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number having been out of employ; but the price ob tained for the labor of those contracted, has been considerably enhanced within the last four years, and the discipline of the Prison perceptibly improved. When the buildings are complete, with proper management and economy, I think it should cease to be a burden on the Treasury.

Accompanying this message, in a separate document, is a list of the pardons I have granted the past year, with the reason therefor annexed. As the number of prisoners increases, the application for Executive clemency becomes more frequent, and a considerable portion of the time of the Governor is now required in the investigation of these appeals for mercy.

I have endeavored to give them all a patient and candid hearing, and although I have deemed it my duty to reject a large portion of the applications, yet you will perceive that the number of pardons granted is much larger than in any former year.

In most cases the pardon has been recommended by the Judge and the prosecuting officer who convicted them. In all cases I have required a certificate of good conduct in prison, and where any habits of intemperance had been acquired previous to conviction, I have made it a condition of the pardon that the recipient shall totally abstain from the use of intoxicating drinks.

From information which has reached me, I have reason to believe that most of those in whose behalf I have interfered, are engaged in an earnest endeavor to prove themselves worthy of the clemency they have received.

The Legislature of 1855, made provision for the establishment of a House of Correction for Juvenile Offenders, and on the 2d of September, 1856, the buildings were in such a state of completion that it was opened and com menced its legitimate and appropriate business. The number received into the Institution since that period is 78;

and the number remaining there at the date of the Report, on the 18th of November last, was 58.

I invite you to visit this Institution, with a confident belief that any prejudices you may have imbibed against it, will disappear as you become familiar with its workings.

Under its present management, it cannot fail to exert a beneficent influence as a school of reform. In addition to its educational training, the boys are now acquiring habits of industry, and becoming fitted for usefulness in the world, by learning a good trade. The reclamation of the unfortunate juveniles of our State, who are thrown upon the world with no restraint to prevent their acquiring habits of vice and crime, is an indication of the christian spirit of the age, and is worthy of our continued and zealons efforts. Seventy-six boys is the extent of the present capacity of the building-it will therefore hold but eighteen more. I cannot doubt that you will make provision for an additional wing.

I am confident you will not fail to take deep interest in the Reports of the officers and trustees of the Asylums. That at Flint, for the deaf and dumb and blind, although the buildings are incomplete, has been in successful operation since 1854, and the whole number of pupils connected with it since its organization, is 128-of whom 87 were deaf and dumb, and 41 blind.

The whole number in attendance the last year is 111; and under the superintendence of the able, enthusiastic and devoted Mr. Fay and his assistants, they have made creditable progress in the attainment of that knowledge which is received under such peculiar disadvantages, and which in its teachings, requires the exercise of great patience and skill. Good progress has been made in the completion of the buildings, and the appropriations have been judiciously and properly expended.

The State has suffered a severe loss in the destructionby fire, of the main building of the Asylum for the Insane

at Kalamozoo, a particular account of which will be found in the Report. The pecuniary loss, which is estimated at about $22,000, is considerable, but the delay and embarass, ment in providing for that unfortunate class, whose appeals are addressed to the better feelings of humanity, are far more to be regretted. Under the circumstances, the Board of Trustees have acted wisely in completing the wing; and as soon as appropriations are made to furnish the building, it will be ready for the reception of ninety patients.

The Trustees and Building Commissioners of both of these Institutions, are deserving favorable mention for the strict economy they have practised in the expenditure of the public money, and fidelity and devotion to the public interests. My opinion of the urgent necessity of the completion of these buildings, has been freely expressed heretofore. The people of Michigan are not unmindful of their duty to these suffering and unfortunate classes, and will freely submit to additional taxation, if necessary, to make proper provision for their improvement and restoration to usefulness.

The military spirit, which had been on the decline for several years, seems to have revived lately; and from the report of the Adjutant General, it will be seen that there are thirty-three well organized independent companies of "well uniformed, well disciplined, well drilled, citizen soldiers," and that they ask a slight appropriation at your hands to defray incidental expenses. Standing armies in time of peace are not in consonance with republican institutions; but for their protection, safety and permanence, reliance must always be placed upon the gallantry and patriotism of the militia. I regard their ambition to excel, therefore, as commendable, and their appeal to you to sustain and sanction their efforts as just and reasonable.

By the terms of the Act of the 14th of February, 1857, disposing of the grants of land made to the State of Mich igan for railroad purposes, the several companies to whom

the lands were granted were required to pay a specific tax of one per cent. upon the cost of their roads, equipments and appurtenances; and the Legislature, after ten years, were authorized to levy an additional tax of two per cent. upon their earnings. This, by several of the companies, was deemed to be unequal and oppressive, and they declined to accept the grant upon that condition.

In the case of the lands granted to aid in the construction of the Detroit and Milwaukee railroad, and the Port Huron and Milwaukee railroad, the Board of Control were called upon to act, and made such disposition of the lands as in their judgment would secure their completion. Before any action was had in relation to the grant to the Detroit and Milwaukee railroad, the Directors of that company passed a resolution, which I have filed with the Secretary of State, giving their consent to the alteration of their charter, and the imposition of a tax of three-fourths of one per cent. on the entire cost of their road, in lieu of all other taxes, provided all other roads benefitted by land grants were placed upon a similar footing. I submit to you the propriety of passing such a law.

The St. Mary's Ship Canal, has now been in successful operation for four seasons, and no serious accident has befallen it. Our anticipations of the great advantages to be derived by opening an uninterrupted communication with the northern portion of our Peninsula, and furnishing fa cilities for convenient and ready transportation of its vast mineral wealth, are fully realized.

The business of the canal has steadily increased each year, and during the season of navigation of 1858, 6,944 tons of copper, 31,035 tons of iron ore, 2,597 tons of iron in blooms and bars, and 9,230 passengers passed through it. The tolls collected were $10,848 80. I renew my recommendation that an appeal be made to Congress for an appropriation to preserve this great work from the hazard of destruction. The action of the frost in that high lati

tude upon its emBankments, and the pressure of the wa ters of that great lake, subject to a rise of many feet, makes it necessary that every precaution should be used to prevent the calamity of its breaking away. A few thousand dollars timely and judiciously expended, would be likely to preserve an uninterrupted navigation for many years, and may save the expenditure of many thousands for repairs.

The administration which has just expired has endeav ored to inculcate the principle, and give efficacy to it by their practice, that economy in the administration of public affairs is an indispensable virtue; and, in bearing my testimony to the faithfulness with which the State Officers associated with me have discharged their duty, I only ren der them an act of simple justice. For a compensation. altogether inadequate, they have brought to the public service talents of a high order, and have devoted all their energies to subserve the interests and promote the welfare of the State.

Among the prominent measures which have passed the Legislature and received my sanction, within the last four years, and which will exert an important, and, I trust, beneficial influence upon the welfare and honor of the State, may be mentioned the General Railroad Law; the Act to establish the House of Correction; the acceptance and successful operation of the St. Mary's Canal; the energetic prosecution of the Asylums; the establishment of the Agricultural College; an Act to protect the personal liberty of the inhabitants of this State; the earnest remonstrance of the Legislature against the further.extension of slavery, and the increase of slave States; the passage of the General Banking Law; the Act disposing of the grants of land for Railroad purposes; the Act providing for the sale of the Swamp Lands, and the organization of a separate Supreme Court.

In surrendering the high trust to which I have twice

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