Art Expression of the American Na- place, that original style and art-expression tioned. His devotion to his State, its welfare and tion.
are not things to be invented, but that they development, the promotion of its great enter
are spontaneous emanations, in answer to fresh becomes fashionable in the New World, we think wants and new ideas. prises, the expansion of its system of improve
it worth while to combat what we believe to be an It would be far better, if instead of idle speculaments, and the commercial advancement of its
erroneous opinion, which if admitted might affect tion on the future of Art, we should make an principal city, is generally recognised. To these most unfavorably the destinies of American Na- earnest effort to nourish and develop what of Art valuable qualifications may be added others of a tional Art.
talent exists amongst us. As a great and powerful different character which may prove to be both! Although a powerful mind will always follow nation, ambitious to excel in all the works of the important and fortunate. The political sentiments the impulse of its own inspiration, notwithstand- mind, we should do our best to secure a splendid of the people of Maryland are well understood. Iing the prevalence of petty theories and systems, and faithful maturity of Art, without limiting it They have been declared with no hesitating or it is yet true that theories and systems do readily to a particular form or genre. To obtain this end, doubtful expression: and it may be safely assumed | get a strong hold on the public sentiment. They we must go to work, not in routine like a narros.
regulate taste; in other words, the public thinks, minded, old-fashioned, exclusive farmer; nor yet that by no citizen of the State are they more
speaks, reasons, judges and acts from received without experience, as theoretical book-farmers; thoroughly comprehended and shared than by ideas, according to the fashion. If this proposi- but intelligently and with the proper fertilizers, Governor Bowie. He is, therefore, a fair repre- tion be correct, it necessarily follows that the artist we must prepare and cultivate the soil from which sentative of the sound, conservative and anti-radi- I will either be forced into the path of reigning sys- may spring a national fruit, partaking of its cal opinions which so distinctly define and es- tems, or else, pursuing what he thinks to be his strength and peculiarities. Until now, this has tablish the character of our people. But, to-calling, he will take an opposite, antagonistic ca- been sorely neglected. Americans have reason to gether with a firm adherence to the prin- reer. In the former case, Art will lack variety, glory in many achievements, and above all, in
and be limited in its resources of expression; it that of establishing an advanced and rational sysciples upon which these opinions are based, we
may, for instance, on this continent, degenerate tem of public instruction. But artistic culture, think we may justly attribute to him that good
into a bastard and sensual form, as at the decay of the fosterer of elegance and fine feeling amongst sense which will readily adapt itself to the practi-l the Roman Empire-at least tolerate something the people, has been left behind in the general cal exigencies of State government. In other resembling the French Art of the last century, I progress. It is time that competent men begin to words, we believe that he possesses that breadth with its counterpart of fancy shepherds and their devote their serious attention to this subject. It is and flexibility of character which, avoiding the short-petticoated mates à la Watteau or Boucher, imperatively demanded, if we wish the country to narrow grooves of an abstract policy, deals with and treat us to another edition of languid and reap the social and commercial advantages of s questions as they arise, and meets their demands pining pastorals. In the other case-that is, if the flourishing condition of Art, to provide the best sensibly and practically. It is unnecessary for artist does not obey the popular requirements of and most ample means for instilling a correct and
his age, however grand and perfectly conceived or pure taste which, as it develops, reacts most beneus to disclaim any sympathy with that spirit
admirably executed his work may be-it will fail ficially on all branches of manufacture and inwhich is ever ready to sacrifice principle to exto exto receive the admiration it merits.
dustry, pediency. But it must be remembered that gove Besides the possible danger which it offers, there We should like to see Art patrons founding and ernment is simply an agency, established for the is another more positive ground of objection to liberally supporting, according to the wants of benefit of society. Its duties are direct and posi- the propositions advanced by the articles in ques- every important city, practical schools of design, tive; it deals rather with matters of fact than tion. No one will deny that a national school of with simple methods of tuition, on the plan of with opinions, and its machinery is moved by the American Art is yet a desideratum. Will it teaching as much as possible directly from nature changing current of events. The habitual appli- always
ni always be so? While there remains any doubt on This would permit to do away with those sham
this point, it is surely not prudent to predict what institutes, the programmes of which make extrarcation, therefore, of abstract principles, however
will be its outlines and its specific character, as is agant promises, although a pupil is usually as is. true, to the measures of merely temporary policy boldly done by both authors of the articles under norant on loaving as upon entering. When once -to which they bear but a remote relation-must consideration.
