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ject. Altbough we, however, have been but too indifferent in this respect, our ambitious and active neighbours—for such, at least in regard to India, we must now call the Russians —have not been idle or inattentive spectators; witness the numerous important works that have been published in Russia of late years, on the Geography and History of Armenia, which indeed may be fairly considered a province of the former power. A remarkable proof, also, of the influence possessed by Russia over that people in other countries recently occurred, when a colony of 40,000 Armenians left the Persian province of Aderbaidschan, and settled within the Russian dominions. An interesting account of this migration was published in the latter language, and translated into German in 1834, by the author of the present work. But independent of political motives the literature of Armenia is deserving the attention of the learneil of Europe in no ordinary degree, from the circumstance that translations of Greek writers, the originals of which are lost, are still preserved in that country. Its language is admirably adapted for translation from the Greek, which it closely resembles in its structure. In this mapper the Whistons re-translated from Armenian into Greek tbe Apocrypbal Letters of the Corinthians to St. Paul, and the Apostle's reply; and who, as Niebuhr remarks, that is ignorant of the facts, could discover in these the hand of a translator ? The complete works of Philo-Judæus are also said to be extant in an Armenian version, and would be published by learned natives, if sufficient encouragement were held out. The remarkable discovery, within the last twenty years, of an Armenian translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius, filling up many lacunæ in the original, is a striking inducement to pursue researches thus bappily rewarded. An edition of this Chronicle was published in Armenian and Latin in 1818, by Dr. Aucher, of the Convent of St. Lazarus, and a Latin translation appeared in the same year at Milan by Messrs. Zobrab and Mai. The additions to our knowledge, derived from this discovery, and their efficiency for the elucidation and settlement of many historical points of great uncertainty and importance, are made the subject of a most learned and elaborate Memoir, by the lamented Niebuhr, in the first volume of bis “ Kleine Historische und Philologische Schriften,” to which we refer our classical readers for details that will surprise and gratify them by their vovelty and importance. We cannot conclude this hasty notice without recommending Mr. Neumann's work, as a most useful assistant in all researches into this interesting but neglected field of Oriental Literature.
1. Pacto y Ley Fundamental de la Confederacion Peru-Boliviana. Re
impresa por orden de Don Vicente Pazos, Consul-General en la Gran
Bretana. London. 1837. 2. Contra-Manifiesto al Publicado por el Gobierno de Buenos- Aires, sobre
las Razones con que pretende lejitimar la Guerra que declara e la
Confederacion Peru-Boliviana. Lima. 1837. 3. The Counter-Manifesto, &c. Lima. 1837. The first of these is a beautifully printed edition of the Code put forth by the new Mango Capac of Peru. The perfect freedom of trade, impartiality of protection for property, and the careful regulation of the most important interests, foreign and domestic, of this country, evince an enlightened spirit, and we trust will be acted upon hereafter, as it has been hitherto, in perfect good faith.
The second work is a long and wordy defence of the conduct of the government against its present belligerent neighbours. The details are often lengthened out with a minuteness perfectly distracting to the attention. There is a total want of a simple and comprehensive view of the question; a serious defect, and most of all in diplomatic composition. The style is fluent, and often elegant, in the original. The translation is literal, and therefore exaggerating all the faults of the native work, so as to render the perusal impracticable except to those sufficiently interested to disregard these defects.
Selections from the Bostán of Sadi, by Forbes Falconer. Paris, Berlin,
London. 1838. Tuese selections comprise about one-third of the Bostân, and are printed in the Taleek hand, most carefully. They will facilitate the reading of Persian MSS., which all students find a work of no ordinary difficulty, particularly when the transition is made at once from Nishkee to the irregular, arbitrary, fanciful, and negligent style of the various MSS.
The known talents and learning of Mr. Falconer are displayed to sufficient advantage in this work, which has been laboriously collated with everything that could give it value. To the student it is therefore invaluable; the more, as it saves the reader's eye.
Of Mr. Falconer himself we are disposed to require however something more hereafter. This honoured pupil of Silvestre De Sacy, and the friend of G. De Tassy, we trust will yet rouse himself to follow the example of his great master; and, casting aside all needless timidity, achieve in Oriental literature the distinction which few can deserve so well.
GERMANY Dr. Oito Böhtlingk, a native of St. Petersburgh, and scholar of Professor Lassen, is about to blish at Bonn, an edition of Panini's eight books of Grammatical Aphorisms, with notes. This is the first edition published since the year 1809, when one was published at Calcutta, which is now very scarce; and as Professor Lassen recommends Dr. Böhtlingk as a very good Sanscrit scholar, we have no doubt it will prove a welcome appearance to all friends of that language.
