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adınired in the land of Paoli, while • You are right,' he replied; all she was free from the objections that men should submit to lawful authomight be urged against his favourite rity, but no authority can be lawful island.

but that of which the people ap• A people prepared to receive re- prove. Shaking, off a power," publicanisin should not be wealthy, says Locke, " which force, and not frivolous, or ignorant : they should right, hath set over any one, though be temperate, virtuous, and brave; it bear the name of rebellion, yet is they should love justice, religion, no offence before God, but is even and their country; and should have allowed and countenanced by Him; recently experienced the sufferings though even promises and covenants, of oppression. Such are the people which were obtained by force, have of Ireland. But these circumstances intervened.” would only prepare the nation to re- • That we might not misunderstand ceive a good government-there are what he means by speaking of force, others requisite to enable them to the same illustrious philosopher preprocure it; and these are disposi- viously observes—“ Who doubts but tion, numbers, and geographical po- that the Grecian Christians, descendsition. Ireland has these : the people ants of the ancient possessors of the are anxious for a revolution, are able country, may justly cast off the to effect it, and have all the aid that Turkish yoke, which they have so an isolated country, intersected with long groaned under, whenever they a thousand natural barriers, and have an opportunity to do so ? No strengthened by numerous defiles, government can have a right to obecan give a native and patriotic sol- dience from a people who have not dier over a foreign mercenary. freely consented to it; which they

* If ever a nation were ripe for a never can be supposed to do, till revolution, Ireland is. She has no they are put in a full state of liberty wealth to neutralize her energy, her to choose their government and godomestic enemies are insignificant, vernors.” and there exists not a monarch either Or,' said the Exile,

• at least, in power or in exile who can lay claim till they have such standing laws, to to her allegiance. Her oppressors which they have, by themselves or are invaders, to whom she bears an their representatives, given their free hereditary hatred; and the people consent." I believe that is the conare unanimous in favour of a re- clusion of the passage.' public. Religion too lends its power- * Admitted,' replied Emmet ; . but ful aid ; and long-continued insult recollect what Locke says elsewhere stimulates the people to take revenge of free consent, which can never be upon their tyrants. There is a retri- supposed to exist until subjects are butive justice in the worldslavery free to give consent.

“ The people,” is not immortal; and, when freedom says he, “owe no obligations whilst is deserved, it is found. Switzerland force, and not choice, compels them emancipated herself from Austria - to submission.” If he had written the Netherlands from Spain; and on the state of Ireland, his words Ireland will separate from England, could not have been more applicable.

sure as the ripe fruit drops from The truth is,' continued Emmet, the autumnal bough. The slightest Christianity does not abrogate & commotion will effect it, for the ful- single law of Nature; and, though ness of time is at hand.”

popes have sometimes attempted to • But even the benefits you antici- dictate the civil duties of mankind, pate,' said I, ‘from the independence they usurped an authority not deleof Ireland, are not to be acquired in gated by their Master; for we have a opposition to the obligations of reli- high authority* for saying, that gion, which command all men to be Christianity has, in respect of civil subject to lawful authority.'

rights, left us where she found us.” *We affirm that, as to the extent of our civil rights and obligations, Christianity has left us where she found us; that she hath neither altered nor ascertained it ; that the New Testament contains not one passage which, fairly interpreted, affords either argument or objection, applicable to any conclusions upon the subject, that are deduced from the law and religion of Nature.'-PALEY.

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• The whole argument,' returned faction of so sanguinary a character the Exile, 'resolves itself into a ques. as you suppose.' tion of expediency; for, if Ireland, • Well, then,' returned the Exile, in resisting the English government, even admitting the possibility of an subjected herself to less inconveni- established republic, it follows, of ence than by submitting, she ought course, that your new government immediately to revolt. But in ba- would not have the resources of an lancing the advantages and disad- old one; and that, in the infancy of vantages, for and against such a mea- the state, you would be subject to the sure, lies the difficulty of ascertaining inconvenience of all feeble nationsthe expedient. We are to consider that of being made the theatre of the state of affairs before and after hostilities between the neighbouring revolution; and, estimating the ne- and belligerent powers ; and, of cessary horrors of such an event, see

course, you would be reluctantly whether it would not be inore for the compelled to enter into an expensive happiness of Ireland to continue hand and destructive war.' in hand with the sister kingdom, • Our insular situation,' replied than to wade through the hlool of Emmet, secures us from such an millions to a republican government, evil; and England, once separated which, after all, might not be so ad- from Ireland, could only hope to vantageous to the country as a partir continue powerful by courting our cipation in the British constitu- alliance." If all possible objection.