the primary schools should be established on a firm be often injurious, and certainly always useless. It should be borne in mind that national Art has basis, the higher institute would follow as a matter We will be understood, therefore, when in ad- ceased to be an institution, subject to official regu- of course, and would necessarily be in the spirit dition to the qualifications to which we have re- lation. Its expansion is no longer bound and lim- best adapted for the development of original ferred, we ascribe to Governor Bowie that sound ited as under theocratic rule.* On the contrary, I talent. discretion which is as important to the judicious it moves in perfect freedom, and its chances for a Without pursuing any further this digression.
high state of development and variety are thereby we return to our subject, and in order to arrive at discharge of official duty as it is essential to the
increased. But regulated or not, the form of an an intelligent opinion upon the point discussed, requirements of every day individual life.
unburn Art can never be determined beforehand, let us
nor can its course be fixed a prióri : because its 1st: Institute an analysis of Art, to see by what AMERICAN ART.
course is uncertain and eontinually changing with qualities it is distinguished; It is certainly not an easy task to discuss quos- the spiritual and moral currents pervading a na- 2d: Review the historical portions of the argu. tions of Art. Their subtle and indefinite nature tion; while its form depends on taste, culture and ments of the two writers referred to; offers serious obstacles to a clear analysis. A dis- conception, either individual or of a class.
3rd: Consider their conclusions in relation with sertation on this subject is still more difficult, when The man of science, the historian, the philosopher established facts and principles. it has, in addition, to meet prejudices which seem to prevail, if not generally, at least extensively, where the caste of the priests were the depositories of his inventions, and their character Illustrates what is
• As in India, where the Brahmins, or in Egypt, The Vitruvian scroll and capital make the sum of among the friends of art-culture on this continent. All art-culture.
l here advanced.
It will then, we think, appear that the probabil nations whose records have been preserved by his influence of sentiment may be compared to that of ities are in favor of the futuro Art of this country tory. From this may be inferred that dancing and a Pharos, by the light of which the artist is led in being, as formerly, an embodiment of the social, singing are the earliest manifestations in the cul. the surrounding world to choose objects best moral and spiritual ideas of the people, and that it tus, and the most primitive expressions of Art. adapted for an intelligible and pleasing represenwill not confine itself to Landscape-painting. As soon as man arrives at a settled state and is tation of the image: it is a faculty of the mind by I. The Nature of Art: its Origin and Aim.
pressed by the complicated wants of social life, he which the aspect and expression of things in na
will seek for means of expressing more clearly his ture are reflected with such modification as will We may consider it an admitted point, that from moral impressions. Now, on account of the vis- necessarily elicit admiration. the outset, Art had a symbolical meaning. Its
ionary propensities of ignorance, each phenome-l Consequently, sentiment is not only a creative must primitive relic, every monument, and his
non, every extraordinary thing in nature, im- power in Art-that which induces us to represent tory withal, show that it was always a more or less
presses on the mind an image corresponding with lour impressions-but, as the touch-stone of good perfect representation of moral and spiritual ideas.
