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FOURTH EXPERIMENT.
Firing at 134 dummies, placed in loose order on uneven ground, representing broken Infantry retiring.
Left of the line thrown back. Front, 98 yards. Average depth, 35 yards. Firing from three positions at unknown ranges. The distance

judged by Officers in command. A different subaltern being appointed for each series.

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9-pr. M. L. R., firing shrapnel.
1st position,-judged at 400 yards .

fuze altered to .
2nd position,-judged at 700 yards

altered to 750

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GUNS

780 800

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Gimlet borer broken, causing consider

able delay.
Service hook borer broken, causing delay.

10:21

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3rd position,-judged at 1,000 ,

1° 50'
Total of 15 rounds . . .
12-pr. B. L. R.,-firing shrapnel.
1st position-judged at 570 yards . .

. . 10° 45' 0.24 Jor
altered to 520 ,,

- 10.2 2nd position-judged at 650 , . . . . 11° 5' 0:3 2'

10:44 3rd position-judged at 960 position-judged at 360 » , . .

.

0:4}
Total of 15 rounds .
The mean time firing 5 rounds from each gun, riz.,
2) minutes, was taken as the period for the Infantry
and Mitrailleur to fire for comparison.

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Mitrailleur,-firing for 24 minutes.
1st position,-judged at 330 yards . .

altered to 200 , ·
2nd position, judged at 650 : : :
3rd position,—judged at 950 · · · ·

Total of 15 rounds :
Further trial with 12-pr. B. L., firing case-shot..
Distance-300 yards . . . . .

.

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59 | 6 cartridge cases jammed.

8 9 plates were loaded with an improved
136

pattern cartridge, and 2 with the old
cartridge hitherto used. 6 of the new

cartridges jammed, and 15 of the old 57

ones. The indifferent result is attributed by Mr. Cristophe to the new cartridge being loaded with a much stronger powder, for which due allowance had not been made.

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Small Gatling gun.

1st position,-300 yards. 2nd position,-650 „ ..

3rd position,—950 , Six Infantry soldiers firing Martini-Henry rifles for 24

minutes. Lieut. Col. Fletcher in command.
1st position,-judged at 450 yards. .
and position.-judged at 350,

3rd position-judged at 950.
Six Infantry soldiers firing Snider rifles for 2 minutes,

Lieut. Col. Fletcher in command.
1st position-judged at 450 yards . .
2nd position,-judged at 700,
3rd position,-judged at 900 , . .

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Practice before the Secretary of State for War, and His Royal Highness the Field Marshal

Commanding-in-Chief. Trial of Montigny and Large Gatling Mitrailleurs v. Infantry, and 12-pr. B. L., and 9-pr. M. L. R. guns, on the sands, from the old battery. 5 sets of single targets, 6 in each row, representing Infantry and Cavalry at unknown distancés, not less than 1000 yards.

Length of fuze Number of rounds fred

Remarks

Number of balls lodged and through the screen

Range

Nature of ordnance or

small arms

Projectile

Time

Number of rounds fired

Elevation

Cavalry disabled

Infantry disabled

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3 fragments. Vent piece blown out at 3rd round.

Fuze ordered to be bored shorter, but made longer

by mistake.
20 | 7 fragments.
8 Practice stopped at 1' 45". No more ammunition

ready.
2 3 miss-fires. One or two cases stuck. The whole

of the cartridges had been greased, and a small

slip of paper gummed on to them by Mr. Metford. 6 33, 30, 30, 27, 30, 32=182.

Mitrailleur

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Trial of Montigny and Small Gatling Mitrailleurs v. 12-pr. B. L. and 9-pr. M. L. R. guns, at 800 yards, against 3 rows of 45 foet 9 feet

targets, 15 yards apart, representing columns of Infantry and Cavalry. (Time 2 minutos.)

Ist screen

2nd screen

3rd screen

Nature of ordnance or

Projectile

Number of rounds fired

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Elevation

Infantry disabled

Number of balls through and lodged

Number of balls

Cavalry disabled

Total number of balls through and lodged in

screens

Infantry disabled

Total Infantry disabled

Total Cavalry disabled

the number of balls

Small arms

Range

yards

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Segment 1° 20'
witli C per-
cussion fuze
modified.
Shrapnel 1° 5'
with screw
C percus-
sion fuze
modified
(Experi-
mental)

4 1 315 Not 176 42 28 496 NotNumerous fragments. recorded

recorded Seventh round in

the gun when time

up.
2 | 3 | 164 | 19 | 26 | 87 | 24 30 2545 45 59f 19 fragments. 2

rounds premature,
and one burst over.

Total of effective rounds, four.

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407

REVIEWS.

HENFREY'S BOTANY.* TT is a strange fact, but not the less is it a true one, that while all other I branches of science have made immense advances in this and in other countries, Botany has, in England at least, remained pretty nearly as it was ten years ago. Of course we mean to refer to structural and scientific botany, and not to the mere collection and increasing of plants which sometimes we think improperly receives its name ; for it indeed is one thing to gather and dry and name a quantity of plants and fruit, and another to discover the general laws by which they obtain their nourishment from the soil, or bring forth the seed in due time, or are distributed over different parts of the globe. We do not for a moment wish it to be inferred that we desire to direct attention to these phenomena above all others. What we do mean and what we will say is this, that it is especially to them that the attention of students should be directed, if any good is to come from regular botanical study. And believing this, it has always been a matter of regret to us that Professor Henfrey was removed from amongst us; for we doubt not that, had he remained, much would now have been done which has been left undone in the department to which we have alluded.

But while we hold this opinion, which it would be unfair not to admit, we must not place ourselves in such a position that we shall not be able to recognise the labours of others in the same field. We must, while we sufficiently regret the dead, not leave ourselves unable to recognise the good and laudable work of the living; and it is for this reason that we should direct attention to recent labourers in the same field, and especially to the active labours of Dr. Masters, now before us.

Before the time of Henfrey, it may well be said that there was no teacher of elementary botany in England. There was, of course, Balfour's work, and Schleiden's admirable treatise, translated by Dr. Lankester; but while the first was a simple, practical summary of the state of knowledge, the latter was a different work, containing very fully the author's able views of some questions like that of fecundation, but very deficient in other par

* "An Elementary Course of Botany. Structural. Physiological, and Systematic.” By Professor Arthur Henfrey, F.R.S. Second edition, revised and in part rewritten by Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., F.R.S. London: Van Voorst, 1870.

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