tions," says Johnson, are first to • Leaving out the intimidating ex. be obviated, no man would attempt ample of republicanism in France, any thing great or useful." Ireland which may or may not be a case in is at present so abject and so misepoint, we must be aware that Eng- rable, that any change must be for land would not patiently surrender the better.' her claim to our obedience, and that • Pardon me, my friend,' returned consequently Ireland would be sub- the Exile, 'if I say you appear to be ject to a protracted civil war; the under a strong delusion, which leaves misery of which may be partially es- you almost inaccessible to argument. timated by those who have witnessed Ireland wants not a change of cirthe trivial horrors of the late re- cumstances, but a change of opinions, bellion.

to be one of the happiest countries • Supposing our arms triumphant, on the globe; for her political situand the government expelled, we are ation might well raise envy.. While not to imagine that Irishmen are connected with Great Britain, war more virtuous than others, or expect can never approach her; and an that we should be free from the in- agricultural country wants only pertrigues of faction. Domestic dis- manent tranquillity to be independent cord, in all probability, would suc- and happy. On this ground alone I ceed to civil war, and internal hosti- would implore Ireland to hold fast lities prove not less destructive than the connexion ; for, if she once sethe arins of our enemies ; while our parate, war will approach her fields folly might induce England, or some as sure as her shores are washed by other power, to attempt a second re- the waves of the Atlantic; and no duction of the island.'

form of government can compensate * All this may be possible,' replied a country for making it the seat of Emmet, but not at all probable; hostilities. for, where the choice of public offi- But,' he continued, do not miscers would devolve upon the people, understand me. I will admit that a the public functionaries would have time may come when separation will the confidence of the majority of the not only be advisable, but necessary;. nation; and of course nothing inore, when the government, through obstiin a free state, is desirable. Besides, nacy, shall refuse concession to the where no situation would be perma- predominance of public opinion, nent, the excluded of this year might whether right or not; when a fahope to be elected on the next; and, voured faction shall insult the people therefore, though there might, and with impunity: and when the nation would be party, there could be no is brought, by the operation of the

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press or religion, to the decided opi- Exile appeared to have convinced nion of a revolt being necessary, Emmet how useless it would be to then I will subscribe to your doctrine, persevere in his arguments, and draw the sword, and cast away the therefore be diverted the conversascabbard. But this time, thank God! tion into an opposite channel. About is not come: the people are not suf- twelve o'clock we took leave of the ficiently enthusiastic in favour of re- youthful Gracehus, and left him to volutions; their clergy preach against meditate alone on his schemes of rebellion, and the aristocracy depre- subverting the Irish government. I cate it. Unanimity is, therefore, was then ignorant of his intentions, wanted; and whoever thinks other- and would to God ! But, as I wise has only to make the experi- have said before, there is no use in ment, to be convinced of his error.' moralizing now. The concluding observations of the

Godfrey KN.

SUPERSTITIONS OF THE IRISH PEASANTRY.NO. IV.

THE RATH.

man, who

Achenree, who knew little of law, Toerustic inhabitants of Achenree, physic, or divinity, discoursed very a town* situated in the southern dis. eloquently about what they did know, trict of Kildare, were assembled, on hurling, dancing, and courting ; not Sunday evening, not long since, to forgetting ghosts, demons, and fairies. drink shibbeen in the whitewashed Dull realities can seldom satisfy cabin of Jack Dooling, an honest people whose range of information