the appearance of things; that is, with their visi- taste it In all ancient society, when civilization was yet in
r vislo taste, it is the principle of the beautiful, to which
ble, tangible and supposed qualities. In the ab- it holds the same ratio as reason does to the truth. its infancy, we find Art possessed of this character
sence of a written language, the only means approand in close alliance with the worship or cultus of
Admitting sentiment to be the origin, let us now o priate for communicating the impressions is, then, the people. Thus it was in Egypt, Assyria, India
see what is the nature of Art. Art has two modes to fix the image. For that purpose it is necessary and Greece: among the Medes and Persians, the
of existence--the one objective, the other subjecto imitate the objects of nature that correspond Hebrews, Phænicians, Etruscans, and generally, Etruscans, and generally, most with the image-and further, to endow the
tive. Principles and facts show this modality to with every settled people. imitation with the attributes by which the effects
have existed from the very beginning, as soon as Art, be-ides being the concomitant, is at once
the embodiments of moral impressions became obof the phenomenon are most clearly expressed. the object and the subject of the cultus in these Thus, what was at first an individual subject of
jects of worship. Afterwards, when Art ceases to primitive societies. It is the object of the cultus, 1
be under exclusive control of the priests, as in cultus, thought, communicable only in a suggestive manwhen it affects the senses and receives the worship
Greece, the same ideality is still observable, and ner, becomes-as an idol-a visible and palpable of the faithful. In this condition its first manifes
actually, in a state of perfect freedom, its great representation of the impression, intelligible for tation is wild and barbarous, as in Fetichism, the the masses, and consequently an object of the
object should be to leave the vivid impression of a most stupid and primitive kind of idolatry; but
moral idea. Now, the objective in Art relates to cultus. afterward it presents itself in more pleasing forms, Ata more advanced state of mental development its material part, while the subjective is connected as among the Greeks and other pagans, where it people begin to observe the connection of things,
with the incorporeal essence. A natural inference includes, besides adoration of the idol, an appreci- and in order to reveal those observations to others. I to be made therefrom is: that Art has a two-fold ation of the beautiful in its representation. Art they imitated figures having a certain relation with nature, the one material, the other immaterial or becomes the subject of the cultus, where it is the the nature of the connection, till finally, possessed essential. That which forms the material in Art motive and is made the means of expressing the lof executive skill, experience and power of com-118, undoubtedly, imitation ; on religious feelings, doctrinal notions or psychologi. I bination, they succeeded, before the use of any the immaterial or essential is that by which the cal ideas of mankind. This modality of Art, very lalphabetic writing, in expressing emblematically moral impressions are conveyed, to wit: Expresimportant to be established for a demonstration of their thoughts and feelings.
sion. They are the principles, the body and soul what we think to be its nature and purpose, be. That imitative Art was born from a desire to of this ideality. comes evident by a closer examination of the causes I communicate the moral impression and from nol Imitation, or that which is material in a work of giving existence to Art.
fortuitous cause, not even as according to the Art, speaks to the senses. Therefore, its aim is to Superstition is invariably the characteristic of Greek fable, from the tender whim of a lover, is reach the beautiful in order to attract, to please, ignorance. A human being in a wild state of na-historically proved by the fact that image-wor- or to fascinate. Expression, on the other side, adture views and worships in every incomprehensi. I ship is found to have been the only source for art- dresses itself to the mind, and for that reason, the ble power--a living being of superior strength, alexpression at the start of all ancient societies, and absolute of expression in Art is truth, in order to personal deity inflicting right or wrong. The con long before Art was made subservient to the social instruct. The united action of these two princivulsions of nature: earthquakes, volcanoes, tem wants. Moreover, in the remotest civilizations, ples tend to improve the moral condition of hupests, lightning and thunder; in fuct, all those (the Egyptians, and on this continent the Mexi- manity. But, for the attainment of their particuterrible manifestations more frequent in the begin cans and Peruvians,) the earliest vehicle of thought lar end, each of them has its own properties. ning of ages, when our earth was less consolidated was hieroglyph-or picture-writing. It is also The objects in surrounding nature are, unmisinspire him with awe. Terrified under their threat worthy of notice that Greeks and Egyptians alike takably, the source which maintain imitation. ening mystery, and unable to master them, he ig: used the same expression for the verbs to paint or Those objects are possessed of qualities, either norantly deifies and adjures these ungovernable depict and to write, which, in modern language, moral or physical, by which they are distin. elements, and offers the sacrifices and oblations. are terms having a different acception.