LEIPsic.—The following two pamphlets, relative to the Archbishop of Cologne, have excited considerable attention here. “ Der Erzbischof von Köln, Freiherr Clemens August von Droste zu Vischering, seine Principien und Opposition. Nach und mit authentischen Actenstücken und schriftlichen Belegen dargestellt:" with the motto; “In meinen Staaten kann Jeder ungestört nach seiner Façon selig werden."- Friedrich der Grosse. And by the same author. “Die Römisch-hierarchische Propaganda, ihre Partei, Uintriebe und Fortschritte in Deutschland. Mit Rückblicken auf die Opposition des Erzbischofs von Köln nach unumstösslichen Thatsachen geschildert vom Verfasser der Schrift, &c. :" with the motto; “Rom wollte immer herrschen; und als seine Legionen fielen, sandte es Dogmen in die Provinzen.”
Halle.-A new scientific and critical periodical has been started here under the title of “ Hallische Jahrbücher für Wissenschaft und Kunst." A number will appear every day except Sunday. Among the contributors are Creuzer, Dahlmann, Danz, Dietz, Droysen, Ewald, Gans, J. and W. Grimm, Gruppe, Herrmann, Hitzig, Keller, Lassen, Matthäei, Ranke, C. Raumer, Dr. Strauss, Uhland, Wackernagel, Warnkönig, de Wette, and numerous others. The subscription per annum will be 31.
LEIPsic.—Two editions of Kant's collected works are at present publishing in this town). Kant, it is known, never signed any agreement with his publisher, and L. Voss, a publisher of this town, took advantage of this fact, and announced an edition of Kant's complete works edited by Rosenkranz and Schubert. The proprietors are however also publishing an edition in numbers, two of which have already appeared.
STUTTGART.—A bookseller in this town is publishing a series of Classics, with illustrations similar to the French works published by Dubochet and Co., Paris. Among the works in progress are, “ Don Quixotte," a German translation; “Shakspeare,” German and English, the German by Alexander Fischer; “ Tausend und Eine Nacht,” translated by G. Weil, edited by A. Lewald.
DRESDEN.-Walther is about to publish a new edition of Winkelmann's works, in two large octavo volumes, with 63 plates, portrait, &c., which we have no doubt will be welcomed by all antiquarians.
Göthe's Herrmann und Dorothea.-Professor Schulze, in Göttingen, has endeavoured to prove, that the incidents for Göthe's poem have been taken from a book entitled, “ Ausführlichen Historie der Emigranten oder ver. triebene Lutheraner aus dem Erzbissthum Salzburg: Leipzig, 1732.". In which an anecdote is told, headed, “Singular Marriage" containing all the minor circumstances as related by Göthe.
A large fire which broke out in one of the outhouses of Cotta's printingoffice at Stuttgart, in January last, consumed a large part of the building and the type foundry. It has burnt whole editions of works which were to have appeared at Easter, together with a great part of the new edition of Göthe's and Schiller's Werke.
Berlin contains at present 85 booksellers, 29 second-hand booksellers, about 50 circulating libraries, and 4 paper manufactories.
Enslin, in Berlin, is publishing by subscription an edition of Dante's “la Divina Comedia,” with a metrical Ġerman translation by August Kopisch; it will appear in one volume, royal octavo, in about ten or twelve nuinbers.
FRANCE. BARON Silvestre De Sacy.—This great man, who for more than half a century has stood at the head of the Orientalists of Europe, died at Paris last inonth in his eightieth year. On the morning of the day on which he expired, he had attended his class at the College de France,-had inspected manuscripts for purchase for the Bibliothèque Royale, in bis capacity of Conservator of the Oriental MSS. there,—and had taken part in the debate in the Chamber of Peers, of which he was a member. On quitting the palace of the Luxembourg, he was seized with apoplexy as he was stepping into a fiucre, and he survived the shock but a few hours. The loss which the learned world has thus sustained is irreparable. His inexhaustible stores of erudition were freely imparted to all who desired to avail themselves of them; and scarcely a work of any importance in Oriental literature has appeared for many years, which was not, either directly or indirectly, indebted to him for a considerable portion of its value. His classes, whether at the College Royal, or the Ecole speciale des Langues Orientales, (at the former he was Professor of Persian, and at the latter, of Arabic,) were the resort, not of mere students, but of men already inature in learning'; and it would be impossible for one who has not attended those classes to appreciate the value of bis instructions, or the readiness and simplicity with which they were communicated. In this school it was that the Chezys, the De Tassys, the Kosegartens, Freytags, and Ewalds, and our own Falconer, were formed; nor would it be easy to name, out of all the distinguished list of those who filled the Oriental chairs in the Universities of the Continent, one whose studies were not directed by him.