was always remarkably is limited. The imagination loves to poor, notwithstanding his success in expatiate in realms of its own; and cheating the gauger. In Jack's the vulgar fancy, perhaps, derives the brewery there was little attention greater pleasure from these mental paid to the division of labour, Scotch excursions, as it knows nothing of lecturers having never established system, consistency, or design. Every the principles of co-operative in- vision is received without examinadustry at Achenree ; and, indeed, it tion; and, while it derives pleasure was quite unnecessary that they from its own creation, it never takes should, for things went on very well the trouble to arrange or analyze. without them. Jack took his sack This, in my opinion, accounts for of barley; immersed it in the marle- the superior attractions which tales, hole + beyond the ken of the excise- founded on popular superstitions, man; and when sufficiently saturated, possess over the most laborious alhe drew it forth, spread it on the legories of German metaphysicians. barn-floor to vegetate ; afterwards On this night the conversation was dried it by the fire, and thus con- soon directed into a superstitious verted the produce of his own farm channel ; and every one had his into good malt, from which shibbeen story, illustrative of fairy lore, when was brewed in a metal pot, that spar- Luke Driscol, Mr. Power's ploughkled, as Jack used to say, like stars man, raised lis noggin from off the on a frosty night, though served up table, twisted round the shibbeen in in wooden noggins. On the evening it, and, after taking a drink, gave a in question it was undoubtedly super- grin of incredulity. excellent ; for the perfect good So, Luke,' said the blacksmith, humour of the guests proclaimed you pretend not to believe in the exhilarating quality of the liquor. sheeoges?'

As the soldier talks of war, and • Troth, I just do, Jim.' other professions of what they best * Then you think there's no luck understand, so the good fólk of in an ould horse-shoe?'

This word has retained its primitive signification in Ireland, being always applied to land, and seldom to houses. Thus a certain portion of a parish is called a town, though there may not be an individual living in it a thing, by-the-by, not easily met with in the prolific Land of Bogs.

The dunghill frequently serves the same purpose when a bog-hole is not conveniert.

• Nu, not quite that, neather, Jim, would be after taking an ould woman's agrah! but, as for fairies, who ever advice that might be your granny, saw one?

don't be fool-hardy, but stay where This challenge was indignantly you are, and drink your drap in commet by the whole company. Some fort. Well, since the gawky must had uncles, others grannies, who had have his way, here's the pipe, and seen hundreds of sheeoges; but, un- take a whiff as you go along for coinfortunately, none of the persons pre- pany: sent had ever that honour. Pshaw !' Luke took the pipe, kindled it with said Luke, “that's like the man that a coal of turf, and then placed it in saw the man, that knew the man, the side of his mouth, with his fingers that had seen the man, that said he turned, sheath-like, over it, to prevent saw the man that had seen Ould the blaze from injuring his eye, a Nick.'

precaution rendered necessary by the The comparison was highly offen- shortness of the tube. In a moment sive; and the blacksmith, as he after- after he was on his way to the Rath of wards said, had a good mind to give Achenree for the black sally switch. the ploughman a polthoge; when To relieve the suspense occasioned Rose Barnes, an old woman who sat by Luke's absence, Rose Barnes was in the corner, took her skutty pipe prevailed on, by all the young girls out of her mouth, struck it on the present, to tell them something connail of her left thumb to rid it of the cerning Paddy M‘Dermid and the ashes, and, having ejected from her Ratlı, a story which she was about mouth a globulous liquid to extin- relating when interrupted by the guish the burning weed, reversed the blacksmith. earthern tube in her hand ; and, then • When I was a young thackeen,' leaning forward, fixed on the offender proceeded the old woman, some a look in which expostulation was three score years ago, Paddy M‘Derblended with anger.

mid was one of the most rollaking • Arral, Luke Driscol! ent times boys in the whole county of Kildare. come to a pretty pass, when the likes Fair or pattern could'nt be held baro'you would be after shaming us ring he was in the middle of it ; and, for believing what's as plain as God's though he beat the ould boy himself truth? May be you never heard what for drinken and swearen, faith there happened to Paddy M‘Dermid, at the was worse men than Paddy; for he Rath of

took good care of his poor ould mo. Come,' interrupted the black- ther-heaven rest her soul in glorysmith, starting up from a reverie, praise be to God for all things! Well, • I'll bet three gallons of shibbeen as I was sayen, Paddy was in every that Luke Driscol don't go by him- place, like bad luck; and faith, where self, all alone, to the little Rath in there is no turf, its hard for the

prahis own master's big field, and bring ties to bile. Paddy's little farm was us this night a black sally switch that seldom sowed in season ; and, where grows in the middle of it.'

he expected barley, there grew no« 'Tis done!' cried Luke.

thing but weeds. Money became · Done!' echoed the smith ; and, scarce in poor Paddy's pocket; and as they closed the bet by seizing the cow went after the pig, until all each other's hand, the smack of their he had was

near gone.