guished. All, then, that distinguishes them, will expecting thereby to conciliate their favor and We may conclude then, on this head, that Art equally distinguish their imitation. Thus the avert their displeasure. While on the other hand. I took its origin in the necessity which compelled visible, palpable, ponderable, audible and intrinsic those phenomena and things in nature which ap the individual to embody and represent the images qualities of things become, according to applicapear to be benignany in their relations to man: the left upon his mind by emotions, in order to com- tion, qualities in their representation. We say soil, the animal pleasures, the heavenly bodies.municate to his fellow-men what he felt and could according to application. For instance: in Archiawaken his affections and elicit his adoration and not otherwise express. This admitted, we may tecture the imitation has to account with the visieulogy.
tafely infer that the impellent, or the first step to ble, tangible, ponderable and intrinsic properties The stronger the emot ons produced on the mind Art, is sentiment, just like the impulse toward re- of bodies, even with the audible, so far as acoustic by these phenomena, the more man is laboring ligion is faith, which is only another more deter-effect is concerned. In Music it must reckon with under an imperious necessity of making others minate mood of sentiment, to wit, the sensations the audible nature of things and beings; in Sculpshare in his feelings. At this juncture speech, as of fear or love. We cannot imagine a religion ture, with both the visible and palpable; in Paintwe know it in its present condition, is not yet which is not founded on faith; so, and as a collat- ing, none but the visible. Belles Lettres are a formed; and man being, so to say, in the state of a eral truth, there is no Art the inspiration of which form of imitation accounting for everything as it mere brute, is obliged to give to his feelings only is not the product of sentiment.
exists, visible or not, material or spiritual, in the an imperfect, suggestive outlet, very much in the This is the first proposition, and with it the cause universe. With their aid, we are enabled to give manner observed among the savages in Africa and of existence, the origin of Art, is established. a complete and universal idea of things, but solely in the islands of the South Sea ; that is, with yells, Sentiment, as used here, means moral sensibility in a descriptive manner, and, consequently, by an gesticulations and contortions of the body. These or the faculty of receiving impressions by means appeal to the imagination. Scenic Art is a kind peculiarities in the expression or conveyance of of the senses. It is, however, more than a genera- of imitation, possessing all the qualities of the thought, which are found to distinguish univer- tor of Art: its influence is not confined to an in- former; its expression is the most complete and sally the cultus or devotional exercises among fusion of images into the mind: but then, from illusive; enacted on the stage, a comedy or tragedy those tribes, may be considered as the germ from being active and moral, as it is when receiving and is like an idealized reality; it is, however, the which were developed the arts of dancing and reflecting impression, sentiment becomes passive most perishable of Arts, and lasts only the space singing. This opinion is strengthened by the fact and physical, or that by which the senses are nf- of an evening; then, as the great German poet that she usage of accompanying religious rites with fected. Indeed, as soon as the image or concep- says: cadenced movements of the body and rhythmication passes from its embryo condition into the "Schnell und Spurlos geht des Mimen Kunst, sounds, as among negroes, Indians, etc., existed in form of reality--that is, when we intend to present it Die wunderbare, an dem Sinn vorüber,
Wenn das Gebild des Meiszels, der Gesang primary connection with the worship of all ancient in visible and palpable or in descriptive form--the Des Dichters nach Jahrtausenden noch leben.
Hier stirbt der Lauber mit dem Künstler ab.
ables the artist to make his pictures natural: yet induced to use it as a title for his article. The Und wie der Klang verhallet in dem Ohr, Verrauscht des Augenblicks geschwinde Schöpfung, they are not sufficient, and must not be estimated other champion of Landscape-painting seems to Und ihrem Ruhm bewahrt kein dauernd Werk."
more than as a grammar in Art. Unless animated have felt that it does not sustain his pet idea, for. II. The Art of Painting: its Properties. | by some kind of feeling, the most elaborate imita- apparently, he avoids with care to give Expression Toch bronch of Art has thus its own form of tion will fail to leave an impression.
lin Art more importance than would be convenient imitation, and possesses for that purpose particu-..
