An Introduction to Geology: Comprising the Elements of the Science in Its Present Advanced State, and All the Recent Discoveries, with an Outline of the Geology of England and Wales
Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1828 - 540 páginas
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An Introduction to Geology: Comprising the Elements of the Science in Its ...
Pré-visualização indisponível - 2015
admit Alps ancient animals appears arrangement basalt beds belong bones calcareous called causes chalk characters clay coal coal strata colour common composed considerable contain covered crystals deposited described direction discovered distance districts dyke earth elevated England entirely existing extends fact feet felspar formation formed fossil fragments frequently geologists geology globe granite gypsum hills hundred instances iron island kind known lakes land lava less lias lime limestone lower marle mass matter metallic miles mineral mountains nature nearly numerous observed occur ocean oolite organic remains origin passes Plate porphyry portion position present primary principal probably quartz range remains remarkable respecting rise rivers rocks salt sand sandstone secondary strata separated shells side similar situations slate sometimes species stone strata stratum structure substances supposed surface thickness tion transition trap upper valleys various vast vegetable veins volcanic whole
Página 328 - scenes of ruin every where appeared around me : but my attention was quickly turned from more remote to contiguous danger, by a deep rumbling sound, which every moment grew louder. The place where we stood shook most dreadfully. After some time, the violent paroxysm ceasing, I stood up, and turning my eyes to look for Euphemia, saw only a frightful black cloud. We waited till it had passed away, when nothing but a dismal and putrid lake was to be seen where the city once stood.
Página x - In 1778 Mr. Whitehurst published his "Inquiry into the original State and Formation of the Earth ;" of which a second edition appeared in 1786, considerably enlarged and improved; and a third in 1792.' This was the labour of many years ; and the numerous investigations necessary to its completion were in themselves also of so untoward a nature as at times, though he was naturally of a strong constitution...
Página 338 - This eruption extended perceptible evidences of its existence over the whole of the Molucca islands, over Java, a considerable portion of Celebes, Sumatra, and Borneo, to a circumference of a thousand statute miles from its centre, by tremulous motions, and the report of explosions; while within the range of its more immediate activity, embracing a space of three hundred miles around it, it produced the most astonishing effects, and excited the most alarming apprehensions.
Página 328 - Stromboli, though at sixty miles distance, belching forth flames in an unusual manner, and with a noise which I could distinctly hear. But my attention was quickly turned from more remote to contiguous danger.
Página 342 - Auvergne or Italy." Submarine volcanoes are preceded by a violent boiling and agitation of the water, and by the discharge of volumes of gas and vapour, which take fire and roll in sheets of flame over the surface of the waves. Masses of rock are darted through the water with great violence, and accumulate till they form new islands. Sometimes the crater of the volcano rises out of the sea during an eruption.
Página 348 - Immense quantities of volcanic substances, which were thrown out at the same time and spread in every direction, propagated the effects of the explosion through the space of many miles. " It is estimated that an extent of ground, of the mountain itself and its immediate environs, fifteen miles long and full six broad, was by this commotion swallowed up in the bowels of the earth.
Página 436 - Manures supply this deficiency, by furnishing, in greater abundance, the hydrogen, carbon or azote, which they may require. In proportion as soils possess a due degree of tenacity, and power of retaining and absorbing heat and moisture, the necessity for a supply of manure is diminished ; and, in some instances, the earths are so fortunately combined, as to render all supply of artificial manure unnecessary. He, who possesses on his estate the three earths, clay, sand and lime of a good quality,...
Página 174 - London in the year 1308, by the royal proclamation of Edward the First. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the burning of coal was again prohibited in London during the sitting of parliament, lest the health of the knights of the shire should suffer injury during their abode in the metropolis. In...
Página 279 - Sussex" with the following interesting observations : " We cannot leave this subject without offering a few general remarks on the probable condition of the country, through which the waters flowed that deposited the strata of Tilgate Forest, and on the nature of its animal and vegetable productions. Whether it were an island or a continent, may not be determined ; but that it was diversified by hill and valley, and enjoyed a climate of a higher temperature than any part of modern Europe, is more...
Página 177 - It has been stated that this coal-field extends over about 1200 square miles, and that there are twenty-three beds of workable coal, the total average thickness of which is ninety-five feet, and the quantity contained in each acre is 100,000 tons, or 65,000,000 tons per square mile. If from this we deduct...