Lucky, iron palms might have been heard at however, for him, if he had gomsh half a mile distant. The timid en- enough to mind it, he had a most deavoured to persuade Luke from beautiful dream one night as he lay his purpose; but, as he had often tossicated in the Rath of Monogue, crossed the Rath at night, he felt no because he was’nt able to come home.' apprehension of danger ; or, if he • Ah! what did he dream, Rose, did, the dread of ridicule prevented avourneen ? asked an impatient girl, his acknowledging it.

« Give us a

who had listened to the story with shough of your pipe, Rose,' said he the utmost interest. to the old woman, . before I go.' Listen, and I'll tell you. He

• Troth, I will, a gollh, Luke, dreamt that, under the place where astore,' replied the hag; and, if you le lay, a pot of money. was buried

ever.

since long before the memory of • Oh, the fool!' exclaimed all preman.'

sent; and the blacksinith asked if he • Tare and ounze ! interrupted left his tools behind him. the smith, and he got the money.? • To be sure he did,' replied Rose ;

* Not so fast, Jim Donohoe,' said ' for would you have him to face the Rose ;' he might have got it, but old boy himself, and he in possession there was a crumsmaul over poor of all his holy water, too? No, no, Paddy ; for, as the saying is, it is Paddy was’nt such a fool as all that; better be born lucky than rich.' but next night he returned full sure Paddy kept the dream to himself that the money was there. As before until the next night, when, taking he made a circle, and touched the a spade and pickaxe, with a bottle of flag ; when my gintleman, the greya holy water, he went to the Rath, and, hound, appeared in his ould place. having made a circle round the place, Oh, ho!' said Paddy, ' you are commenced diggen sure enough; for there, are you? but it will be a long the bare life and sowl of him thinking day, I promise you, before you trick that he was made up for ever and me again ;' and he made another

He had sunk about twice the stroke at the flag. depth of his knees, when whack the Well, Paddy M'Dermid, said the pickaxe struck against a flag, and at hound, since you will have money the same time Paddy heard something you must ;—but say, how much will breathe quite near him. He looked satisfy you ?' np, and just forenent him there sat *Paddy scratched his coulaan ; and, on his haunches a comely looking after a little while, said greyhound.

• How much will your honour give • God save you,' said Paddy, every me?' for he thought it better to be hair on his head standing up as civil. straight as a sally twig.

• Just as much as you consider Save you kindly, answered the reasonable, Paddy M'Dermid.' greyhound—leaving out God, the Egad,' says Paddy to himself, beast, bekase he was the devil. Christ • there's nothen like axen enough,' defend us from ever seeing the like's so 'Fifty thousand pounds !' said he. o' him. • Musha, Paddy M'Dermid,' (He might as well have axed a hunsaid he, what would you be look- dred thousand, for I be bail the beast ing after in that grave of a hole your had money gulloure.) • You shall diggen there?'

have it,' said the hound; and then, • Faith, nothing at all at all,' an- after trotting away a little bit, he swered Paddy ; bekase you see he came back with a crock full of guidid'nt like to tell a stranger.

neas between his paws. • Come here • Arrah! be easy now, Paddy and reckon them,' said he ; but Paddy M‘Dermid,' said the greyhound; was up to him, and refused to stir, so don't I w very well what you the crock was shoved along side the are looken for?'

blessed and holy circle; and Paddy • Why, then, in troth, if you do, I pulled it in, right glad to have it in may as well tell you at wonst, par- his clutches, and never crack-cried ticularly as you seem a civil-looking until he reached his own home, where gintleman, that's not above speaking his guineas turned into little bones, to a poor gorsoon like myself.?

— and his ould mother laughed at him. (Paddy wanted to butter him up a bit.) Paddy now swore vengeance against

• Well, then,' said the greyhound, the deceitful beast of a greyhound; come out here, and sit down on this and went next night to the Rath bank;' and Paddy, like a gomulagh, again, where, as hefore, he met Mr. did as he was desired; but had hardly Hound. So you are here again, put his brogue outside of the circle, Paddy!' says he. inade by the holy water, when the Yes, you big blaggard,' said beast of a hound set upon him, and Paddy; and I'll never leave this drove him out of the Rath ; for place until I pull out the pot of Paddy was frightened, as well he inoney that's buried here.' miglit, at the fire that flamed from Oh, you won't !' said he. Well, his mouth.

Paddy M Dermid, since I see you are

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