We admit that numerous cases present them- for his theory. lar and appropriate means. For our subiect it will selves where artistic productions, with no meaning From whatever point we look at the pronositi be sufficient to see what is required for the Art of
of and no expression directly observable, please and every aspect makes it clear that it requires more Painting.
captivate the attention. It must be remarked, than imitation, and even more than beatified imiAny one will admit that, graphically, it is only however
tation, to constitute a complete work of Art, appossible to represent the aspect of things, and con
| First, That, although not evident at a glance, preciable by everybody. To be fully alive and sequently their external, visible qualities; in short,
want something suggestive, which makes us linger, is generally understood, a painting must speak to the the visible world. For this reason all the charac
| brought into those works outside of, and not by mind as well as to the senses. So it does when it teristics of imitation in painting or design must be,
means of pure imitation. To use a simile very ex- possesses what we have already found to be the equally, of a visible nature.
planatory of our ideas on this subject, the imita- subjective mode, the essential part, the soul of Art: The primary visible qualities of the objects
tion, far from being servile, is the refraction of the Expression. which constitute inductively the elementary pro
natural object whilst passing the medium of the Some words with extensive meaning often con
imagination. This medium or focus is nothing fuse the mind or obscure a proposition, while the perties for their imitation, are four-fold, to wit:
but sentiment, the principle of the Beautiful. real value of the term is not ascertained and indiform, color, distance, motion. All other visible distinctions in things are but particular phases or
Consequently it is not pure imitation, but an in- cated to the reader. This is the case, for instance,
terpretation of nature by sentiment, which im- with the word Expression. Let us see, then, what abstracts of these four, and can be traced back to either of them. Thus, in the category of form are
parts to the artistic productions in question either this word means in connection with Art. Opening to be placed : outline, relief, proportion and sym
a poetical coloring, a stylish form, or other par-Webster's Dictionary, we see upon page 426: ticular beauties affecting the senses.
EXPRESSION, n. The act of expressing; metry; homogeneity or identity of contexture in the | If otherwise, how could two artists, painting
5. In painting and sculpture, a natural and lively rep. parts. They impart to the design what is called
resentation of the subject; as, the EXPRESSION of the style.
from the same model, make each a perfect like-eye, of the countenance, or of a particular action or pasa ness, and yet give it a different aspect and expres
sion. In the category of color we must range: hues, sion and produce a widely opposite result? Thank
Thus, both lively representation and action are tints, half-tints, light and shade, or the gradation
God! that such is the case, for it insures the picof light; effect, or the disposition of lights and
implied by the definition. Moreover, the verb to turesque and plastic arts an eternal superiority
express is a compound of ex; out, outwards, and shadows in masses; ærial perspective, or the dif
to press; to urge with force, to affect strongly, ference offered to the view, proportionate to re
over mere mechanical operations, and frees them
vividly; to inculcate with earnestness, with argumoval, in the blending and the color of objects by tography or any of the most perfected inventions
ment. According to Webster, it is a verb denoting an interposition of air. Other qualities are strength in that line.
the application of any power, physical or moral, or intensity and solidity, transparency and bril
Thus imitation, pure and simple, is not possible:
to something that is to be moved or affected. To liancy in the coloring. Their proper and natural
press, taken in this sense and preceded by the combination produce in the painting what are
to strike the imagination, to affect the senses, in
modifier ex or out, means to show outwardly, to termed tone and harmony. Distance, or the space between any two things,
represent force, physical or moral. But force is Art must be distilled through the sense of the
lan idea which the mind perceives in itself; an abinvolve the application of the laws of optics, and a beautiful.
stract that cannot be realized nor visibly repremore especially linear perspective, or the art
Secondly. It is to be observed that the single or
sented otherwise than by its effects; that is, by particular beauties alluded to cannot be relished of representing the objects according to vision, pa
by everybody. Their appreciation confines itself with the proper difference in shape and size ap-19.