A few details of his biography may not be unacceptable to the reader :
Baron Antony Isaac Silvestre de Sacy, Member of the Academy of Inscriptions Knight of the Legion of Honour, Peer of Trance, but principally renowned for his extensive and critical knowledge, particularly in Oriental lan. guages, was born in Paris 1758. He lost his father in his early youth, and was instructed by private teachers. He was employed in 1781 as counsellor at the Cour des Monnaies, and entered in 1735 the French academy as Associé libre. In 1791 he was appointed by the king General Commissioner of the Coins. In 1792 he became an ordinary member of the academy. From 1793 to 1796 he lived a solitary life in the country. When the National Institute was founded he was elected a member, but he declined the honour, being unwilling to take the oath of hatred to royalty. He declined also to take it in quality of professor in the Special School of the Oriental Languages, but nevertheless continued to perform the duties of that station. His literary pursuits and reputation saved him during the reign of terrorism. When Napoleon reformed the Institute, De Sacy became a member of it in the department of Ancient Literature and History. In 1808 he obtained the newly established
chair of Persian in the College de France, and was chosen a member of the legislative body by the Department of the Seine. He declared against Napoleon the 3d of April, 1814, and took a large share in the discussion of the different laws in the Chamber. He was not called to the first sitting after the return of the king. In 1813 he was created a baron. The king made him censor in 1814, and in 1815 rector of the university of Paris, and soon afterwards a member of the Commission of Public Instruction. His principal works (this catalogue is far froin being complete) are:-Grammaire Arabe; Chrestomathie Arabe; Translation of Abdollatif; Mémoires sur diverses Antiquités de la Perse, (1793, 4to.); Mémoire sur l'Histoire et la Litérature Orientale, (1818, 4to.); Gramınaire générale. His character was frank and liberal.
His writings, too numerous to come within the limits of this notice, are an invaluable store-house to the Arabic student. His Grammaire Arabe is perhaps the most elaborate and complete work of the class ever written of any language. His Chrestomathie Arabe (in three volumes) contains a large body of selections from the rich unpublished and “ unsunned" treasures of the king's library, accompanied by notes characterized by a copiousness of illustration that only such erudition as his could afford to lavish. His contributions to the Journal Asiatique, but above all, his critiques in the Journal des Savans, form a continuous review, in which almost every work of importance bearing upon Eastern literature, that has appeared for a series of years, is judged with a calm and conscientious impartiality. His last work, L'Histoire des Druzes, which he had but lately completed, and of which he had laid a copy on the table of the Institut a few days before his death, is said to be the result of many years' research, and to excel all bis former writings as a monument of erudition. That a life, every moment of which was zealously devoted to the interests of learning and religion,—for De Sacy was deeply, though unostentatiously, pious,-should have been prolonged to so late a period, is matter of congratulation; yet it is scarcely possible, though unreasonable, not to consider its duration when so employed, as but the Neslorea brevitas senectæ.*
Abelard and Descartes are, beyond all question, says M. Cousin, the two greatest philosophers produced by France; and yet, twelve years ago, there was no complete edition of the works of Descartes, and one of Abelard is yet to be undertaken. M. Cousin, who edited Descartes, would, he says, perform the same office for Abelard, but pleads advancing years for declining the task. At the same time he has greatly facilitated the labours of any future Editor by the recent publication of some inedited works of Abelard, the latter, in 1 vol. 4to. from MSS. in the King's Library; as well as by the learned Introduction he has prefixed to it on the State of the Scholastic Philosophy in France, and on the opinions and learning of Abelard. The greater part of Abelard's pieces in this new volume, have little interest beyond showing the mode adopted by him in his public teaching, and also his method with beginners. His fragment on generu and species is of far higher value; it is now published entire, and M. Cousin says that it equals in importance any thing we possess on the philosophy of that period. Now that it is before the world, and become, he adds, the property of the historians of philosophythis fragment will be deemed the most interesting document in the great question respecting Nominalism and Realism. We cannot but add, that the appearance of this work, at the public expense, is a striking proof of the favour now shown in France to historical and philosophical research.
---* Our next Number will contain an ample survey of the life and labours of this eminent scholar,