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judged by Officers in command. A different subaltern being appointed for each series.
9-pr. M. L. R., firing shrapnel.
fuze altered to .
altered to 750
Gimlet borer broken, causing consider
3rd position,-judged at 1,000 ,
. . 10° 45' 0.24 Jor
- 10.2 2nd position-judged at 650 , . . . . 11° 5' 0:3 2'
10:44 3rd position-judged at 960 position-judged at 360 » , . .
Mitrailleur,-firing for 24 minutes.
altered to 200 , ·
Total of 15 rounds :
59 | 6 cartridge cases jammed.
8 9 plates were loaded with an improved
pattern cartridge, and 2 with the old
cartridges jammed, and 15 of the old 57
ones. The indifferent result is attributed by Mr. Cristophe to the new cartridge being loaded with a much stronger powder, for which due allowance had not been made.
Small Gatling gun.
1st position,-300 yards. 2nd position,-650 „ ..
3rd position,—950 , Six Infantry soldiers firing Martini-Henry rifles for 24
minutes. Lieut. Col. Fletcher in command.
3rd position-judged at 950.
Lieut. Col. Fletcher in command.
Practice before the Secretary of State for War, and His Royal Highness the Field Marshal
Commanding-in-Chief. Trial of Montigny and Large Gatling Mitrailleurs v. Infantry, and 12-pr. B. L., and 9-pr. M. L. R. guns, on the sands, from the old battery. 5 sets of single targets, 6 in each row, representing Infantry and Cavalry at unknown distancés, not less than 1000 yards.
Length of fuze Number of rounds fred
Number of balls lodged and through the screen
Nature of ordnance or
Number of rounds fired
3 fragments. Vent piece blown out at 3rd round.
Fuze ordered to be bored shorter, but made longer
of the cartridges had been greased, and a small
slip of paper gummed on to them by Mr. Metford. 6 33, 30, 30, 27, 30, 32=182.
Trial of Montigny and Small Gatling Mitrailleurs v. 12-pr. B. L. and 9-pr. M. L. R. guns, at 800 yards, against 3 rows of 45 foet 9 feet
targets, 15 yards apart, representing columns of Infantry and Cavalry. (Time 2 minutos.)
Nature of ordnance or
Number of rounds fired
Number of balls through and lodged
Number of balls
Total number of balls through and lodged in
Total Infantry disabled
Total Cavalry disabled
the number of balls
Segment 1° 20'
4 1 315 Not 176 42 28 496 NotNumerous fragments. recorded
recorded Seventh round in
the gun when time
Total of effective rounds, four.
HENFREY'S BOTANY.* TT is a strange fact, but not the less is it a true one, that while all other I branches of science have made immense advances in this and in other countries, Botany has, in England at least, remained pretty nearly as it was ten years ago. Of course we mean to refer to structural and scientific botany, and not to the mere collection and increasing of plants which sometimes we think improperly receives its name ; for it indeed is one thing to gather and dry and name a quantity of plants and fruit, and another to discover the general laws by which they obtain their nourishment from the soil, or bring forth the seed in due time, or are distributed over different parts of the globe. We do not for a moment wish it to be inferred that we desire to direct attention to these phenomena above all others. What we do mean and what we will say is this, that it is especially to them that the attention of students should be directed, if any good is to come from regular botanical study. And believing this, it has always been a matter of regret to us that Professor Henfrey was removed from amongst us; for we doubt not that, had he remained, much would now have been done which has been left undone in the department to which we have alluded.
But while we hold this opinion, which it would be unfair not to admit, we must not place ourselves in such a position that we shall not be able to recognise the labours of others in the same field. We must, while we sufficiently regret the dead, not leave ourselves unable to recognise the good and laudable work of the living; and it is for this reason that we should direct attention to recent labourers in the same field, and especially to the active labours of Dr. Masters, now before us.
Before the time of Henfrey, it may well be said that there was no teacher of elementary botany in England. There was, of course, Balfour's work, and Schleiden's admirable treatise, translated by Dr. Lankester; but while the first was a simple, practical summary of the state of knowledge, the latter was a different work, containing very fully the author's able views of some questions like that of fecundation, but very deficient in other par
* "An Elementary Course of Botany. Structural. Physiological, and Systematic.” By Professor Arthur Henfrey, F.R.S. Second edition, revised and in part rewritten by Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., F.R.S. London: Van Voorst, 1870.