bodily or mechanical motion caused by impulse, to the few who have a cultivated taste, with a cer
or by animal motion in consequence of volition. parently produced in them by removal and dispotain artistic instruction; for the uninitiated masses
The effects of the latter are action and passion. sition. A correct operation of perspective gives these beauties are and remain a closed book. What
Both action and passion being qualities of visible depth to the scenery. then, we may ask, is their social bearing? Do
nature, as shown in the definition of the properMotion, over and above the impulse communithey elevate the public mind? Are they fit to be
ties of imitation, are thus simultaneously the cated to the elements, and its effect on the bodies,
used as agents to arouse the sense of the beautiful properties of artistic expression. They constitute as is more particularly the case in Landscape and
and limit the visible representation of the ideal. in all classes of society? Is this possible, indeed, Marine-Painting, includes the movements of aniwhen they serve only to gratify a refined and deli
and offer the means of realizing, in the plastic mal life, those of the human body, its postures
and picturesque arts, the moral and spiritual nocate taste? In short, does anybody believe that, and gesticulations; and physiognomy, or the im
tions of mankind. with such subtle beauties only, and with no aid of press which the passions leave on the features. other more energetic factors in the works of Art,
This brings us to the conclusion: first, that there This impress is either instantaneous and fully ac-lit Jit is possible to form an artistic nation ?
is no expression without action ; second, that ideas tive, indicating actual temper; or it is wrought by
1 We leave it for others to answer affirmatively, and spiritual impressions are only expressible 1
w leve it for of a succession of predominating affections, and in our
1 In our opinion, and without detracting an iota of graphic Art, when they can be made the subject us stamped on the face of man to show his naturaliai
their artistic merit, the social significance of such / action or passion. From what precedes, we de tem per-his character. All these operations show
works is very limited. They may answer for an duce for the consideration of the the moral state of the human being, and for that
Art of the parlor, but outside of a private collec- subject : reason they are of great import in the considera
tion they have no power to touch a sympathetic
| 1. That three principal elements are to be distion of expression. Other effects of motion yet chord
chord, the thrill of which awakes a dormant fac- tinguished in the picturesque and plastic Arts, to to be noticed, are gracefulness, grandeur, natural-lulty in the brain. Not before them. like the Ita
wit: imitation, sentiment and expression, which ness, etc., in the movements as well as in the fold
Ilian peasant before the overwhelming beauty and elements, respectively, impart to the picture na ing of drapery and in the arrangement of dress, ur of Raphael's masterpiece ithe Trans Iture, beauty and moral truth. which must be in keeping with those movements; figuration,” shall any one devoid of art-culture,
| 2. That Art cannot consequently be, and never further, the accordance of grouping and general
but gifted with the sacred fire, call out: "I, too-1 was, ubject feel that I am an artist!" Our reasoning on this
3. That the Arts of Painting and Sculpture are Together, these effects of motion make what is
• point, if just leaves no other alternative than to not in a condition to satisfy national wants, c termed the action in composition, and consequently
particular and they are, as will be seen afterwards, the basis of
ng exercise a particular and not an universal not a general influence. expression. influence
4. That action, being the principal and only When all these elements, form, color, distance,
| Thirdly and finally. If a work of Art has no property of expression, and the exact limited motion, and their respective properties, are set in
meaning, or if the meaning is enigmatical, there for the possible representation of the ideal, wenn natural order, so as to produce a harmonious can be no such thing as "art-expression." Yet a at
at the same time the connection between the må whole, they endow the substance or the picturesque
very evident and intelligible expression character-/terial and essential, a link between the imala in a work of Art with what is known as ensemble. lizes so decidedly the Art of a nations anci entand and the expression in Art. No doubt they offer, collectively, the amplest modern, that one writer* is thereby inadvertently
5. That from the beginning we find Art te means for a truthful copy of the visible world. A
emblematical-that is, with some meaning beyond careful study of all is indispensable, while it en-! * Lippincott's Magazine.
