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ent law. There are hundreds of hardy, industrious men, scattered through our own and our sister States, and still more from foreign parts, daily seeking our shores, who would gladly embrace the opportunity of settling upon these lands, if thereby they could secure a permanent home for themselves and their children. Such a course of policy would soon people portions of our State that otherwise must remain for years a wilderness.

I recommend that you amend the present "Swamp Land Act," so as to give to the actual bona fide settler, forty" acres of this land, to be by him selected, and that he take it, waiving all claim of drainage from the State. I would so frame the law as to make his actual occupancy of the land, for a period of five years, a condition precedent to the passing of the title, and make the land subject to taxation from the time that he enters into the possession thereof. I would allow any one to become the purchaser of any portion of these lands, (except as against the rights of the actual settler,) at the price now fixed by law; but the money received from the sale thereof, ought to be and remain a fund for the purpose of reclaiming said lands in conformity to the provisions of the grant. It is the undoubted right of the Legislature to determind how much of this fund is necessary to be used in reclaiming these lands, and at present it may be impracticable to so determine; but, until this determination be made, I recommend that the money arising from their sale go into the general fund, to be used by the State for all legitimate purposes, until she can better determine when,'where, and how much of the same ought to be used towards the reclaiming of these lands, according to the spirit, true intent and meaning of the grant, and of the act of acceptance thereof.

I respectfully call your attention to the salaries paid your Circuit Judges. This salary is fixed by the Constitution at fifteen hundred dollars each per annum. The traveling expenses of these Judges, in visiting their re

spective circuits, are very great, varying from three to five hundred dollars each per year, which, when deducted from their salaries, leaves a sum barely sufficient for the support of their respective families. This compensation is entirely inadequate to the services rendered. There is no State in the Union that can boast of abler or better men than are the Judges of Michigan. Their entire time is occupied in the performance of their most arduous duties, and certainly they ought to receive such compensation for their services as will, at least, enable them to live respectably. You cannot increase their salary. That is fixed by the Constitution, but it is, in my opinion, entirely competent for you to make provision for the payment of their traveling expenses while in the performance of their official duties, and I believe an act of that character would meet with the approval of a very large portion of our citizens. I, therefore, recommend that you pass a law making provision for the payment of the ordinary traveling expenses of our Circuit Judges while in the performance of their official duties.

Much complaint is being made as to the present compensation received by the several Judges of Probate in the State. It is claimed that the fees for official duties performed by them are too high amounting, in several of the older counties, to an aggregate sum much beyond the salaries received by the several Judges of the Supreme Court. These fees have to be paid by the widdow and the orphan in the settlement of estates, and at a time when they are illy prepared to make the payment. I would recommend that you take into consideration the propriety of making this office a salaried one, the amount thereof to be fixed by the Board of Supervisors of the respective counties, and to become a county charge. By so doing you would make the expenses of that office fall equally upon all, and the amount being paid annually would scarcely be felt. We are all equally interested in

having this compensation properly fixed and paid annually for the estates of all must sooner or later be administrated upon, and under. such a system, small estates would not be entirely swallowed up in the expense of administration. Should you see fit to pass such a law, I would recommend that it go into operation from and after the first day of Jan., 1861. The present Judges of Probate hold their offices until that period, and you ought not to pass a law the effect of which may be to lessen the compensation that by law they were entitled to receive at the time of their election.

Our whole military system needs revising. It is against the policy of our government to tolerate a large standing army. In times of war we must rely upon the patriotism of the "citizen soldiery." This reliance has thus far been found sufficient in every emergency. Our State is bounded by a foreign power to an extent of over five hundred miles, and in case of war with Great Britain, this whole frontier would be exposed to the inroads of a foreign foe. I trust the time will be far distant when Great Britain and these United States will be engaged in hostile strife. But prudence requires that we should at least have our military system so perfected that we could readily prepare ourselves to repel invasion. The most effectual way of doing this, in my opinion, is to extend proper encourage ment to the formation of independent companies; and for this purpose I recommend that you take such action as will most tend to their encouragement.

The Legislature, at its special session in January last, passed a law authorizing the Board of State Auditors to procure plans, drawings and estimates, for a "State Capitol," to be submitted to you at your present session. In pursuance of this legislative enactment, I am advised that the Board of State Auditors are prepared to report to you their doings under the Act above referred to.

Your State Capitol was built for a temporary purpose, and at a time when it was impracticable to build any other. We had at that time a population of three hundred and four thousand three hundred and ten, with a taxable valuation of property of only twenty-seven millions six hundred and two thousand and forty dollars. We have now a population of not far from eight hundred thousand, with a taxable valuation of property of one hundred and thirtyseven millions six hundred and sixty-three thousand dollars. What was sufficient for the wants and necessities of the State at that time, no longer answers the purpose. The different officers of your State government no longer have sufficient room in which to perform their duties. The archives of the State are unsafe-the very building in which they are kept is in danger of falling. You have no proper and suitable place at Lansing for the holding of the Supreme Court. It is believed that the increase of business in the State Treasurer's department alone, in consequence of the General Banking Law going into operation, will require very great additional room. The Library of the State should yearly be increased, but the room used for the Library has not sufficient capacity.

In order to build a capitol suitable to the wants of the State, and of sufficient capacity to accommodate all the different departments of the government, several years must necessarily be expended in its construction. True economy requires that we should commence the work of building in season, and not wait until either from dilapidation, or want of room, we can no longer occupy our present public buildings. Five years at least will be required to build to advantage. I recommend that you make some provision towards the purchasing of materials preparatory to the building of a capitol.

The duties required by law to be performed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction are too onerous for that officer without assistance. By the constitution, he

has the general supervision of public instruction, and the duties incumbent upon him to perform at the time this office was created were comparatively light. Since that time they have been increased by legislation to a very great extent. I submit to you the propriety of allowing him the appointment of a Deputy, with a reasonable compensation, to be paid by the State for his services.

There has been laid before me a statement signed by the county officers of Gratiot County, in substance and to the effect that a very great proportion of the inhabitants. of that and the adjoining county of Isabella, are in a destitute condition, and that unless they get some legislative aid their sufferings before the next harvest must be very great. The population of Gratiot is not far from five thousand, and the most of them have gone there within the past three years. The county is very heavily timbered, and has a rich, moist soil, and as yet the inhabitants have not been able to raise sufficient produce for their own consumption.

The past season has been very unfavorable for the putting in of crops. Owing to the great amount of rain that fell in the forepart of the season, the settlers were prevented from planting their crops until "seed time" had passed, and such as were raised were nearly destroyed by the squirrels, that, for the past season, have infested that portion of the country in innumerable numbers. All these misfortunes combined have compelled the people of that portion of our State, much against their will, to seek temporary relief at your hands. They are as industrious and respectable a class of people as we have, and without some aid from you their sufferings must soon be great.

It is your duty to watch over the welfare of your peopeople with parental care, and while the great mass of our citizens are blessed with an abundance of the products of the earth, it would be a burning shame to allow the hardy pioneers of Gratiot and Isabella to suffer for the want of

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