Ithe mere form immediately brought under i
senses. Call this particularly art-expression, art- Italian Impressario Barbaja offered him twelve cism. The influence of Rossini can be recogimpulse, or whatever may please better, thereby thousand francs a year (three thousand dollars) to nized even in Halevy's and Meyerbeer's works, it stands fast:
write two operas each season. It was almost a but in those the Italian parts are not the best. That the national Art, in less civilized ages, was
fortune for the composer; therefore his best works On the composers, Adam, Auber, and even on more than a material or sentimental imitation of nature having only a private destination, and that
are posterior to this date. Under such circum- Herold, that influence has been great enough to whether religious and allied to the cultus, or as
stances, it is easy to understand why Rossini, in modify the old mould of the French Opera later, human and independent, its tendencies were possession of stupid librettos, urged by necessity, | Comique. always ethical and instructive.
composed a great many operas which are no more The Operette and the Opera Bouffe are also a Such being the spirit which ruled from the be-spoken of; why, among beautiful melodies which derivation of that influence, but whatever may ginning, and led at intervals to astounding results, I bear the stamp of genius, are found many evi-l be the duration of that style, the abuses will diswe do not see why it should be abandoned now, Idences of carelessness and faults in com
should be abandoned now, dences of carelessness and faults in composition. appear, and Rossini will forever remain one of and the Arts be obliged to perform a different,
“: Rossini made also too many sacrifices to the taste the greatest geniuses produced by the musical private mission; why, with a youthful, brilliant | future, and with the expanded ideas of our age, of the public of the time, by the abuse he made art.
NEMO. they should be severed from what we may calilof runs and vocalises. This was the fault of the their vital nature. Can we be content with an Art Italian theatre of that time-to apply lively mu
Reviews. existing solely for the gratification of the senses, sic to any situation; and Rossini did not escape or as a réverie, or as an object for barren specula- the prevalent absurdity. His Gazza Ladra, ex- THE SUNTER AND THE ALABAMA.* tion, unintelligible to the mass of the people? Butcept a few pages, exhibits the greatest discordance To have a good and new subject for a book, is a two reasons could explain but not validate such an | between the libretto and the music, and this is the comparatively rare occurrence; but to have a anomalous condition of Art in this country, namely: When the thinking world comes to be
reason why that opera has lost its first prestige. story to recite of entire novelty and of the most exclusively governed by either one of the two! The best operas which belong to this first style exciting interest, to have been an eye-witness of opinions, which, antipodes to each other, never- of Rossini are Il Barbiere di Siviglia, in the Jof Rossini are 11 Barbiere di Sivalin in the all the facts related, and to be naturally, without
ostentation, and unavoidably, the hero of one's theless often exist simultaneously like extremes bouffe style; Otello and Semiramide, in the seri
own story, is a piece of felicity which falls to but which meet. These opinions are
ous style. In these we find marks of indisputa-fe
le. In these we and marks of inaisputa few of the sons of men. 1. A complete negation of moral and spiritual ble progress in dramatic expression, and the reci- Admiral Semmes has made good use of his opnotions, and thus the reign supreme of material-Itativo has much more importance. The Barbiere portunity. Like most of his profession, he has the ism, with its sequel, sensualism in Art; 2. The affirmation of a spiritualism, the ideas of
di Swiglia is an opera the success of which never art of spinning a yarn; and the narrative he has which are barely perceptible by the mind, with | abated, because the libretto is very good, and be given us is not only in a high degree interesting, but notions so ethereal and celestial, that they cannot cause the composer remained faithful to the prin- is extremely well and vivaciously told. Although be made the subject of expression. In this case. Iciple of the real Italian opera bouffe. In Semi- / there must be a certain uniformity in a series of
such similar incidents as the successive captures of of course, Art is bound to lose its former well de-ramide and Otello, among beauties of the first
merchant vessels, which usually backed their topfined character, and inevitably liable to wander in order we find again displaced vocalises. In Otello the labyrinth of transcendentalism, the stumbling- the composer stops a beautiful movement in the sified them with such lively particulars and dra
sails at the first blank cartridge, yet he has diverstone of the present German schools of Dresden finale Incerta l'anima, to allow the prima donna, matic touches, that they never become monotoand Munich, or else it may be thrust into the pool to sing a cadenza of doubtful taste.
nous; while his various descriptions of persons and of sentimentalism, stripped of virility and grandeur, like the French Art of the eighteenth cen.
| An accurate study of the German music made scenery, and his digressions upon atmospheric and tury
Rossini understand the faults and the falsity of marine phenomena are not merely very pleasant,
the Italian theatre in certain circumstances, and but very instructive reading MUSICAL GOSSIP-ROSSINI-HIS convinced him that music is not only intended to
* Probably no two vessels ever had such careers
of destruction in proportion to the brief time they WORKS-HIS INFLUENCE please the ear but to express the passions, the
were engaged in hostile operations, as the Sumter ON MUSIC.
character of the dramatis persona, as well as the and the Alabama. The former, in the six months During the last week no concert or operatic peculiar situations in which they move.
from June, 1861, to January, 1862, captured eightperformance took place, so we shall take advan. The immense success of Auber's opera, Muette een vessels; and the latter, in rather less than two tage of the leisure left to us to converse with our de Portici, decided Rossini to strike a great blow, years, from August, 1862, to June, 1864, no less readers, of a man of genius who is no more-Ros- and the result was William Tell. This time than sixty-five, nearly all which were of necessity sini. To appreciate well his eminent qualities, to Rossini had complete liberty to display the quali- | burned, as there was no port into which they understand well what were the causes of his faults. Ities that he had incompletely shown in his Italian could be sent. But the value of these ships and it is necessary to show what was the condition of Operas. Truth and beauty of the recitativos,
their cargoes represents but a fraction of the inthe Italian Opera when Rossini made his débutchorueses almost all excellent, elegant and noble nearly driven out of the seas, from Galveston to
ljury that was done the enemy. His ships were as a composer.
melodies, bold and effective modulations, rich in Singapore; his carrying trade passed into neutral In those times, very often a month before the strumentation,-it would be useless to insist on hands, and his commerce received deep and lastperformance of an opera, it was not known who the high value of that score.
ing wounds. the singers were to be, or what the subject of the We have enumerated in a preceding article the Though his policy of course was to direct his libretto. The Impressario, generally an ignorant reasons why we believe Rossini did not write any chief energies to inflicting injury upon the enemy's and venal man, used to sacrifice everything to his other opera after William Tell-hence we need
commerce, her most vulnerable point, yet Adown interests. The composer was thus obliged not repeat them in this place. We have only to
miral Semmes was not the man to avoid a fight
when a good opportunity offered. Instance the to write his music without knowing the plot of add some general considerations. Rossini opened
ene engagement with the Hatteras off Galveston, the libretto, the character of the dramatis per-la new road to the Italian Opera-he has intro- I which we will let the Admiral tell in his own sonce, the passions which should inspire them, and duced new effects of rhythm and of vocal and words. The Alabama, it may be necessary to prethe most interesting situations. Therefore, the instrumental sonority, and has, by his last com- mise, had gone round to Galveston in the hope of opera composed under such disadvantages, was positions, contributed to wear out the system of destroying Gen. Banks's expedition for the subjugenerally a contexture of all colors, without plan, the roulades.
gation of Texas, which was expected to rendezvous order or direction.
In Germany, the influence of Rossini is felt in in that port in January, 1863. Admiral Semmes, For the first operas he composed, Rossini re- the success of his operas and that of his imita
on arriving, found the programme changed, Gal
veston in the possession of the Confederates, and ceived a sum of two hundred francs (about fifty tors, especially Donizetti and Bellini. It is also
five Federal ships of war in the harbor. What dollars currency.) Not being rich, he composed | perceived in Flotow's and Nicolai's works. In/was now to be done? The Admiral had promised six operas in the same year. For La Pietra del France it was a real invasion. No distinction his men "some sport," but to run a-muck into five Paragone, an opera which met with great success was made between the excellencies and the faults
* Memoirs of Service Afloat, during the war between in Milan, he was paid six hundred francs (one of Rossini's music. It was such an infatuation the States. By Admiral Raphael Semmes, of the late hundred and fifty dollars paper;) and then the that no place was left for any discussion or criti- | 1809.
Confederate Navy. Baltimore: Kelly, Piet & Co.